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A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle for the strong force between quarks. It is analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles. In layman's terms, they "glue" quarks together, forming hadrons such as neutrons. In technical terms, gluons are vector gauge bosons that mediate strong interactions of quarks in quantum chromodynamics. Gluons themselves carry the color charge of the strong interaction; this is unlike the photon, which mediates the electromagnetic interaction but lacks an electric charge. Gluons therefore participate in the strong interaction in addition to mediating it, making QCD harder to analyze than QED; the gluon is a vector boson. While massive spin-1 particles have three polarization states, massless gauge bosons like the gluon have only two polarization states because gauge invariance requires the polarization to be transverse. In quantum field theory, unbroken gauge invariance requires; the gluon has negative intrinsic parity.

Unlike the single photon of QED or the three W and Z bosons of the weak interaction, there are eight independent types of gluon in QCD. This may be difficult to understand intuitively. Quarks carry three types of color charge. Gluons may be thought of as carrying both anticolor; this gives nine possible combinations of anticolor in gluons. The following is a list of those combinations: red-antired, red-antigreen, red-antiblue green-antired, green-antigreen, green-antiblue blue-antired, blue-antigreen, blue-antiblue These are not the actual color states of observed gluons, but rather effective states. To understand how they are combined, it is necessary to consider the mathematics of color charge in more detail, it is said that the stable interacting particles observed in nature are "colorless", but more they are in a "color singlet" state, mathematically analogous to a spin singlet state. Such states allow interaction with other color singlets, but not with other color states; the color singlet state is: / 3.

In other words, if one could measure the color of the state, there would be equal probabilities of it being red-antired, blue-antiblue, or green-antigreen. There are eight remaining independent color states, which correspond to the "eight types" or "eight colors" of gluons; because states can be mixed together as discussed above, there are many ways of presenting these states, which are known as the "color octet". One used list is: These are equivalent to the Gell-Mann matrices; the critical feature of these particular eight states is that they are linearly independent, independent of the singlet state, hence 32 − 1 or 23. There is no way to add any combination of these states to produce any other, it is impossible to add them to make rr, gg, or bb the forbidden singlet state. There are many other possible choices, but all are mathematically equivalent, at least complicated, give the same physical results. Technically, QCD is a gauge theory with SU gauge symmetry. Quarks are introduced as spinors in Nf flavors, each in the fundamental representation of the color gauge group, SU.

The gluons are vectors in the adjoint representation of color SU. For a general gauge group, the number of force-carriers is always equal to the dimension of the adjoint representation. For the simple case of SU, the dimension of this representation is N2 − 1. In terms of group theory, the assertion that there are no color singlet gluons is the statement that quantum chromodynamics has an SU rather than a U symmetry. There is no known a priori reason for one group to be preferred over the other, but as discussed above, the experimental evidence supports SU; the U group for electromagnetic field combines with a more complicated group known as SU – S stands for "special" – which means the corresponding matrices have determinant +1 in addition to being unitary. Since gluons themselves carry color charge, they participate in strong interactions; these gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. Due to this force, quarks are confined within composite particles called hadrons.

This limits the range of the strong interaction to 1×10−15 meters the size of

Francis Rodwell Banks

Air Commodore Francis Rodwell "Rod" Banks CB, OBE, Hon. CGIA. Hon. FRAeS, Hon. FAIAA. FlMechE. Flnst Pet. FRSA, CEng. MSAE, was a British engineer, involved in the development of the internal combustion engine, as well as special fuels for the engine, was one of the people responsible for the development of higher octane fuels. Francis Rodwell Banks was born on 22 March son of Bernard Rodwell and Frances Emily Banks, he married Christine Constance Grant Langlands in the couple having two daughters. Banks entered the Royal Navy at the age of sixteen in 1914. After promotion, he commanded several coastal motor boats, his navy service ending in 1919 while on service in the Caspian Sea during the Russian Revolution. Between the First World War and the subsequent world conflict, he was involved in the development of marine diesel engines leading to involvement as a consultant on the problems of various car and aircraft piston engines. In 1925 he became chief experimental engineer at Peter Hooker Limited, working to develop the 1500HP 178 litre ELS'Stromboli' airship engine.

