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In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides; these can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis, which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. Several species of Heliconius butterfly are capable of incorporating these plant compounds as a form of chemical defense against predators. In animals and humans, poisons are bound to sugar molecules as part of their elimination from the body. In formal terms, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides can be linked by an C - glycosidic bond. According to the IUPAC, the name "C-glycoside" is a misnomer; the given definition is the one used by IUPAC, which recommends the Haworth projection to assign stereochemical configurations.

Many authors require in addition that the sugar be bonded to a non-sugar for the molecule to qualify as a glycoside, thus excluding polysaccharides. The sugar group is known as the glycone and the non-sugar group as the aglycone or genin part of the glycoside; the glycone can consist of several sugar groups. The first glycoside identified was amygdalin, by the French chemists Pierre Robiquet and Antoine Boutron-Charlard, in 1830. Molecules containing an N-glycosidic bond are known as glycosylamines and are not discussed in this article. Glycosylamines and glycosides are grouped together as glycoconjugates. Much of the chemistry of glycosides is explained in the article on glycosidic bonds. For example, the glycone and aglycone portions can be chemically separated by hydrolysis in the presence of acid and can be hydrolyzed by alkali. There are numerous enzymes that can form and break glycosidic bonds; the most important cleavage enzymes are the glycoside hydrolases, the most important synthetic enzymes in nature are glycosyltransferases.

Genetically altered enzymes termed glycosynthases have been developed that can form glycosidic bonds in excellent yield. There are many ways to chemically synthesize glycosidic bonds. Fischer glycosidation refers to the synthesis of glycosides by the reaction of unprotected monosaccharides with alcohols in the presence of a strong acid catalyst; the Koenigs-Knorr reaction is the condensation of glycosyl halides and alcohols in the presence of metal salts such as silver carbonate or mercuric oxide. Glycosides can be classified by the glycone, by the type of glycosidic bond, by the aglycone. If the glycone group of a glycoside is glucose the molecule is a glucoside. In the body, toxic substances are bonded to glucuronic acid to increase their water solubility. Depending on whether the glycosidic bond lies "below" or "above" the plane of the cyclic sugar molecule, glycosides are classified as α-glycosides or β-glycosides; some enzymes such as α-amylase can only hydrolyze α-linkages. There are four type of linkages present between glycone and aglycone: C-linkage/glycosidic bond, "nonhydrolysable by acids or enzymes" O-linkage/glycosidic bond N-linkage/glycosidic bond S-linkage/glycosidic bond Glycosides are classified according to the chemical nature of the aglycone.

For purposes of biochemistry and pharmacology, this is the most useful classification. An example of an alcoholic glycoside is salicin, found in the genus Salix. Salicin is converted in the body into salicylic acid, related to aspirin and has analgesic and antiinflammatory effects; these glycosides contain an aglycone group, a derivative of anthraquinone. They have a laxative effect, they are found in dicot plants except the family Liliaceae which are monocots. They are present in senna and Aloe species. Anthron and anthranol are reduced forms of anthraquinone. Here, the aglycone is a derivative. An example is apterin, reported to dilate the coronary arteries as well as block calcium channels. Other coumarin glycosides are obtained from dried leaves of Psoralea corylifolia. In this case, the aglycone is called benzo-gamma-pyrone. In this case, the aglycone contains a cyanohydrin group. Plants that make cyanogenic glycosides store them in the vacuole, but, if the plant is attacked, they are released and become activated by enzymes in the cytoplasm.

These remove the sugar part of the molecule, allowing the cyanohydrin structure to collapse and release toxic hydrogen cyanide. Storing them in inactive forms in the vacuole prevents them from damaging the plant under normal conditions. Along with playing a role in deterring herbivores, in some plants they control germination, bud formation and nitrogen transport, act as antioxidants; the production of cyanogenic glycosides is an evolutionarily conserved function, appearing in species as old as ferns and as recent as angiosperms. These compounds are made by around 3,000 species.


In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings within this discipline are debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, parenthood, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends." These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic and religious groups. Kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures. Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship.

Further within these two broad usages of the term, there are different theoretical approaches. Broadly, kinship patterns may be considered to include people related by both descent – i.e. social relations during development – and by marriage. Human kinship relations through marriage are called "affinity" in contrast to the relationships that arise in one's group of origin, which may be called one's descent group. In some cultures, kinship relationships may be considered to extend out to people an individual has economic or political relationships with, or other forms of social connections. Within a culture, some descent groups may be considered to lead back to gods or animal ancestors; this may be conceived of on a less literal basis. Kinship can refer to a principle by which individuals or groups of individuals are organized into social groups, roles and genealogy by means of kinship terminologies. Family relations can be represented abstractly by degrees of relationship. A relationship may reflect an absolute.

