Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. Parsley is widely used in European, Middle Eastern, and American cooking, curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. In central Europe, eastern Europe and southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, root parsley is very common in central and southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups and casseroles. Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, in Linear B, is the earliest attested form of the word selinon, garden parsley is a bright green, plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas. Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves. The seeds are ovoid, 2–3 mm long, with prominent style remnants at the apex, one of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol.
The plant normally dies after seed maturation, Parsley grows best in moist, well-drained soil, with full sun. It grows best between 22–30 °C, and usually is grown from seed, germination is slow, taking four to six weeks, and it often is difficult because of furanocoumarins in its seed coat. Typically, plants grown for the crop are spaced 10 cm apart. Parsley attracts several species of wildlife and other nectar-feeding insects visit the flowers. Birds such as the goldfinch feed on the seeds, in cultivation, parsley is subdivided into several cultivar groups, depending on the form of the plant, which is related to its end use. Often these are treated as varieties, but they are cultivated selections. The two main groups of parsley used as herbs are curly leaf and Italian, or flat leaf, of these, a third type, sometimes grown in southern Italy, has thick leaf stems resembling celery. Another type of parsley is grown as a vegetable, the Hamburg root parsley. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves.
Although seldom used in Britain and the United States, root parsley is common in central and eastern European cuisine, although root parsley looks similar to the parsnip, which is among its closest relatives in the family Apiaceae, its taste is quite different. Parsley is widely used in Middle Eastern, European and American cooking, curly leaf parsley is used often as a garnish
Kale or leaf cabbage refers to certain vegetable cultivars of the plant species Brassica oleracea. A kale plant has green or purple leaves and the leaves do not form a head. Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea, Kale bears semblance to kail, a variant of cawul for various cabbages. Until the end of the Middle Ages, kale was one of the most common vegetables in Europe. Curly-leaved varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat-leaved varieties in Greece in the fourth century BC and these forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. Russian kale was introduced into Canada, and into the United States, during World War II, the cultivation of kale in the U. K. was encouraged by the Dig for Victory campaign. The vegetable was easy to grow and provided important nutrients missing from a diet because of rationing, some varieties can reach a height of six or seven feet, while others are compact, symmetrical and of good quality for eating.
Many, are coarse and indigestible, most kales are annuals or biennials. Kale seeds resemble those of cabbage in size, one may differentiate between kale varieties according to the low, intermediate, or high length of the stem, along with the variety of leaf types. The leaf colours range from green to green, to dark green and violet-green. An extra-tall variety is known as Jersey kale or cow cabbage, kai-lan or Chinese kale is a cultivar often used in Chinese cuisine, but in English it is occasionally just called kale. In Portugal, the bumpy-leaved kale is mostly called couve galega, Kale is usually an annual plant grown from seed with a wide range of germination temperatures. It is hardy and thrives in wintertime, many varieties of kale and cabbage are grown mainly for ornamental leaves that are brilliant white, pink, blue or violet in the interior of the rosette. Ornamental kale is as edible as any variety, but potentially not as palatable. Kale leaves are used as an ingredient for vegetable bouquets.
In a 100 gram serving, raw kale provides 49 calories, like collards, it is very high in vitamin K. It is a source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate. Kale is a source of thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, potassium
Celery is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves, depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves, or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed is used as a spice, its extracts are used in medicines. Celery leaves are pinnate to bipinnate with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long, the flowers are creamy-white, 2–3 mm in diameter, and are produced in dense compound umbels. The seeds are ovoid to globose,1. 5–2 mm long. Modern cultivars have been selected for solid petioles, leaf stalks, a celery stalk readily separates into strings which are bundles of angular collenchyma cells exterior to the vascular bundles. The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, celery was described by Carl Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. Wild celery, Apium graveolens var. graveolens, grows to 1 m tall, by the 19th century, the season for celery had been extended, to last from the beginning of September to late in April.
In North America, commercial production of celery is dominated by the cultivar called Pascal celery, Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars, many of which differ from the wild species, mainly in having stouter leaf stems. They are ranged under two classes and red, the stalks grow in tight, parallel bunches, and are typically marketed fresh that way, without roots and just a little green leaf remaining. The stalks are eaten raw, or as an ingredient in salads, or as a flavoring in soups, stews, in Europe, another popular variety is celeriac, Apium graveolens var. rapaceum, grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, white on the inside. The bulb could be kept for months in winter and mostly serves as an ingredient in soup. It can be ground up and used in salads, the leaves are used as seasoning, the small, fibrous stalks find only marginal use. Leaf celery or Chinese celery, Apium graveolens var. secalinum, is a cultivar from East Asia, the wild form of celery is known as smallage. It has a stalk with wedge-shaped leaves, the whole plant having a coarse, earthy taste.