Before long, having recognised the inadequacy of existing fuels, Banks was working on the development of improved fuels, concentrating on increasing the octane rating, which allowed the use of higher compression ratios, in particular the fuel additive tetraethyllead. In 1928, he joined the Anglo-American Oil Company and by 1930, had joined Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, which, in 1931, became the Ethyl Export Corporation; this work embraced the principal aero engine and automobile manufacturers in the U. K. and Europe, including the military air forces and commercial airlines. In addition the work covered motor racing fuels, his status was such that he was invited to develop the fuels used in the UK's Schneider Trophy entrants, his fuel blends contributing to the success of the British entries in 1929 and 1931. At this time, he was involved in developing the fuels used by Henry Segrave and John Cobb in their land and water speed record attempts, he was instrumental in solving the problems with the Fiat AS.6 engine, enabling the world records set by the Macchi M.

C.72. Banks gave a paper on ethyl in 1934, to the Royal Aeronautical Society, for which he received the Taylor Gold Medal. With the coming of war, Banks entered the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve as a junior officer, being sent to work at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at Boscombe Down, with his previous work attracting the attention of Lord Beaverbrook, Banks was accredited as a'troubleshooter' and given special powers. After a while, Banks was promoted to air commodore and was made successively,'Director General of Engine Production', and'Director of Engine Research and Development', with the objective to plan the post-war future of the aero gas turbine for both military use and commercial applications. In 1946 Banks rejoined the Ethyl Corporation taking a number of directorships: loaned back as'Principal Director of Engine Research and Development' at the Ministry of Supply in 1952 in 1955 as a director of the Bristol Aeroplane Company, after the merging of Bristol Aero Engines with Armstrong Siddeley, their overall'Director of Sales' in 1959.

With the mergers within the British aircraft industry, Banks became involved with the Hawker Siddeley company, in 1963 becoming'Assistant Managing Director' and'Chief Executive' at Hatfield, the former home of the de Havilland Company. By 1969 he had become the President of the Royal Aeronautical Society. On reaching the age of 70, Banks retired, taking posts as consultants with a number of American aviation firms, with which he was still active at the age of 80, he died in 1985, at the age of 87. Commander of Legion of Honour Commander of the Legion of Merit Military Order of St. Stanislaus, Harry Ricardo Octane rating Frank Halford Samuel Dalziel Heron Air Commodore F. R. "Rod" Banks. I Kept No Diary. Airlife. ISBN 0-9504543-9-7. Fuels and Engines - a 1939 Flight article by F. R. Banks Six of the Best a 1969 Flight article by F. R. Banks - "Air of Authority: F. R. Banks"

Something to Talk About (album)

Something to Talk About is a studio album by Canadian artist Anne Murray. It was released by Capitol Records in 1986; the album is so named after Murray rejected the song "Something to Talk About" written by fellow Canadian Shirley EikhardBonnie Raitt went on to have a huge hit with the song. The album peaked at #2 for several weeks on the Billboard Top Country Albums chart - Anne's highest position; the disc was certified Gold by the RIAA. "Now and Forever" – 4:14 "Who's Leaving Who" – 3:40 "My Life's a Dance" – 4:23 "Call Us Fools" – 3:51 "On and On" – 4:02 "Heartaches" – 3:53 "Reach for Me" – 3:54 "When You're Gone" – 4:05 "You Never Know" – 3:09 "Gotcha" – 3:22

Jewish tribes of Arabia

The Jewish tribes of Arabia were ethnic groups professing the Jewish faith that inhabited the Arabian Peninsula before and during the advent of Islam. In Islamic tradition the Jewish tribes of the Hejaz were seen as the offspring of the ancient Hebrews. According to Muslim sources, they spoke a language other than Arabic, which Al-Tabari claims was Persian; this implies. Certain Jewish traditions record the existence of nomadic tribes such as the Rechabites that converted to Judaism in antiquity; some of the Jewish tribes of Arabia attested include: Contemporary researchers have pieced together a mosaic of Judaized Arabian tribes, but there are some evidence that Judaism found its place in the Arabian Peninsula by immigration of Jews, which took place during six periods: After the collapse of Kingdom of Judah in 586 BCE. After the Roman conquest of Judea. After the Jewish rebellion in 66 CE, the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 CE, exiles found a home in the desert. Survivors of the Bar Kochba Revolt, in 135 CE, who sought religious freedom in the Arabian desert rather than live under the yoke of the Romans.