Degrees of relationship are not identical to legal succession. Many codes of ethics consider the bond of kinship as creating obligations between the related persons stronger than those between strangers, as in Confucian filial piety. In a more general sense, kinship may refer to a similarity or affinity between entities on the basis of some or all of their characteristics that are under focus; this may be due to a shared ontological origin, a shared historical or cultural connection, or some other perceived shared features that connect the two entities. For example, a person studying the ontological roots of human languages might ask whether there is kinship between the English word seven and the German word sieben, it can be used in a more diffuse sense as in, for example, the news headline "Madonna feels kinship with vilified Wallis Simpson", to imply a felt similarity or empathy between two or more entities. In biology, "kinship" refers to the degree of genetic relatedness or coefficient of relationship between individual members of a species.

It may be used in this specific sense when applied to human relationships, in which case its meaning is closer to consanguinity or genealogy. Family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence/shared consumption. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children; as the basic unit for raising children, Anthropologists most classify family organization as matrifocal. However, producing children is not the only function of the family. Different societies classify kinship relations differently and therefore use different systems of kinship terminology – for example some languages distinguish between affinal and consanguine uncles, whereas others have only one word to refer to both a father and his brothers. Kinship terminologies include the terms of address used in different languages or communities for different relatives and the terms of reference used to identify the relationship of these relatives to ego or to each other. Kin terminologies can be either classificatory.

When a descriptive terminology is used, a term refers to only one specific type of relationship, while a classificatory terminology groups many different types of relationships under one term. For example, the word brother in English-speaking societies indicates a son of one's same parent. In many other classificatory kinship terminologies, in contrast, a person's male first cousin may be referred to as brothers; the major patterns of kinship systems that are known which Lewis Henry Morgan identified through kinship terminology in his 1871 work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family are: Iroquois kinship Crow kinship (an expansion of b

Taxation of digital goods

Digital goods are software programs, videos or other electronic files that users download from the Internet. Some digital goods are free, others are available for a fee; the taxation of digital goods and/or services, sometimes referred to as digital tax and/or a digital services tax, is governed by a federal statute and has been the area of significant state legislative and rule-making activity. The digital tax is gaining popularity across the globe, as the result 50 jurisdictions have made changes in their current legislation regarding the taxation to include the digital tax, or presented new laws focused on taxation of digital economy. In 1997, the United States federal government decided to limit taxation of Internet activity for a period of time; the Internet Tax Freedom Act prohibits taxes on Internet access, defined as a service that allows users access to content, email or other services offered over the Internet and may include access to proprietary content and other services as part of a package offered to customers.

The Act has exceptions for taxes levied before the statute was written and for sales taxes on online purchases of physical goods. The statute has been amended three times since its enactment to extend this prohibition; the first amendment extended the Act's duration. The second extended it again and clarified the definition of Internet access as including certain telecommunication services, as well as reorganizing sections within the Act; the third amendment again extended the prohibition but narrowed the definition of Internet access to "not include voice, audio or video programming, or other products and services... that utilize Internet protocol... and for which there is a charge" except those related to a homepage, instant messaging, video clips, personal storage capacity. In 2009, Anna Eshoo, Congresswoman from California's 14th District, introduced a bill to make the Act permanent in its most recent permutation. However, this bill died in committee. States levying a tax on digital goods may be violating the ITFA.

The states using their original tax code may fall within the grandfather clause of the ITFA, but there has been no litigation to clarify this or other aspects of the Act. One of the few cases brought under the ITFA involved Community Telecable of Seattle suing the city of Seattle in Washington state court, where Telecable claimed it should not have to pay a telephone utility tax because it was an Internet access provider under the ITFA; the Washington State Supreme Court held that Telecable could not be taxed as a telephone provider when it was providing Internet access under the ITFA. Every digital-specific tax created by a state has been enacted; these laws may be preempted because the ITFA bars taxes on Internet access, multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. Courts have yet to clarify whether the existing laws compound are discriminatory. Although, it is that these laws can survive scrutiny under the ITFA because they can be interpreted to only tax services that fit within the exception to Internet access described in the statute and to be the only taxes on these digital products.

