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Glottochronology

Glottochronology is the part of lexicostatistics dealing with the chronological relationship between languages. The idea was developed by Morris Swadesh under two assumptions: there indeed exists a relatively-stable basic vocabulary in all languages of the world. Over time many different extensions of the Swadesh method evolved, however Swadesh's original method is so well known that'glottochronology' is associated with him; the original method presumed that the core vocabulary of a language is replaced at a constant rate across all languages and cultures and so can be used to measure the passage of time. The process makes use of a list of lexical terms. Lists were assumed to be resistant against borrowing; the core vocabulary was designed to encompass concepts common to every human language, eliminating concepts that are specific to a particular culture or time. It has been found that the ideal is impossible and that the meaning set may need to be tailored to the languages being compared. Many alternative word lists have been compiled by other linguists and use fewer meaning slots.

The percentage of cognates in the word lists is measured. The larger the percentage of cognates, the more the two languages being compared are presumed to have separated. Robert Lees obtained a value for the "glottochronological constant" of words by considering the known changes in 13 pairs of languages using the 200 word list, he obtained a value of 0.805 ± 0.0176 with 90% confidence. For his 100-word list Swadesh obtained a value of 0.86, the higher value reflecting the elimination of semantically unstable words. The constant is related to the retention rate of words by the following formula: L = 2 ln ⁡ L is the rate of replacement, ln represents the natural logarithm and r is the glottochronological constant; the basic formula of glottochronology in its shortest form is this: t = ln ⁡ − L t = a given period of time from one stage of the language to another, c = proportion of wordlist items retained at the end of that period and L = rate of replacement for that word list. One can therefore formulate: t = − ln ⁡ 2 ln ⁡ By testing verifiable cases in which t is known by nonlinguistic data, Swadesh arrived at the empirical value of 0.14 for L, which means that the rate of replacement constitutes around 14 words from the 100-wordlist per millennium.

Glottochronology was found to work in the case of Indo-European, accounting for 87% of the variance. It is postulated to work for Hamito-Semitic and Amerind. For Amerind, correlations have been obtained with radiocarbon dating and blood groups as well as archaeology; the approach of Gray and Atkinson, as they state, has nothing to do with "glottochronology". The concept of language change is old, its history is reviewed in Hymes and Wells. Glottochronology itself dates back to the mid-20th century. An introduction to the subject is given in McMahon and McMahon. Glottochronology has been controversial since because of issues of accuracy but because of the question of whether its basis is sound; the concerns have been addressed by al.. Dyen and Kruskal and Black; the assumption of a single-word replacement rate can distort the divergence-time estimate when borrowed words are included. Chrétien purported to disprove the mathematics of the Swadesh-model. At a conference at Yale in 1971, his criticisms were shown to be invalid.

See the published proceedings under Dyen The same conference saw the application of the theory to Creole language. An overview of recent arguments can be obtained from the papers of a conference held at the McDonald Institute in 2000; the presentations vary from "Why linguists don't do dates" to the one by Starostin discussed above. Since its original inception, glottochronology has been rejected by many linguists Indo-Europeanists of the school of the traditional comparative method. Criticisms have been answered in particular around three points of discussion: Criticism levelled against the higher stability of lexemes in Swadesh lists alone misses the point because a certain amount of losses only enables the computations. Traditional glottochronology presumed. Thus, in Bergsland & Vogt, the authors make an impressive demonstration, on the basis of actual language data verifiable by extralinguistic sources, that the "rate of change" for Iceland

Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint John, New Brunswick

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint John, New Brunswick is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Moncton. It was renamed on 15 November 1924. William Dollard Thomas Louis Connolly, O. F. M. Cap. Appointed Archbishop of Halifax, Nova Scotia John Sweeny Timothy Casey, appointed Archbishop of Vancouver, British Columbia Edward Alfred Le Blanc Patrick Albert Bray, C. I. M. Alfred Bertram Leverman Joseph Neil MacNeil, appointed Archbishop of Edmonton, Alberta Arthur Joseph Gilbert Joseph Edward Troy Joseph Faber MacDonald, C. S. C. Martin William Currie Robert Harris Christian Riesbeck, CC Timothy Casey Joseph Edward Troy William Mark Duke, appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Vancouver, British Columbia in 1928 "Diocese of Saint John, New Brunswick". Catholic-Hierarchy. Retrieved 2007-03-15

USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636)

USS Nathanael Greene, a James Madison-class fleet ballistic missile submarine, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for Major General Nathanael Greene, who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.a Nathanael Greene's keel was laid down on 21 May 1962 at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine. The construction of the ship was supervised by Commander Lawrence Dennis Ballou, she was launched on 12 May 1964, sponsored by Mrs. Neander W. Wade, a descendant of Nathanael Greene, commissioned on 19 December 1964 with Commander Robert E. Crispin in command of the Blue Crew and Commander William M. Cossaboom in command of the Gold Crew. Nathanael Greene departed Portsmouth for shakedown on 30 December 1964, with her Gold Crew embarked, her shakedown period was followed by repairs and alterations at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, after which the submarine, with her Blue Crew embarked, departed the shipyard for ballistic missile loading and her initial Polaris missile deterrent patrol.

