Chillingham cattle known as Chillingham wild cattle, are a breed of cattle that live in a large enclosed park at Chillingham Castle, England. In 2009 the cattle were described as "about 90 animals in Chillingham, which inhabit a large park that has existed since the Middle Ages"; the herd has remained remarkably genetically isolated for hundreds of years, surviving despite inbreeding depression due to the small population. There is a small reserve herd of about 20 animals located on Crown Estate land near Fochabers, North East Scotland; the Chillingham cattle are related to White Park cattle, in the sense that the Chillingham herd has contributed to the White Park, though there has been no gene flow the other way. Chillingham cattle are small, with upright horns in both females. Bulls weigh around cows about 280 kg, they are white with coloured ears. In the case of Chillingham cattle, the ear-colour is red – in most White Park animals the ears are black. Chillingham cattle are of primitive conformation while White Parks are of classical British beef conformation.
A brief review of academic studies on the Chillingham cattle is available. To many visitors, the most striking element of the historic habitat at Chillingham is the widespread occurrence of large oak trees amongst grassland, providing a glimpse of Britain as many think it appeared in medieval times. However, most of these trees were only planted in the 1780s - early 19th century, the ancient trees of the park are the streamside alder trees, which were coppiced in the mid-18th century, they were hundreds of years old then and the stems now growing are themselves around 250 years old. A diversity of plants and animals find a habitat here, due to the absence of the intensive farming found in most other places in Britain; the Northumberland site is home to a variety of other species including red squirrel and badger, as well as roe deer and fallow deer. There are 55 bird species, including common buzzards, European green woodpeckers, the Eurasian nuthatch which claims this latitude as its northernmost range in the United Kingdom.
An on-site warden at the park leads small groups on foot to find the Chillingham cattle herd. Just to the east of the park is the summit of Ros Hill; the cattle are not visible from this viewpoint, which does however give an impressive view over much of north Northumberland. With support from Defra, a network of paths has been created around the periphery of Chillingham Park. According to earlier publicity material produced by the Chillingham Wild Cattle Association, Chillingham cattle bear some similarities to the extinct ancestral species aurochs, Bos primigenius primigenius, based upon cranial geometrics and the positioning of their horns relative to the skull formation, they further claim that Chillingham cattle may be direct descendants of the primordial ox "which roamed these islands before the dawn of history". It is now considered much more that they are descended from medieval husbanded cattle that were impounded when Chillingham Park was enclosed, but in the absence of adequate genetic or archaeological evidence, these proposed origins must remain purely speculative.
However, the traditional view that these cattle have an unbroken line of descent, without intervening domestication, from the wild-living aurochs was being called into question in the 1800s. Over the years a large popular literature has built up relating to the herd, analyzed in relation to prevalent concepts of ownership and attitudes of people towards big, charismatic animals. Simon Schama described the famous contemporary woodcut by Thomas Bewick as "an image of massive power... the great the greatest icon of British natural history, one loaded with moral and historical sentiment as well as purely zoological fascination". The first written record of the herd dates from 1645 but the Chillingham herd is claimed by some to have been in this site for at least seven centuries. Before the 13th century, this breed is claimed to have "roamed the great forest which extended from the North Sea coast to the Clyde estuary" according to the Countess of Tankerville. During the 13th century, the King of England licensed Chillingham Castle to become "castellated and crenolated" and a drystone wall may well have been built to enclose the herd.