The stalks are not usually eaten, but the leaves may be used in salads, with cultivation and blanching, the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild, aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. Harvesting occurs when the size of celery in a field is marketable, due to extremely uniform crop growth. The petioles and leaves are removed and harvested, celery is packed by size, under optimal conditions, celery can be stored for up to seven weeks between 0 to 2 °C
Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds and this process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these pathways include the production of lipid membrane components. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include, precursor compounds, chemical energy and these elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Biosynthesis occurs due to a series of chemical reactions, for these reactions to take place, the following elements are necessary, Precursor compounds, these compounds are the starting molecules or substrates in a reaction. These may be viewed as the reactants in a chemical process. Chemical energy, chemical energy can be found in the form of high energy molecules and these molecules are required for energetically unfavorable reactions.
Furthermore, the hydrolysis of these compounds drives a reaction forward, high energy molecules, such as ATP, have three phosphates. Often, the phosphate is split off during hydrolysis and transferred to another molecule. Catalytic enzymes, these molecules are special proteins that catalyze a reaction by increasing the rate of the reaction, coenzymes or cofactors, cofactors are molecules that assist in chemical reactions. These may be metal ions, vitamin derivatives such as NADH and acetyl CoA, in the case of NADH, the molecule transfers a hydrogen, whereas acetyl CoA transfers an acetyl group, and ATP transfers a phosphate. Two examples of type of reaction occur during the formation of nucleic acids. For some of these steps, chemical energy is required, Precursor molecule + ATP ↽ − − ⇀ product AMP + PP i Simple compounds that are converted into other compounds with the assistance of cofactors. For example, the synthesis of phospholipids requires acetyl CoA, while the synthesis of another component, shingolipids.
The general equation for these examples is, Precursor molecule + Cofactor → e n z y m e macromolecule Simple compounds that join together to create a macromolecule, for example, fatty acids join together to form phopspholipids. In turn and cholesterol interact noncovalently in order to form the lipid bilayer and this reaction may be depicted as follows, Molecule 1 + Molecule 2 ⟶ macromolecule Many intricate macromolecules are synthesized in a pattern of simple, repeated structures. For example, the simplest structures of lipids are fatty acids, fatty acids are hydrocarbon derivatives, they contain a carboxyl group “head” and a hydrocarbon chain “tail. ”These fatty acids create larger components, which in turn incorporate noncovalent interactions to form the lipid bilayer
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green or purple biennial plant, grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea. Cabbage heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms, smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. Under conditions of long sunlit days such as are found at high latitudes in summer. Some records are discussed at the end of the history section and it is difficult to trace the exact history of cabbage, but it was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century. By the Middle Ages, it had become a prominent part of European cuisine, cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that production of cabbage.
Almost half of these crops were grown in China, where Chinese cabbage is the most popular Brassica vegetable, cabbages are prepared in many different ways for eating. They can be pickled, fermented for dishes such as sauerkraut, stewed, sautéed, cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Contaminated cabbage has been linked to cases of illness in humans. Cabbage is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, several other cruciferous vegetables are considered cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts and sprouting broccoli. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. oleracea, the varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for having a head. B. oleracea and its derivatives have hundreds of names throughout the world. Cabbage was originally used to refer to forms of B. oleracea. A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage and it is a part of common names for several unrelated species.
These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, the original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. The word brassica derives from bresic, a Celtic word for cabbage, many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning head. The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche and this in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce
Vegetable juice is a juice drink made primarily of blended vegetables and available in the form of powders. Vegetable juice is mixed with fruits such as apples or grapes to improve flavor. It is often touted as an alternative to fruit juice, although some commercial brands of vegetable juices use fruit juices as sweeteners. Making vegetable juice at home is an alternative to buying commercial juices, the juicer separates juice from pulp fibers. Masticating juicers employ a slow-geared grinding mechanism, a cheaper and faster alternative uses centrifugal force to achieve separation. The slower speed of the process is held to protect the vegetables from oxidation and heat. Advocates of masticating juicers often cite the preservation of enzymes, though these are rarely specified, juicing the fine leaves of wheatgrass usually requires a masticating process. Commercial vegetable juices are made from varying combinations of carrots, pumpkin. The latter two, although not technically vegetables, are used to increase palatability.
