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Glycosidic bond

A glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate. A glycosidic bond is formed between the hemiacetal or hemiketal group of a saccharide and the hydroxyl group of some compound such as an alcohol. A substance containing a glycosidic bond is a glycoside; the term'glycoside' is now extended to cover compounds with bonds formed between hemiacetal groups of sugars and several chemical groups other than hydroxyls, such as -SR, -SeR, -NR1R2, or -CR1R2R3. In occurring glycosides, the compound ROH from which the carbohydrate residue has been removed is termed the aglycone, the carbohydrate residue itself is sometimes referred to as the'glycone'. Glycosidic bonds of the form discussed above are known as O-glycosidic bonds, in reference to the glycosidic oxygen that links the glycoside to the aglycone or reducing end sugar. In analogy, one considers S-glycosidic bonds, where the oxygen of the glycosidic bond is replaced with a sulfur atom.

In the same way, N-glycosidic bonds, have the glycosidic bond oxygen replaced with nitrogen. Substances containing N-glycosidic bonds are known as glycosylamines. C-glycosyl bonds have the glycosidic oxygen replaced by a carbon. All of these modified glycosidic bonds have different susceptibility to hydrolysis, in the case of C-glycosyl structures, they are more resistant to hydrolysis. One distinguishes between α- and β-glycosidic bonds based on the relative stereochemistry of the anomeric position and the stereocenter furthest from C1 in the saccharide. An α-glycosidic bond is formed when both carbons have the same stereochemistry, whereas a β-glycosidic bond occurs when the two carbons have different stereochemistry. One complicating issue is that the alpha and beta conformations were defined based on the relative orientation of the major constituents in a Haworth projection. In this case, for D-sugars, a beta conformation would see the major constituent at each carbon drawn above the plane of the ring, while alpha would see the anomeric constituent below the ring.

For L-sugars, the definitions would necessarily, reverse. This is worth noting as these older definitions still permeate the literature and can lead to confusion. Pharmacologists join substances to glucuronic acid via glycosidic bonds in order to increase their water solubility. Many other glycosides have important physiological functions. Nüchter et al. have shown a new approach to Fischer glycosidation. Employing a microwave oven equipped with refluxing apparatus in a rotor reactor with pressure bombs, Nüchter et al. were able to achieve 100% yield of α- and β-D-glucosides. This method can be performed on a multi-kilogram scale. Vishal Y Joshi's method Joshi et al. propose the Koenigs-Knorr method in the stereoselective synthesis of alkyl D-glucopyranosides via glycosylation, with the exception of using lithium carbonate, less expensive and toxic than the conventional method of using silver or mercury salts. D-glucose is first protected by forming the peracetate by addition of acetic anhydride in acetic acid, addition of hydrogen bromide which brominates at the 5-position.

On addition of the alcohol ROH and lithium carbonate, the OR replaces the bromine and on deprotecting the acetylated hydroxyls the product is synthesized in high purity. It was suggested by Joshi et al. that lithium acts as the nucleophile that attacks the carbon at the 5-position and through a transition state the alcohol is substituted for the bromine group. Advantages of this method as well as its stereoselectivity and low cost of the lithium salt include that it can be done at room temperature and its yield compares well with the conventional Koenigs-Knorr method. Glycoside hydrolases, are enzymes. Glycoside hydrolases can act either on α- or on β-glycosidic bonds, but not on both; this specificity allows researchers to obtain glycosides in high epimeric excess, one example being Wen-Ya Lu's conversion of D-Glucose to Ethyl β-D-glucopyranoside using naturally-derived glucosidase. It is worth noting that Wen-Ya Lu utilized glucosidase in a reverse manner opposite to the enzyme's biological functionality: Before monosaccharide units are incorporated into glycoproteins, polysaccharides, or lipids in living organisms, they are first "activated" by being joined via a glycosidic bond to the phosphate group of a nucleotide such as uridine diphosphate, guanosine diphosphate, thymidine diphosphate, or cytidine monophosphate.