In 1970-1971 Nathanael Greene was refueled and received its conversion to launch Poseidon missiles at Newport News Shipbuilding. Following Yard period and Shakedown, the Greene proceeded to Cape Canaveral for a test missile launch. In March 1972 the Greene departed for her first deterrent patrol following conversion ending up in Holy Loch, Scotland. In 3 November 1974 Nathanael Greene during departure from Holy Loch was collided with soviet K-306 submarine of Victor-I class. CIA sources claimed. History needed for 1965-1986. On 13 March 1986 Nathanael Greene ran aground in the Irish Sea, suffering severe damage to her rudder and ballast tanks, her grounding was the first serious accident involving a U. S. Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, she was deactivated while still in commission in May 1987. Her early deactivation was decided both as a result of the damage sustained in the accident as well as in accordance with the limitations set by the SALT II treaty. Nathanael Greene was decommissioned on 15 December 1986 and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 31 January 1987.

Her removal from service allowed the United States to comply with the ballistic missile limits of the SALT II strategic arms limitation treaty. Nathanael Greene entered the U. S. Navy's Nuclear-Powered Ship and Submarine Recycling Program at Bremerton, Washington, on 1 September 1998, her scrapping was completed on 20 October 2000. Nathanael Greene's sail has been restored and is now on display in Port Canaveral, Florida as a memorial to the original 41 for Freedom fleet ballistic missile submarines. ^a The other two ships are named USS General Greene. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Nathanael Greene at NavSource Naval History "SSBN636.org". Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. "United States Submarine Veterans, Inc".

Archived from the original on 31 December 2006

Samuel Heinicke

Samuel Heinicke, the originator in Germany of systematic education for the deaf, was born in Nautschutz, Germany. Entering the electoral bodyguard at Dresden, he subsequently supported himself by teaching. Around 1754, he took his first deaf pupil, his success in teaching this pupil was so great that he determined to devote himself to this work. Heinicke promoted a chiefly oral/aural method of instruction, though he did use some form of a manual alphabet, he believed a spoken language to be indispensable to a proper education, that it formed the basis for reasoning and intellectual thought. He died before his contributions to Deaf education became widespread, but John Baptist Graser and Frederick Maritz Hill continued to espouse the oral method; the outbreak of the Seven Years' War upset his plans for a time. Taken prisoner at Pirna, he soon made his escape. In 1768, when living in Hamburg, he taught a deaf boy to talk, following the methods prescribed by Amman in his book Surdus loquens, but improving on them.

Recalled to his own country by the elector of Saxony, he opened the first deaf institution in Leipzig, Germany, in 1778. He directed this school until his death, he was the author of various books on the instruction of the deaf. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Heinicke, Samuel". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. P. 216

Patrick White Playwrights' Award

The Patrick White Playwrights' Award is an annual Australian literary award established jointly by the Sydney Theatre Company and The Sydney Morning Herald in honour of Patrick White's contribution to Australian theatre. The award in 2011, was amended to include the Patrick White Fellowship; the A$7,500 cash award is given for an unproduced play to foster the development of Australian playwrights. In addition, the winning play is given a public reading presented by the Sydney Theatre Company in association with the Sydney Writers' Festival; the Patrick White Fellowship is A$25,000 for an established Australian playwright whose work has been produced professionally in Australia within the last four years in recognition of their contribution to the theatre and their art form. The inaugural recipient was Raimondo Cortese, subsequent recipients have included Patricia Cornelius and Hilary Bell. 2018: Mark Rogers, Superheroes. Produced as Post Felicity.

Puri railway station

Puri railway station is a Terminal train station and serves Puri, the seashore temple city in the Indian state of Odisha. The Khurda Road-Puri section was opened to traffic on 1 February 1897; the railway station was renovated in 2012 into a more traditional Hindu temple structure with more facilities. The Bengal Nagpur Railway was nationalized in 1944. Eastern Railway was formed on 14 April 1952 with the portion of East Indian Railway Company east of Mughalsarai and the Bengal Nagpur Railway. In 1955, South Eastern Railway was carved out of Eastern Railway, it comprised lines operated by BNR earlier. Amongst the new zones started in April 2003 were South East Central Railway. Both these railways were carved out of South Eastern Railway. Indore Humsafar Express Yesvantpur Garib Rath Express Howrah Garib Rath Express Howrah Shatabdi Express Sealdah Duronto Express Puri railway station at the India Rail Info Puri travel guide from Wikivoyage