Immigration, around 300 CE, by people who are known in Islamic literature as the Banu Aus and the Banu Khazraj who fled the Ghassanids in Syria. Migration from Judea into southern Arabian Peninsula to ride the ascent of the Himyarite Kingdom around 380 CE; the Sanaite Jews have a tradition that their ancestors settled in Yemen forty-two years before the destruction of the First Temple. According to Jeremiah some 75,000 Jews, including priests and Levites, traveled to Yemen; the Banu Habban in southern Yemen have a tradition that they are the descendants of Judeans who settled in the area before the destruction of the Second Temple. These Judeans belonged to a brigade dispatched by King Herod to assist the Roman legions fighting in the region; the Himyarite royal family in exile commanded vast wealth and resources the Nabatean bedouin with whom they had controlled the market of trade by Land from North-East Africa for centuries. By the close of the fifth century, the Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj had become masters of Yathrib.

During these events, or in coordination with them, Yathrib was host to a noble visitor. In 470 CE, Persian King Firuz was attempting to wipe out the Exilarchate; the Exilarch Huna V, the son of Mar-Zutra bar Mar-Zutra, whisked his daughter and some of his entourage to Yathrib for safety. In about 400 CE, Himyarite King tubba Abu Karib As'ad Kamil, a convert to Judaism, led military expeditions into central Arabia and expanded his empire to encompass most of the Arabian Peninsula, his army had marched north to battle the Aksumites, fighting for control of Yemen for a hundred years. The Aksumites were only expelled from the region when the newly-Jewish king rallied Jews together from all over Arabia with pagan allies; the relationship between the Himyarite Kings and the polytheistic Arab tribes strengthened when, under the royal permission of Tubba' Abu Karib As'ad, Qusai ibn Kilab reconstructed the Ka'aba from a state of decay, had the Arab al-Kahinan build their houses around it. Qusai ibn Kilab was the great-great- grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim.

Shaiba ibn Hashim was fifth in the line of descent to Muhammad, attained supreme power at Mecca. Qusai ibn Kilab is among the progenitor of the Banu Quraish; when Qusai came of age, a man from the tribe of Banu Khuza'a named Hulail was the trustee of the Kaaba, the Na'sa —authorized to calculate the calendar. Qusai married his daughter and, according to Hulail's will, obtained Hulail's rights to the Ka'aba. Hulail, according to Arabian tradition was a member of the Banu Jurhum. Banu Jurhum was a sub-group of the Banu Qahtani from whom the Himyarites descend. Around 455 CE, the last Himyarite King is born, Zur'ah Yusuf Ibn Tuban As'ad Abu Kaleb Dhu Nuwas or Dhu Nuwas, he died in 510. His zeal for Judaism brought about his fall. Having heard of the persecutions of Jews by Byzantine emperors, Dhu Nuwas retaliated by putting to death some Byzantine merchants who were traveling on business through Himyara, he didn't kill them with hanging—he burned them in large pits—earning him the title "King of the burning pit".

These killings destroyed the trade of Yemen with Europe and involved Dhu Nuwas in a war with the heathen King Aidug, whose commercial interests were injured by these killings. Dhu Nuwas was defeated he made war against the Christian city Najran in Yemen, a dependency of his kingdom. After its surrender, he offered the citizens the alternative of embracing Judaism, under coercion, or being put to death; as they refused to renounce their faith, he executed their chief, Harith ibn Kaleb, three hundred and forty chosen men. The Jewish tribes played a significant role during the rise of Islam. Muhammad had many contacts with both urban and nomadic; the eating of pork has always been prohibited in both religions Muhammad viewed Christians and Jews as natural allies, sharing the core principles of his teachings. In late 622 CE, Shallum ben Hushiel went to visit Mohammed in Medina, offered his submission. In the Constitution of Medina, Jews were given equality to Muslims in exchange for political loyalty and were allowed to practice their own culture and religion.

A significant narrative symbolising the inter-faith harmony between early Muslims and Jews is that of the Rabbi Mukhayriq. The Rabbi was from Banu Nadir and fought alongside Muslims at the Battle of Uhud and bequeathed his entire wealth to Muhammad in the

Totally Wicked Stadium

Wicked Stadium is a rugby league stadium in the Peasley Cross area of St. Helens. Known as Langtree Park until 2017, it has a capacity of over 18,000 and is the home ground of St Helens R. F. C.. The stadium was granted full planning permission on 20 May 2008. On 11 July 2008 the go-ahead was given without the need for a public enquiry and construction started in 2010; the first rugby league match to be played at the stadium was between St. Helens and Widnes on Friday 20 January 2012. St. Helens won the opening game by 42-24 and they moved in ready for the 2012 Super League season. Liverpool F. C. U18s play their home games at the stadium; the proposed plans came in three parts. The proposed parts were: 1; the transformation of the derelict former United Glass site to create a new 18,000-capacity stadium for St. Helens as well as a 140,000 sq ft Tesco Extra next to the rugby ground; the stadium itself was to be a seating and standing arena with an oval shaped roof extending out from the south stand 2.

