A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Area code 803
Area code 803 is the area code for most of central South Carolina. It is anchored by the state capital, it includes most of the South Carolina portions of the Charlotte and Augusta metropolitan areas. 803 is one of the original 86 North American Numbering Plan area codes assigned in 1947. Until 1995, it served the entire state of South Carolina. In 1995, the Upstate was split off as area code 864; this was intended as a long-term solution, but within two years 803 was close to exhaustion once again due to rapid growth in Columbia and the coastal region, as well as the proliferation of cell phones and fax machines. Additionally, portions of the area code are part of the Charlotte and Augusta LATAs, several numbers in Charlotte's 704/980 and Augusta's 706/762 aren't available for use. To solve this problem, in 1998 the coastal region became area code 843. In mid 2020, 803 will receive an overlay, 839; this would ease expense of changing numbers. Aiken pop. 29,494 Columbia pop. 133,803 Rock Hill pop. 71,459 Sumter pop.
40,524 Richland Sumter Kershaw Fairfield Lee Clarendon Orangeburg Calhoun Lexington Aiken Lancaster York Chester Newberry Barnwell Bamberg Edgefield NANPA Area Code Map of South Carolina List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 803 Area Code
North Augusta, South Carolina
North Augusta is a city in Aiken and Edgefield counties in the U. S. state of South Carolina, on the north bank of the Savannah River. The population was 21,348 at the 2010 census; the city is included in the Central Savannah River Area and is part of the Augusta, Georgia metropolitan area. Murphy Village is home to a community of around 2,500 descendants of Irish Travellers, making it the largest population of this group in the United States; the Savannah River cuts through Augusta and North Augusta North Augusta is located on the Fall Line along the Savannah River, across from Augusta, Georgia. Three earlier towns have stood in the same general area; the English established a trading post known as Savannah Town over 300 years ago. This town was abandoned when Augusta proved to be more attractive to traders. Campbelltown was established by John Hammond as a trading point for tobacco and Indian traders over 200 years ago. Again, sometimes violent opposition, from the Georgia side of the Savannah River, coupled with a recession in the tobacco market spelled the end of Campbelltown in the early 19th century.
With the explosion of the cotton economy, this area became an important market for the valuable produce of planters throughout upper Georgia and South Carolina. In 1821 the town of Hamburg was established by the mechanical genius and entrepreneur Henry Shultz in direct commercial competition with Augusta. In 1833 the South Carolina Rail Road was established, further connecting the cotton collected at Hamburg to the seaport of Charleston; the 1848 construction of the Augusta Canal channeled produce from upriver away from Hamburg. When a bridge linked the South Carolina Rail Road to Augusta allowing traffic to bypass the doomed town of Hamburg, white citizens began to move out of the town, being replaced by blacks after the Civil War; the final blow came in 1876, when a white mob attacked and looted the black town and executing several prisoners, while wounding several others and attempting to kill the town's elected representatives. Henry Shultz died in poverty and is buried upright on the bluff overlooking Hamburg with his back to Augusta.
Avoiding the commercial pretensions of its predecessors, North Augusta was founded as a residential and resort town. Much of its development can be traced back to the establishment of the Hampton Terrace Hotel, built in 1902 by James U. Jackson on a hill overlooking the city of Augusta. At the time, the hotel was one of the largest and most luxurious in the nation, it served many of the travelers who visited Augusta in the early part of the century. An interurban trolley line was constructed through the town with a terminus at the Hampton Terrace, dubbed the Augusta–Aiken Railway and Electric Corporation and extended to Aiken. Trolley service ended around the time of the Great Depression. North Augusta is home including Rosemary Hall and Lookaway Hall. On April 21–23, 2006, North Augusta celebrated its 100th anniversary; the Georgia Avenue-Butler Avenue Historic District, Charles Hammond House, Lookaway Hall, Britton Mims Place, Rosemary Hall and B. C. Wall House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
North Augusta is notable for nearby Murphy Village, a community of about 2,500 Irish Travelers, featured on a 2012 episode of the TLC show, My Big Fat American Gypsy Wedding. The Riverview Park Activities Center is located in North Augusta along the Savannah River. Riverview Park is the host site for Nike's annual premier summer events, the Nike Peach Jam and the Nike Nationals; the nation's top high school basketball prospects and college coaches gather in North Augusta each year for the tournaments. North Augusta is located in western Aiken County at 33°30′47″N 81°57′46″W. A small part of the city extends north into Edgefield County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.5 square miles, of which 20.0 square miles is land and 0.46 square miles, or 2.25%, is water. I-20 I-520 US 1 US 25 US 25 Bus. US 78 US 278 SC 121 SC 125 SC 126 SC 230 North Augusta public schools includes two high schools, North Augusta High School and Fox Creek High School. North Augusta High School operates under the Aiken County School District.