At that time, there was particular concern about Scottish marauders, which explains the massive build-up of fortification of the nearby Dunstanburgh Castle at the same time. The wall that visitors see at Chillingham was built in the early 19th century to enclose the 1,500 acres of Chillingham Park; as of 2009, the cattle have 330 acres to roam and the rest of the ground is woodland or farmland. Chillingham bulls contributed genetically to White Park herds in the early 20th century, but the Chillingham herd has remained pure; some degree of genetic affinity between Chillingham and White Park cattle would therefore be predicted, but this has not been investigated. On historical grounds they are particularly related to the Vaynol cattle breed; the first genetic work was conducted from the early 1960s when, in connection with t
White Park cattle
The White Park is a rare breed of ancient horned cattle residing in Great Britain. Two similar semi-feral populations, the Chillingham Wild Cattle in Northumbria and the Vaynol cattle from Gwynedd in North Wales, have a separate breed status. There are small numbers of the White Park cattle in the United States, where they are known as the Ancient White Park in order to distinguish them from the American White Park, a population of the British White breed; the White Park is a long-bodied bovine. A program of linear assessment, including 200 bulls and 300 cows, has been carried out in the UK since 1994 to define its size and conformation; the weight of a mature bull varies from 800 to 1,000 kilograms, depending on the quality of grazing, while adult cows are 500 to 700 kilograms. Their coloration is a distinctive porcelain white with coloured points; the horns of the cows can vary in shape, but the majority grow forwards and upwards in a graceful curve. The horns of the bulls are thicker and shorter.
In their native environment in Britain, White Park cattle are known for their distinctive appearance and their grazing preference for coarse terrain. White Park cattle are well-suited to non-intensive production; some herds are kept outside throughout the year on rough upland grazing without shelter or supplementary feed. They are docile, easy-calving, have a long productive life; some traits may vary depending on their location. Until White Park cattle were a triple-purpose breed used for meat and draught; the 3rd Lord Dynevor kept a team of draught oxen, the practice continued up to 1914. They were used as dairy cattle more recently; some cows were being milked in the Dynevor herd in 1951. Beef became the main product during the twentieth century, gained a reputation as a textured meat, with excellent flavor and marbling, which commanded a significant premium in specialty markets; the white park, a breed I’ve never eaten before and had always assumed was purely ornamental, was excellent: chewy, with that strong, distinctive corrupt flavour of proper beef Several blood typing and DNA studies have revealed the genetic distinctness of White Park cattle.
The colour-pointed coat pattern appears in other cattle breeds such as the Irish Moiled, the Blanco Orejinegro, the Berrenda, the Nguni and the Texas Longhorn. The breeds most related seem to be the Highland cattle and Galloway cattle of Scotland, but the White Park "is genetically far distant from all British breeds"; the Chillingham breed has diverged from the main White Park population and various stories have grown up around them. Two thousand years ago a type of cattle, similar to the White Park breed, were found through much of Britain and Ireland in Ireland, northern England and Scotland. At about that time in Ireland, there are references in the Cúchulain cycle to the sacrifice at Magh Aí of three hundred white cows with colored ears. Either it was a common colour at that time or, more it was a colour specially prized and maintained for ritual and ceremony; the first issue of the Royal Dublin Society Historical Studies in Irish Agriculture is a book on ancient Irish cattle breeds which states that white cattle were known in Ireland until at least the 1820s, although they became extinct in Ireland in that century.
Similar references are found in Welsh history at a later period. Pembroke in western Wales remained a main centre of the breed until the nineteenth century and they were driven in large numbers to the pastures of the Severn and the neighboring markets in England. In 1225, as a result of legislation passed by Henry III, several parks were enclosed and several herds, including those at Chartley and Chillingham in England, Cadzow in Scotland, were "emparked". There were more than a dozen white Park Cattle herds in Britain in the early 19th century, but most of these were exterminated by the turn of the next century; the Park Cattle registration program in Britain was started in the early 1900s, but by 1946 only the Dynevor, Woburn and Cadzow herds survived as domesticated herds. Registration of White Park Cattle lapsed in the 1940s due to the outbreak of World War II. In 1973, the Rare Breeds Survival Trust was formed in Britain, the following year the registration program was revived for the remaining British herds in the "White Park" herd book.
Numbers have increased and now exceed 1,000 breeding cows in the UK. White Park cattle have been exported to several countries. In 1921, animals were exported to Denmark, from there to Latvia in 1935 and thence to Germany in 1972. In 1987, cattle were exported to Australia. In 1940, one or two pairs of White Park cattle from the Callow herd were exported to Canada; the Canadian-born offspring of those cattle were transferred to the Bronx Zoo but moved to the King Ranch in Texas where they remained for the next forty years. In USA the breed is known as Ancient White Park to avoid confusion with the hornless American White Park. Most national populations of White Park cattle have been DNA tested to verify parentage, to confirm the provenance of products, to enable assignment of applicant animals to breed and determine the optimum breeding program to ensure their effective conservation survival; the breeding program in the UK aims to increase the desirable characteristics of the breed while maintaining genetic diversity, as heterogeneity is low due to inbreeding through much of the twentieth century.