Other popular items in vegetable juices are parsley, dandelion greens, celery, lemon and ginger may be added by some for medicinal purposes. Other common juices include carrot juice, tomato juice, and turnip juice, in Asian cultures, primarily Chinese, Chinese yam is used for vegetable juices. They are used sparingly, for many Chinese consider it to be a medicine rather than a vegetable. Kale juice marketed as Aojiru in Japan has become known for its purported health benefits. Japan markets several kinds of vegetable juices which, unlike Western juices, in general, vegetable juices are recommended as supplements to whole vegetables, rather than as a replacement. However, the nutritional value of juices versus whole vegetables is still contested. USDA guidelines for Americans states that 3/4 cup of 100% vegetable juice is equivalent to one serving of vegetables, another study has found that drinking vegetable juice reduces risks of Alzheimers Disease by 76%. However, the British Nutrition Foundation holds that although vegetable juice counts as a serving, it can count as one serving.
Additionally, A2007 Japanese study showed that although Japanese commercial juices had nutritional benefits, many popular vegetable juices, particularly ones with high tomato content, are high in sodium, and therefore consumption of them for health must be carefully considered
Chicken as food
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. In developed countries, chickens are usually subject to intensive farming methods, the modern chicken is a descendant of red junglefowl hybrids along with the grey junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Chicken as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC, Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. It was eaten over most of the Eastern hemisphere and a number of different kinds of such as capons, pullets. It was one of the ingredients in the so-called white dish. In the United States in the 1800s, chicken was more expensive than other meats, Chicken consumption in the United States increased during World War II due to a shortage of beef and pork. In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred specifically for meat production, with an emphasis placed on the ratio of feed to meat produced by the animal.
The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the US are Cornish, chickens raised specifically for food are called broilers. In the United States, broilers are typically butchered at a young age, modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Capons produce more and fattier meat, for this reason, they are considered a delicacy and were particularly popular in the Middle Ages. Main Breast, These are white meat and are relatively dry, Comprises two segments, The drumstick, this is dark meat and is the lower part of the leg, the thigh, dark meat, this is the upper part of the leg. Wing, Often served as a meal or bar food. Buffalo wings are a typical example, Comprises three segments, the drumette, shaped like a small drumstick, the middle flat segment, containing two bones, and the tip, sometimes discarded. Other Chicken feet, These contain relatively little meat, and are mainly for the skin. Although considered exotic in Western cuisine, the feet are common fare in other cuisines, especially in the Caribbean, organs such as the heart and liver may be included inside a butchered chicken or sold separately.
Head, Considered a delicacy in China, the head is split down the middle, Normally left in when a broiler carcass is processed, they are found in deep pockets on each side of the vertebral column. Neck, This is served in various Asian dishes and it is stuffed to make helzel among Ashkenazi Jews. Oysters, Located on the back, near the thigh, these small and testicles, These are commonly eaten in East Asia and some parts of South East Asia
Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules, the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since modified and extended. In 2007, a standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN, the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. The Environmental Protection Agency funded the project to develop SMILES. It has since modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems. In 2007, a standard called OpenSMILES was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community.
Other linear notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN, in July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is generally considered to have the advantage of being slightly more human-readable than InChI, the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should strictly be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings, the exact meaning is usually apparent from the context. The terms canonical and isomeric can lead to confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms describe different attributes of SMILES strings and are not mutually exclusive, typically, a number of equally valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol, algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule, of the many possible strings, these algorithms choose only one of them.
This SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the algorithm used to generate it. These algorithms first convert the SMILES to a representation of the molecular structure. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database, there is currently no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, and these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. It is one of several of the varieties of Beta vulgaris grown for their edible taproots. These varieties have been classified as B. vulgaris subsp, other than as a food, beets have use as a food colouring and as a medicinal plant. Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties, particularly sugar beet, usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish, in Indian cuisine, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a small scale for home consumption. The green, leafy portion of the beet is edible, the young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the adult leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach.
Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, the domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot. Pickled beets are a food in many countries. A traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dish is pickled beet egg, hard-boiled eggs are refrigerated in the liquid left over from pickling beets and allowed to marinate until the eggs turn a deep pink-red colour. The same in Serbia where the popular cvekla is used as salad, seasoned with salt and vinegar. As an addition to horseradish it is used to produce the red variety of chrain. Popular in Australian hamburgers, a slice of pickled beetroot is combined with other condiments on a beef patty to make an Aussie burger, when beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings. Beetroot can be used to make wine, food shortages in Europe following World War I caused great hardships, including cases of mangelwurzel disease, as relief workers called it.
It was symptomatic of eating only beets, the chemical adipic acid rarely occurs in nature, but happens to occur naturally in beetroot. From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially relating to digestion. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of garlic-breath, during the middle of the 19th century wine often was coloured with beetroot juice
Acid dissociation constant
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. It is the constant for a chemical reaction known as dissociation in the context of acid–base reactions. In the example shown in the figure, HA represents acetic acid, and A− represents the acetate ion, the chemical species HA, A− and H3O+ are said to be in equilibrium when their concentrations do not change with the passing of time. The definition can be more simply H A ⇌ A − + H +, K a = This is the definition in common usage. A weak acid has a pKa value in the approximate range −2 to 12 in water, pKa values for strong acids can, however, be estimated by theoretical means. The definition can be extended to non-aqueous solvents, such as acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide. Denoting a solvent molecule by S H A + S ⇌ A − + S H +, K a = When the concentration of solvent molecules can be taken to be constant, K a =, as before. The value of pKa depends on structure of the acid in many ways. For example, Pauling proposed two rules, one for successive pKa of polyprotic acids, and one to estimate the pKa of oxyacids based on the number of =O and −OH groups.
Other structural factors that influence the magnitude of the dissociation constant include inductive effects, mesomeric effects. Hammett type equations have frequently applied to the estimation of pKa. The quantitative behaviour of acids and bases in solution can be only if their pKa values are known. These calculations find application in different areas of chemistry, medicine. Acid dissociation constants are essential in aquatic chemistry and chemical oceanography. In living organisms, acid–base homeostasis and enzyme kinetics are dependent on the pKa values of the acids and bases present in the cell. According to Arrheniuss original definition, an acid is a substance that dissociates in solution, releasing the hydrogen ion H+. The equilibrium constant for this reaction is known as a dissociation constant. Brønsted and Lowry generalised this further to an exchange reaction
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells. Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by mRNA, using transfer RNA molecules to carry amino acids, the genetic code is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries. The code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, with some exceptions, a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme and that scheme is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though variant codes exist. While the genetic code determines a proteins amino acid sequence, other genomic regions determine when, efforts to understand how proteins are encoded began after DNAs structure was discovered in 1953. George Gamow postulated that sets of three bases must be employed to encode the 20 standard amino acids used by living cells to build proteins, the Crick, Brenner et al. experiment first demonstrated that codons consist of three DNA bases.
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich J. Matthaei were the first to reveal the nature of a codon in 1961 and they used a cell-free system to translate a poly-uracil RNA sequence and discovered that the polypeptide that they had synthesized consisted of only the amino acid phenylalanine. They thereby deduced that the codon UUU specified the amino acid phenylalanine, the codon AAA specified the amino acid lysine, and the codon CCC specified the amino acid proline. Using various copolymers most of the remaining codons were determined, subsequent work by Har Gobind Khorana identified the rest of the genetic code. Shortly thereafter, Robert W. Holley determined the structure of transfer RNA and this work was based upon Ochoas earlier studies, yielding the latter the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959 for work on the enzymology of RNA synthesis. Extending this work and Philip Leder revealed the triplet nature. In these experiments, various combinations of mRNA were passed through a filter that contained ribosomes, unique triplets promoted the binding of specific tRNAs to the ribosome.
Leder and Nirenberg were able to determine the sequences of 54 out of 64 codons in their experiments, Khorana and Nirenberg received the 1968 Nobel for their work. The three stop codons were named by discoverers Richard Epstein and Charles Steinberg, amber was named after their friend Harris Bernstein, whose last name means amber in German. The other two stop codons were named ochre and opal in order to keep the color names theme, H. Murakami and M. Sisido extended some codons to have four and five bases. Steven A. Benner constructed a functional 65th codon, in 2016 the first stable semisynthetic organism was created. It was a bacterium with two synthetic bases, in 2017 a mouse engineered with an extended genetic code that can produce proteins with unnatural amino acids was reported. A codon is defined by the initial nucleotide from which starts and sets the frame for a run of successive triplets