Fox Creek is an independent charter school. Two middle schools, Paul Knox Middle School and North Augusta Middle School, four elementary schools, serve the community. There are several church-based smaller schools, such as one at Our Lady of Peace Catholic Church, one at Victory Baptist Church, kindergartens at Grace United Methodist Church and First Baptist Church North Augusta; some students attend private schools across the river, such as Augusta Preparatory Day School, Augusta Christian, Curtis Baptist and Westminster Schools of Augusta. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,348 people, 9,003 households, 4,764 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,213 people per square mile. There were 9,726 housing units at an average density of 552.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.2% White, 20.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2% from other races, 2% from two or more ethnic groups. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population.
In 2000, there were 7,330 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individua
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Horse Creek Valley
Horse Creek Valley is a geographic area along Horse Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. It lies within South Carolina; the area is alternately referred to as "Midland Valley". Rising near Vaucluse, South Carolina, Horse Creek enters the Savannah two miles downstream of downtown Augusta, Georgia. Other communities along Horse Creek include Graniteville, Gloverville, Burnettown and Clearwater. While Horse Creek itself is rather insignificant, its potential for water power led to early examples of Southern industrialization, including a textile mill at Vaucluse and William Gregg's Graniteville Mill; the textile industry continued to play a primary role until the Graniteville Train Derailment and final closure of the Graniteville Mill in 2006. Henry Woodward recorded Westo Indians in the area during his pioneering travels from Charleston in 1674; the Westoes were well connected with slaveholders in Virginia and terrorized neighboring tribes by their slave raids. The South Carolinians foresaw more profit in trade than in these slave raids, engineered an overthrow of the Westos in a 1690 trade war, after which the area was occupied by Shawnee.
In 1723 the South Carolina Assembly invited the Chickasaw to occupy the area. Located in northern Mississippi, the Chickasaw relied on South Carolina as a source of guns, agreed to send a colony under the so-called Squirrel King. In 1737 they were allocated a 21,774-acre tract along the northern/western bank of Horse Creek, extending from the Savannah River up to Vaucluse; these Chickasaws collaborated with the English in the defense of this area during the Cherokee War in 1760. The Chickasaw returned to their homeland shortly before the American Revolutionary War; the rapid expansion of cotton farming led to commercial growth, first in Augusta on the Georgia side of the Savannah River at a South Carolina competitor founded in 1821 by Henry Shultz under the name of Hamburg. At the end of a growing season, farmers wagoned their bales of cotton overland to either of these towns, for sale into warehouses or onto boats for transport to Savannah or Charleston, textile mills in the northeastern U.
S. and Europe. The farmers could spend the proceeds shopping for manufactured goods to carry back home. In order to divert traffic going by river to the more accessible port at Savannah, the South Carolina Rail Road was completed from Hamburg to Charleston in 1833. At 136 miles in length, this was at the time the longest railroad in the world, ran on published regular schedules with the exclusive use of steam power. Horse Creek's power potential attracted early industries to the area. According to an 1885 survey, "Horse Creek crosses the fall line, has a rapid fall, offering excellent advantages for power... it offers a good example of the large amount of power which can be obtained at small expense from a comparatively insignificant stream if it is only properly developed." An 1883 South Carolina survey noted 1807 horsepower developed, a capacity for one-third more. The first Horse Creek textile mill, located at Vaucluse in 1830, produced disappointing results; as noted by William Gregg, the causes included insufficient capital investment, excessive diversity of products, lack of a widespread marketing area, insufficient hands-on management.
Gregg, a great proponent of Southern industrialization, built a landmark mill embodying his ideas at Graniteville in 1845. While Gregg's success was well appreciated, it contradicted a Southern preference for the agrarian slave economy, was not imitated for several decades. Other industries taking advantage of Horse Creek water power were a paper mill at Bath and pottery works above Vaucluse. In 1860, the Benjamin Franklin Landrum pottery works manufactured 40,000 gallons capacity of stoneware annually, with three employees and a 1 HP water turbine. In the same year, the Lewis J. Miles pottery works manufactured 50,000 gallons with 13 employees and a 4 HP turbine; the famous potter Dave worked there as late as 1863. In 1880, this same establishment had a 35 HP water turbine; the Charlotte and Augusta Railroad was built through the valley in the late 1860s. After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the textile industry entered a period of great expansion. By 1900, industrial establishments included the Graniteville, Vaucluse... mills and employment along the Valley was....
During this time, a popular winter resort for the wealthy developed at the headwaters of the valley, which became known as the Aiken Winter Colony. The Whitney Polo Field, established in 1882, the Palmetto Golf Course, begun in 1892, characterize the vacation pursuits, the horse culture still thrives in Aiken. Thirty residences survive in the Aiken Winter Colony Historic District. Pat Conroy's essay, Horses Don’t Eat Moon Pies, explored the juxtaposition of wealthy equestrians and the blue collar mill culture of the valley. In 1903 the Hampton Terrace Hotel opened in North Augusta, South Carolina, near the lower end of the valley, connected to Aiken by means of the Augusta-Aiken Railway. Rich and famous vacationers included John D. Rockefeller, Henry Ford, Bing Crosby; the textile industries suffered the effects of the Great Depression. Labor strife at the Horse Creek Valley mills was a major theme of