Faygate Brace contributed c. 40% of the ancestry of the breed by the 1940s, Whipsnade 281
The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, the Hebrides and over six thousand smaller isles. They have a total area of about 315,159 km2 and a combined population of 72 million, include two sovereign states, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; the islands of Alderney, Jersey and Sark, their neighbouring smaller islands, are sometimes taken to be part of the British Isles though, as islands off the coast of France, they do not form part of the archipelago. The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2.7 billion years old. During the Silurian period, the north-western regions collided with the south-east, part of a separate continental landmass; the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,345 metres, Lough Neagh, notably larger than other lakes in the island group, covers 390 square kilometres.
The climate is temperate marine, with warm summers. The North Atlantic drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the global average for the latitude; this led to a landscape, long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC, when Great Britain was still part of a peninsula of the European continent. Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC. Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC. Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-occupied Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43; the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century, dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change in England.
The Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the Angevin partial conquest of Ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages, Great Britain was separated into the Kingdoms of England and Kingdom of Scotland, while control in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms, Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland, soon restricted only to The Pale; the 1603 Union of the Crowns, Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 attempted to consolidate Britain and Ireland into a single political unit, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining as Crown Dependencies. The expansion of the British Empire and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the dispersal of some of the islands' population and culture throughout the world, a rapid depopulation of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty, with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland.
The term "British Isles" is controversial in Ireland, where there are nationalist objections to its usage. The Government of Ireland does not recognise the term, its embassy in London discourages its use. Britain and Ireland is used as an alternative description, Atlantic Archipelago has seen limited use in academia; the earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia. The original records have been lost. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, "the British Island", Prettanoi, "the Britons". Strabo used Βρεττανική, Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, used αἱ Πρεττανικαί νῆσοι to refer to the islands. Historians today, though not in absolute agreement agree that these Greek and Latin names were drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί; the shift from the "P" of Pretannia to the "B" of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar.
The Greco-Egyptian scientist Claudius Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave these islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Great Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island called Great Britain. The earliest known use of the phrase Brytish Iles in the English language is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee. Today, this name is seen by some as carrying imperialist overtones although it is still used. Other names used to describe the islands include the Anglo-Celtic Isles, Atlantic archipelago, British-Irish Isles and Ireland, UK
Sussex cattle are a red breed of beef cattle from the Weald of Sussex and Kent in south eastern England. Descended from the draught oxen long used on the Weald they were selectively bred from the late 18th century to form a modern beef breed, now used in many countries around the world, they have a thin summer coat and many sweat glands, but grow a thick coat in winter, so they are suited to both hot summers and cold winters. They have a placid temperament but can be stubborn; the Sussex has a rich red-brown coat, with a creamy white switch to the tail. It is a medium-sized, long-bodied animal, traditionally it has white horns, although polled strains have been developed; the Sussex is one of several coloured breeds of southern England – the others include the North Devon, the Hereford, the Lincoln Red and the Red Poll. All these breeds derive from the traditional multi-purpose red landrace cattle of the region. Ox ploughing continued longer in the Weald and on the South Downs than in most parts of England, so the Sussex remained until recently as heavy boned, large shouldered, draught animals.
Arthur Young Junior wrote in the early 19th century that the cattle of the Weald "must be unquestionably ranked among the best of the kingdom". William Cobbett in his Rural Rides expressed surprise at finding some of the finest cattle on some of the most impoverished subsistence farms on the High Weald; the breed was numerous in Kent and the Wealden parts of Surrey as well as in Sussex in the late 18th century when Arthur Young toured Sussex and praised the breed in his book Agriculture of Sussex of 1793. He stayed at Petworth House where the progressive 3rd Earl of Egremont established a Sussex herd in Petworth Park, still there today. High corn prices during the Napoleonic Wars led to a lot of grassland on the Low Weald being ploughed up and cattle herds declined. In the 19th century rail transport caused an increase in dairy farming to supply the London market with a consequent decline in beef cattle breeding. A herd book was established in 1874; the stronghold of Sussex cattle in Britain remains the Wealden counties of Sussex and Surrey, but they are not common there, are rare elsewhere in Great Britain.