On the other hand, there may be problems with these taxes because they may cover products and services dealing with homepages, personal storage, or video clips. Without litigation, it may be difficult to distinguish the difference between the definitions of content given by the ITFA, such as between a video clip and video programming. ITunes, for example, could be designated as video programming for the videos it sells based on the definition found in the federal statute regulating cable companies, as video clips for its previews; these laws may run into trouble if they tax a download, taxed by another state, because multiple taxes are defined as taxing property, taxed once before by another state or political subdivision. VIDEO software> Another possible federal limitation on Internet taxation is the United States Supreme Court case, Quill Corp. v. North Dakota, 504 U. S. 298, which held that under the dormant commerce clause, goods purchased through mail order cannot be subject to a state's sales tax unless the vendor has a substantial nexus with the state levying the tax.

The dormant commerce clause could apply to any efforts to tax downloads. Since most downloads are from companies that are centralized in a small number of states, it is that there will not be many states with a substantial nexus to download providers. At present, no litigation has arisen to determine what will be defined as a proper nexus for a distributor of digital content within a state, it is possible that a state would argue that servers are enough of a nexus to tax the content passing through, although the Supreme Court has ruled that communication by common carrier is not enough to form a substantial nexus. States were slow to enact taxes on downloads, but with recent downturns in tax revenue caused by consumers purchasing more digital downloads, many states have sought ways to impose taxes on purely digital transactions. There are multiple ways; some states use their existing franchise and use taxes to tax purchases/uses/transactions of consumers of Internet goods and services. Other states enacted laws aimed at digital downloads.

Some states presume that downloads are automatically covered by their existing tax statutes based on the common law definition of tangible personal property, anything that holds value on its own, not real property. Alabama Arizona – Uses definition of tangible personal property to be anything that can be

Fynsk Foraar

Fynsk Foraar, for soloists and orchestra, Opus 42, is Carl Nielsen's last major choral work. Written to accompany a prizewinning text by Aage Berntsen, it was first performed in Odense's Kvæghal on 8 July 1922 where it was conducted by Georg Høeberg. Aage Berntsen, a medical doctor and a writer, was the winner of a competition arranged around 1917 by the Dansk Korforening for a text on Danish history or landscape which would subsequently be set to music by Carl Nielsen. Several years went by before the composer could find the time or inclination to work on the piece as he was in the middle of composing his Fifth Symphony. Indeed, on 19 August 1921, he wrote: "For some time I have not felt comfortable because I could not get started on the choral work which I must have done by 1 September, every day I considered throwing it away and informing the board of all these combined societies that I had to beg off... But one day I found the tone and the style, which will be a light mixture of lyricism and humour, now it is well in hand and will soon be finished.

Only with the help of his pupil Nancy Dalberg, who had helped with fair-copying the large score for Aladdin was he able to meet his deadline. On 3 September 1921, he wrote to his wife: "My new choral piece has turned out to be a big piece of work and has now been delivered on time, but I have worked a lot and with a certain lightness. The poet has called it Springtime on Funen but I give it a subtitle, Lyrical Humoresque, which suggests that the style is light and lively... Now I will continue with my interrupted symphony." The first performance of Fynsk Foraar was at the opening concert of Third National Choral Festival which took place on 8 July 1922 in the huge Odense Kvæghal, specially renamed Markedshallen for the occasion. The circumstances were not ideal. While Nielsen had envisaged the work for a small orchestra and choir, there were 80 in the orchestra and several hundred in the choirs from Funen and Copenhagen; the hall itself could accommodate up to 10,000 people. The day after the concert, Politiken commented: "Enthusiastic applause rewarded the choral work.

The composer and poet were called for in vain. Neither was present." Nielsen had in fact explained a few days earlier. Most reviewers agreed. N. O. Raasted, writing for a local newspaper Fyns Tidende was frank: "So light and graceful, so witty and veiled is the language spoken here that several of the work's beautiful passages could only be lost in a performance under such circumstances! We look forward to hearing it all again in the not too distant future if the work can be presented in circumstances that are more favourable to its appreciation."Another local newspaper Fyens Stiftstidende commented on the work's regional tone: "There was the greatest interest in the next item in the concert, Aage Berntsen’s and Carl Nielsen’s never-before-performed work for soloists and orchestra, Springtime on Funen. Have a poet and composer been so fortunate in finding the fullest expression of the distinctive atmosphere and emotional life of a Danish region; the Funen islanders lack the capacity to take themselves too seriously.