The redevelopment of the existing town centre Tesco store in Chalon Way into alternative high quality retail use, enhancing the retail available in St Helens town centre. 3. The development of the existing St. Helens site at Knowsley Road to create high quality residential accommodation, regenerating the local area; the club stressed that if one of the three parts fell through, the whole project would have been in jeopardy. However councillors in St Helens approved the new Saints’ stadium. Members of the Planning Committee endorsed the triple planning application granting permission subject to terms and conditions and a health and safety risk assessment Demolition of the former UGB Glass plant began in late January 2009, with construction due to begin after the clearance of the 46-acre site had been completed. In July 2010, the building contractor Barr Construction Ltd was selected to build the new stadium. Construction commenced on 23 August 2010, with the Tesco store completed in October 2011 and the stadium in November 2011.

The stadium has two terraced stands and two seated, the pitch is grass although the touchline has some astro-turf. The match day hospitality consists of the sale of the Saints Gold beer, served inside the ground at a number of kiosks and in the Redvee cafe bar; the stadium has a large Saints badge on the outside with the restored town motto: Ex Terra Lucem underneath. A bronze statue of former club captain; the stadium can be accessed via a number of routes, including the erected Steve Prescott bridge in memory of Steve Prescott MBE, a former St. Helens and Hull F. C. player renowned for his outstanding fund raising contributions to charity. Capacity- 4,718 The North Stand runs parallel to the South Stand along the side of the pitch; the stand is seated and has SAINTS V spelt out in the seats and is occupied by home fans. Capacity- 5,233 The South Stand is the main stand of the ground and holds the club's hospitality boxes and player changing rooms, ticket office and club shop as well as the TV gantry.

Capacity- 3,899 The East Stand is located behind the goal posts and is terraced. The stand houses the score board in the North East corner and the stand is used by away fans. Capacity- 3,796 The West Stand is terracing but has 118 seated in the corner of the stand. St Helens played their first league game at the ground in 2012, their record victory at the stadium was 76-0 against Oldham in the Challenge Cup. The highest recorded attendance for a match so far was 17,980 against Wigan on 6 April, with an average attendance of 14,212 for the 2012 season; the venue hosted the first of two Rugby league International Origin Match in 2012 between England and the Exiles. Langtree Park held a group match in the 2013 Rugby League World Cup between Fiji; the stadium played host to the Challenge Cup Semi Final between Warrington and Leeds on 9 August 2014. Liverpool F. C. U19s played Ajax U19s in the NextGen series semi final on 14 March 2012, Ajax won 6-0. All of Liverpool U19s NextGen matches in the 2012-13 season were held at Langtree Park, as were many Under 21s matches.

It was announced on 15 November 2011 that primary developers, the Langtree Group, had gained the naming rights and that the stadium would be named Langtree Park. In 2016 the club signed a five-year deal with Totally Wicked for the naming rights to the stadium, effective in early 2017. Official Club website Official Stadium website Development company webpage for Stadium Park Totally Wicked Official Website

NA-59 (Rawalpindi-III)

NA-59 is a constituency for the National Assembly of Pakistan. The constituency consists of Gulzar-e-Quaid, Dhoke Lalyal, Railway Housing Scheme 1-A Chaklala, Dhok Chaudrian,Shakrial, Sher Zaman Colony, Gulrez, Safari Villas, Police Foundation, Media Town, Kotha Kalan, Gulshan Abad, Bahria Town, Kalar Syedah, Zulfiqar, Chak Beli Khan and Army Officers colony. General elections were held on 10 Oct 2002. Chaudhary Nisar Ali Khan of PML-N won by 73,671 votes. Nisar Ali Khan retained his native National Assembly seat in elections 2008. General elections were held on 11 May 2013. Nisar Ali Khan of PML-N was yet again successful in retaining his native National Assembly Constituency and he won it with a huge margin. National Assembly. General elections were held on 25 July 2018. NA-58 NA-60 Election result's official website Delimitation 2018 official website Election Commission of Pakistan