The Royal Farms in Windsor Great Park raise pure bred Sussexes. The breed is used in Australia. A polled strain has been selected. Sussex cattle have been found to do well in Alberta. Introduced into New Zealand in 1970 they are classed as a rare breed with only three breeders listed; the breed was introduced to South Africa in the early twentieth century and is popular in the North West Province where the breed society has its headquarters in Klerksdorp. John Overton Lea imported Sussex cattle to Tennessee in 1884 and had one hundred head in 1888 UK Sussex Cattle Society The Sussex Breed of Cattle in the Nineteenth Century by J P Boxall
Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her mother – Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother, Charles, she rose to second after her mother's accession, but is thirteenth in line. Anne is known for her charitable work, is a patron of over 200 organisations, she is known for equestrian talents. Princess Anne is its seventh holder. Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they have four grandchildren. In 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Commander Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mother's equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born in the reign of her maternal grandfather George VI at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11:50 am, as the second child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. A 21-gun salute signalled the birth in Hyde Park.
Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, Cyril Garbett. A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to look after Anne and was responsible for her early education at Buckingham Palace. After the death of George VI, Anne's mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company to include the Holy Trinity Brompton Brownie pack, was re-formed in May 1959 so that, as her mother and aunt had done as children, Anne could socialise with girls her own age; the Company was active until 1963. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963. In 1968, she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating. In 1970, her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Anne first met her future husband Mark Phillips at a party for horse enthusiasts in 1968.
Their engagement was announced on 29 May 1973. On 14 November 1973, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony, televised around the world, with an estimated audience of 100 million. Following the wedding and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park, he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. As was customary for untitled men marrying into the royal family, Phillips was offered an earldom, he declined this offer leading to their children being born without courtesy titles. The couple would have two children and Zara Phillips. On 31 August 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, as the marriage had been under strain for a number of years; the couple had been seen in the public together, both were romantically linked with other people. They continued to share the custody of their children, announced that "there were no plans for divorce."
They divorced on 23 April 1992. Anne and Phillips have four grandchildren; as Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, their Princess IV car was forced to stop on the Mall by a Ford Escort. The driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, began firing a pistol. Inspector James Beaton, Anne's personal police officer, responded by getting out of the car in order to shield her and to attempt to disarm Ball. Beaton's firearm, a Walther PPK, he was shot by the assailant, as was Anne's chauffeur, Alex Callender, when he tried to disarm Ball. Brian McConnell, a nearby tabloid journalist intervened, was shot in the chest. Ball approached Anne's car and told her of his kidnapping plan, to hold her for ransom, the sum given by varying sources as £2 million or £3 million, which he claimed he intended to give to the National Health Service. Ball directed Anne to get out of the car, to which she replied: "Not bloody likely!", briefly considered hitting Ball.
She exited the other side of the limousine as had her lady-in-waiting, Rowena Brassey. A passing pedestrian, a former boxer named Ron Russell, punched Ball in the back of the head and led Anne away from the scene. At that point, Police Constable Michael Hills happened upon the situation. Detective Constable Peter Edmonds, nearby and gave chase arresting Ball. Beaton, Callender and McConnell were hospitalised, all recovered from their wounds. For his defence of Princess Anne, Beaton was awarded the George Cross by the Queen, visiting Indonesia when the incident occurred. Anne visited Beaton in hospital and thanked him for his assistance. Ball plead
Lincolnshire Curly Coat
The Lincolnshire Curly Coat or Lincolnshire Curly-coated known as the Baston Pig, is an extinct British breed of domestic pig.:359 It originated in, was named for, the county of Lincolnshire, in the eastern Midlands. Like many other traditional pig breeds, it became rare after the Second World War. By 1970, it had disappeared.:565 The Lincolnshire Curly Coat was one of the oldest breeds in the United Kingdom, was common in its county of origin. It was traditionally reared in coastal areas of Lincolnshire, inland from the North Sea about as far as the city of Lincoln and the towns of Grantham and Spalding.:359By the 1930s, selective breeding had developed its fattening abilities, large specimens were exported to Russia and other countries, including Hungary. The breed, dwindled in the period after the Second World War partly due to changing farming patterns and a taste for leaner meat; the principal cause of the decline was the publication in 1955 of the Howitt report, which found breed diversity to be a handicap to the pig industry in Britain, established a policy of concentrating production on three breeds only: the Welsh, the British Landrace and the Large White.