These activated biochemical intermediates are known as sugar nucleotides or sugar donors. Many biosynthetic pathways use mono- or oligosaccharides activated by a diphosphate linkage to lipids, such as dolichol; these activated donors are substrates for enzymes known as glycosyltransferases, which transfer the sugar unit from the activated donor to an accepting nucleophile. Different biocatalytic approaches have been developed toward the synthesis of glycosides in the past decades, which using “glycosyltransferases” and “glycoside hydrolases” are among the most common catalysis; the former needs expensive materials and the often shows low yields, De Winter et al. investigated use of cellobiose phosphorylase toward synthesis of alpha-glycosides in ionic liquids. Th

Joe Hauser

Joseph John "Unser Choe" Hauser was a professional baseball player who played first baseman in the major leagues from 1922 to 1929, with the Philadelphia Athletics and Cleveland Indians. Hauser's major league career was undistinguished, but he made a name for himself in the minor leagues, where he became the first player to hit 60 or more home runs twice in a professional career: 63 in 1930, 69 in 1933. After being discovered playing semi-pro ball in Waupun, Hauser was signed to begin with Providence of the Eastern League in 1918, found himself back in his hometown two years with the Milwaukee Brewers of the American Association. There he acquired the nickname "Unser Choe"; as he told it, the predominantly German-immigrant fans would support him. If he was having a bad day at the plate and some fans were booing, others would admonish them with, "Das ist unser Choe!" -- German and German-English for "That is our Joe!" He had his best major league year statistically in 1924, but a broken leg and slow recovery hampered his career in 1925 and 1926.

In 1928 he seemed to get back on track, but his ability to hit major league pitching somehow vanished, after 1929 he was through in the majors. He blamed A's player-coach Ty Cobb for over-analyzing and impairing his hitting style. In 629 games over 6 seasons in his major league career, Hauser compiled a.284 batting average with 351 runs, 80 home runs and 356 RBI. He recorded a.990 fielding percentage. Back in the minors in 1930, Hauser played for the Baltimore Orioles of the International League and regained his hitting touch, slamming a then-professional record of 63 home runs in one season, in the cozy confines of Oriole Park, he led the minors in homers in 1931. The Minneapolis Millers of the American Association thought Hauser would be a good addition to the even-cozier Nicollet Park, home of the Millers, they were right, they bought his contract just before the 1932 season. After a slow start, Hauser hit 49 long ones to lead the Association in home runs, he might have hit more, challenged the league record of 54, but he was rested to allow an injury to heal so that he would be healthy for the Junior World Series.

1933 was Hauser's career year. The league decided to cut its schedule from 168 to 154 games, Hauser went homer-less in his first nine games, so his prospects for reaching his previous year's total were in doubt. However, in the home opener, Hauser hit one out in his first at-bat, three more the next day, the long balls began to accumulate. By the end of June, he had reached 32, he hit his 50th in Milwaukee. He hit his 54th and 55th in Toledo a couple of weeks setting a new league mark. On August 20, he hit his 60th, he tied and broke his own professional record by hitting his 63rd and 64th in St. Paul's Lexington Park on Labor Day, he pushed the total to 69. Hauser collected 182 RBIs and a record-setting 439 total bases. Hauser got off to a good start in 1934, but a fractured kneecap ended his season, his career wound down after that, he played off and on for the Millers and Sheboygan before hanging them up in 1943. Following his playing career, he ran a sporting goods shop in Sheboygan until retiring in 1984.

Hauser's 69 was matched by Bob Crues in 1948 and surpassed by the 72 of Joe Bauman in 1954. He remained the only player to hit 60 or more twice until Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa accomplished the feat in 1998 and 1999. History of baseball in the United States Before the Dome, edited by David Anderson, Nodin Press, Minneapolis, 1993, pp. 75–77. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference

1884 in rail transport

This article lists events related to rail transport that occurred in 1884. February 22 – Brooks Locomotive Works in the United States completes its 1,000th new steam locomotive. March 17 – The Southern Pacific Railroad is incorporated in Kentucky. March – Central Pacific Railroad's El Gobernador, at the time the largest locomotive in the world, enters service. April 2 – Melton railway station opens in Melbourne, Australia. April 26 – The British-owned Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway opens Bahía Blanca Sud railway station in Argentina. May 1 – Nippon Railroad Line, Ueno of Tokyo to Takasaki of Gunma Prefecture route completed in Japan. June 11 – The Pine Bluff and Swan Lake Railway, in Arkansas, is incorporated. July 23 – The Iron Railroad in Ohio is reincorporated as the Iron Railway. September 15 – Opening of first railway in Serbia, from Belgrade to Niš. September 20 - Opening of the Arlberg Railway Tunnel, completing the Arlberg railway in Austria, the main east–west rail link through the Alps.