As true sons of the Funen soil and Carl Nielsen have therefore made Springtime on Funen a humoresque. In a letter dated 29 June 1922 to the composer Rudolf Simonsen, he describes how he would like it performed under his own baton: "III myself: Springtime on Funen small orchestra: light and gay and graceful as my humble talents can manage." The work was indeed presented by the Music Society at the first concert of the season on 21 November 1922. Axel Kjærulf, writing in Politiken, was full of praise for the work: "It is enchantingly formed, so light and bright, so full and fertile, so simple and inward. In each strophe one recognizes Carl Nielsen's Danish tone, but here truer than before, he is intimate with everything — and the rest of us get as close as possible to this so inaccessible man — and grow fond of him." Fynsk Foraar is considered Nielsen's most popular choral work in Denmark. Nielsen gave it the subtitle "lyric humoresque", aptly describing its simple, folk-like idiom and its compact form.

Scored for a four-part chorus, soprano and baritone soloists, a children's chorus and a small chamber orchestra, the 18-minute cantata consists of several independent sections tied together with orchestral transitions. The choral writing is diatonic and homophonic; the solo melodies contain frequent alternations between minor tonalities. This work is cited as the most Danish of all Nielsen's compositions; the cantata is divided into the following sections: Som en græsgrøn plet Å se, nu kommer våren Den milde dag er lys og lang Der har vi den aldrende sol igen Til dansen går pigerne arm i arm Jeg tænder min pibe i aftenfred Og månen jeg ser Den blinde spillemand Nu vil vi ud og lege (Now we will

SSV Markranst├Ądt

SSV Markranstädt is a German association football club from the city of Markranstädt, Saxony near Leipzig. It is part of a larger sports club that has departments for badminton, cycle ball, table tennis, volleyball. Established following World War II as Sportgemeinde Markranstädt, the club took up play in the top-flight regional Landesliga Sachsen/Leipzig in the Soviet occupied eastern part of the country and earned a first-place finish in the 1947–48 season. Renamed SG Glück-Auf Markranstädt, the team slipped to consecutive seventh-place finishes in its next two campaigns; the club disappeared into lower-tier play in East Germany and, like most other clubs there, underwent a succession of name changes over the years: BSG Stahl Markranstädt. Following German reunification in 1990 Turbine adopted its current identity as Spiel- und Sportverein Markranstädt; the merger of the football competitions of the two Germanys saw SSV placed in the Landesliga Sachsen where they would stay until relegated in 1993.

The team re-bounded to return to fifth-tier play in 1995, but was again sent down and did not return to the Landesliga until 1999. Following their 2007 divisional championship, Markranstädt was promoted to the NOFV-Oberliga Süd, where they earned mid-table results in the next two seasons; the club's licence was purchased by energy drink maker Red Bull in 2009 and the team resumed play in the now fifth tier Oberliga in 2009–2010 as RB Leipzig, the fourth football team in the company's sports advertising portfolio. The ownership's goal was to advance to the country's first division Bundesliga within a decade. SSV Markranstädt continued to operate as an affiliated club, won the Landesliga Sachsen in 2012; the club has been playing in the Oberliga as a top of the table side since, finishing third in 2015 and qualifying for the promotion play-offs to the expanded Regionalliga Nordost against FSV Luckenwalde where the club lost the return leg 4–1 and missed out on promotion. The club's honours: NOFV-Oberliga Süd Runners-up: 2014 Landesliga Sachsen Champions: 2007, 2012 Bezirksliga Leipzig Champions: 1995, 1999 Landesliga Sachsen/Leipzig Champions: 1948 As of 6 November 2013Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. SSV Markranstädt plays its home fixtures in the Stadion am Bad, which has a capacity of 5,500 including 500 seats added in 2001; the stadium hosted several matches of the 2003 UEFA Women's Under-19 Championship. Rudi Glöckner worked as a referee in East Germany's top flight DDR-Oberliga from 1959–1977 and officiated in the final of the 1970 World Cup in Mexico. Official team site Das deutsche Fußball-Archiv historical German domestic league tables

William Nicholas Straub House

The William Nicholas Straub House is a historic house at 531 Perry Street in Helena, Arkansas. It is a stylistically eclectict 2-1/2 story structure, built in 1900 for William Nicholas Straub, a prominent local merchant; the house's main stylistic elements come from the Colonial Revival and the Shingle style, both of which were popular at the time. The house has a first floor finished in painted brick, its upper floors are clad in shingles; the main facade has a single-story porch across its width, supported by three Ionic columns. The entrance, on the left side, has a single door with a large pane of glass, is topped by a transom window. On the right side is a two-sided projecting bay section; the house's most prominent exterior feature is a crenellated tower. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. National Register of Historic Places listings in Phillips County, Arkansas