Of the sixteen British pig breeds, four – the Cumberland, the Dorset Gold Tip, the Lincolnshire Curly Coat and the Yorkshire Blue and White – became extinct. The Lincolnshire Curly Coat was the last of these to disappear, it was a large pig with lop ears. Mangalitsa, a curly-coated Hungarian pig breed
Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin, protected geographical indication, traditional specialities guaranteed and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. Products registered under one of the three schemes may be marked with the logo for that scheme to help identify those products; the schemes are based on the legal framework provided by the EU Regulation No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. This regulation ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed to be identified as such in commerce; the legislation first came into force in 1992. The purpose of the law is to protect the reputation of the regional foods, promote rural and agricultural activity, help producers obtain a premium price for their authentic products, eliminate the unfair competition and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products, which may be of inferior quality or of different flavour.
These laws protect the names of wines, hams, seafood, olive oils, balsamic vinegar, regional breads, raw meats and vegetables. Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, the Waterford blaas, Herve cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Piave cheese, Asiago cheese, Herefordshire cider, cognac and champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region. To qualify as roquefort, for example, cheese must be made from milk of a certain breed of sheep, matured in the natural caves near the town of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon in the Aveyron region of France, where it is colonised by the fungus Penicillium roqueforti that grows in these caves; this system is similar to appellation systems used throughout the world, such as the appellation d'origine contrôlée used in France, the denominazione di origine controllata used in Italy, the denominação de origem controlada used in Portugal, the denumire de origine controlată system used in Romania and the denominación de origen system used in Spain.
In many cases, the EU PDO/PGI system works parallel with the system used in the specified country, in some cases is subordinated to the appellation system, instituted with wine, for example, in France with cheese, for example Maroilles has both PDO and AOC classifications, but only the AOC classification will be shown. In countries where Protected Geographical Status laws are enforced, only products which meet the various geographical and quality criteria may use the protected indication, it is prohibited to combine the indication with words such as "style", "type", "imitation", or "method" in connection with the protected indications, or to do anything which might imply that the product meets the specifications, such as using distinctive packaging associated with the protected product. Protected indications are treated as intellectual property rights by the Customs Regulation 1383/2003, infringing goods may be seized by customs on import. Within the European Union, enforcement measures vary: infringement may be treated as counterfeit, misleading advertising, passing off or as a question of public health.
Outside Europe, the protection of PGS products require bilateral agreements between the EU and the importing countries, while protected indications may not always supersede other intellectual property rights such as trademarks. On 15 November 2011, the European Court of Auditors presented its report Do the design and management of the Geographical Indications Scheme allow it to be effective? to the European Parliament. The preambles to the regulations cite consumer demand for quality foodstuffs, identify a number of goals for the protection regimes: the promotion of products with specific characteristics those coming from less-favoured or rural areas; the provision of a recompense for efforts to improve quality and the need for consumer protection are cited as justifications for trade mark protection in other domains, geographical indications operate in a similar manner to trademarks. The general regime governs the use of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications for food and certain other agricultural products.
There are separate regimes for aromatised drinks as well as for wines. The origin of the product is only one of the criteria for use of the protected terms: the product must meet various quality criteria; the label "Traditional Specialities Guaranteed" is a similar protected term which does not impose any restrictions on the geographical origin of the product. The protection of geographical indications was extended to foodstuffs and other agricultural products in 1992. Given the different national provisions, this "general regime" gives much more power to the European Commission to ensure a harmonised protection across the European Union