October – John King succeeds Hugh J. Jewett as president of the Erie Railroad. November 13 – The Hagener Straßenbahn-Gesellschaft in Hagen, opens its first 2 km long horse-car line. November 28 – Northern Pacific Railroad establishes the town of Pasco, Washington, at the junction of its lines between Seattle, Tacoma and Portland, Oregon. December 10 – Narrow gauge Franklin and Megantic Railway opens to Kingfield, Maine. Summer - The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad to become part of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, completes its connection between Needles and Mojave, California; the Santa Fe Refrigerator Despatch is established as a subsidiary of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. The Smithsonian Institution acquires the John Bull from the Pennsylvania Railroad as the museum's first example of railroad technology. Charles Francis Adams, Jr. becomes president of the Union Pacific Railroad. July 6 – Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, heir to Cornelius Vanderbilt and president of the New York Central railroad system.

September 11 – Robert Eastman Woodruff, president of Erie Railroad 1939–1949, is born. December 9 – Ernest Lemon, Chief Mechanical Engineer and Vice President for the London and Scottish Railway. March 23 – Henry C. Lord, president of Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad in the 1850s, president of Atchison and Santa Fe Railway 1868–1869, founding president of Indianapolis Belt Railroad in 1873. May 17 – George Muirson Totten, chief construction engineer for the Panama Railway. September 4 – Wilhelm Engerth, German steam locomotive designer. September 26 – John W. Garrett, president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1858–. Wendel Bollman, American designer of the Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge. Biography of John Work Garrett. Retrieved March 2, 2005. HistoryLink, This week in state and local history. Retrieved November 28, 2005. Erie Railroad presidents. Retrieved March 15, 2005. George Muirson Totten. Retrieved February 9, 2005 Morris, J. C. Ohio Railway Report. Retrieved July 19, 2005. Santa Fe Railroad, Along Your Way, Rand McNally, Illinois.

White, John H, Jr. America's Most Noteworthy Railroaders, Railroad History, 154, p. 9–15

Fontella Bass

Fontella Marie Bass was an American R&B and soul singer and songwriter best known for her number-one R&B hit "Rescue Me" in 1965. Fontella Bass was born in Missouri, she was the daughter of gospel singer Martha Bass, a member of the Clara Ward Singers, the older sister of R&B singer David Peaston. At an early age, Fontella showed great musical talent. At the age of five, she provided the piano accompaniment for her grandmother's singing at funeral services, she sang in her church's choir at six, by the time she was nine, she had accompanied her mother on tours throughout the South and Southwest America. Bass continued touring with her mother until age of sixteen; as a teenager, Bass was attracted by more secular music. She began singing R&B songs at local contests and fairs while attending Soldan High School from which she graduated in 1958. At 17, she started her professional career working at the Showboat Club near Chain of Rocks, Missouri. In 1961, she auditioned on a dare for the Leon Claxton carnival show and was hired to play piano and sing in the chorus for two weeks, making $175 per week for the two weeks it was in town.

She wanted to go on tour with Claxton but her mother refused and according to Bass "... she dragged me off the train". It was during this brief stint with Claxton that she was heard by vocalist Little Milton and his bandleader Oliver Sain who hired her to back Little Milton on piano for concerts and recording. Bass only played piano with the band, but one night Milton didn't show up on time so Sain asked her to sing and she was soon given her own featured vocal spot in the show. Milton and Sain split up and Bass went with Sain. With the support of Bob Lyons, the manager of St. Louis station KATZ, Bass recorded several songs released through Bobbin Records She was produced by Ike Turner when she recorded on his labels Prann and Sonja, her single. She saw no notable success with these singles, it was during this period she met and subsequently married the noted jazz trumpeter Lester Bowie. Two years she quit the Milton band and moved to Chicago after a dispute with Oliver Sain, she auditioned for Chess Records, who signed her as a recording artist to the subsidiary label Checker Records.

Her first works with the label were several duets with Bobby McClure, signed to the label. Released early in 1965, their recording "Don't Mess Up a Good Thing" found immediate success, reaching #5 on the Billboard R&B chart and peaking at #33 on the Hot 100; the song was covered by Ry Cooder and Chaka Khan on Cooder's album Bop'Til You Drop. Bass and McClure followed their early success with "You'll Miss Me" that summer, a song that had mild success, reaching the Top 30 on the R&B chart, although it made no significant impression on the pop chart. After a brief tour, Bass returned to the studio; the result was an original composition with an aggressive rhythm section. That year, Bass co-wrote and recorded the song "Rescue Me" which shot up the charts in the fall and winter of 1965. After a month-long run at the top of the R&B charts, the song reached #4 on the US pop charts and #11 in the UK, gave Chess its first million-selling single since Chuck Berry a decade earlier, it sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc.

Bass followed with "Recovery," which did moderately well, peaking at #13 and #37 in early 1966. The same year brought two more R&B hits, "I Can't Rest"" and "You'll Never Know." Her only album with Chess Records, The New Look, sold reasonably well, but Bass soon became disillusioned with Chess and decided to leave the label after only two years, in 1967. Bass claimed that, although the credited co-writers Carl Smith and Raynard Miner, record producer Billy Davis, had assured her that her contribution to co-writing the lyrics of "Rescue Me" would be acknowledged, this was never done. I had the first million seller for Chess since Chuck Berry about 10 years before. Things were riding high for them, but when it came time to collect my first royalty check, I looked at it, saw how little it was, tore it up and threw it back across the desk. Bass demanded artistic control; when the record came out and her name was still not on it she was told it would be on the legal documents, but this never happened.

She continued to agitate about the matter for a couple of years but recalled: "It side-stepped me in the business because I got a reputation of being a trouble maker."Tiring of the mainstream music scene and husband Lester Bowie left America and moved to Paris in 1969, where she recorded two albums with the Art Ensemble of ChicagoArt Ensemble of Chicago with Fontella Bass and Les Stances a Sophie. The latter was the soundtrack from the French movie of the same title. Bass's vocals, backed by the powerful, pulsating push of the band, have allowed the "Theme De YoYo" to remain an underground cult classic since, she appeared on Bowie's The Great Pretender and All the Magic. With the success of "Rescue Me" it was many years and much litigation before Bass would be credited with her share of the

Deborra-Lee Furness

Deborra-lee Furness is an Australian actress and producer. She is married to actor Hugh Jackman. Furness was born in Perth and raised in Melbourne, she studied acting at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City, where she graduated in either 1981 or 1982. She performed on the stage in New York and played Kathleen, the Australian wife of Cole Gioberti on the television series Falcon Crest before returning to Australia to continue her acting career. Furness rose to fame in 1988 when she starred in the movie Shame, for which she won Best Actor awards from the Film Critics Circle of Australia and Golden Space Needle. Other roles included an episode of The Flying Doctors. In 1993, Furness appeared as Chrissy in the television mini-series Stark starring Ben Elton and Jacqueline McKenzie. In 1995 she featured in the film Angel Baby directed by Michael Rymer and starring Jacqueline McKenzie and John Lynch; the film followed the story of two schizophrenics who met during therapy and fell passionately in love.

In 1995, she starred in the title role in the television series Correlli, where she met her future husband, Hugh Jackman. From 1995 to 1996, Furness starred in television series Fire alongside Andy Anderson and Wayne Pygram. Furness played the role of Dolores Kennedy. An adoptive mother of two, Furness is known for her work assisting orphans globally and streamlining international adoptions in her native Australia where she is a patron, one of the creators, of National Adoption Awareness Week, she has addressed the National Press Club of Australia on the subject of adoption laws in Australia. Furness is a patron of the Lighthouse Foundation for displaced children and International Adoption Families for Queensland, she is a World Vision ambassador and serves on the Advisory Committee for Film Aid International, working with refugees throughout the world. She is married to actor Hugh Jackman, they met on the set of Australian TV show Correlli in 1995. The ceremony took place on 11 April 1996 at St. John's in a suburb of Melbourne.

After suffering two miscarriages, she adopted two children with Jackman: a son born in 2000 and a daughter born in 2005. In 2014, Deborra-Lee Furness was named as the New South Wales Australian of the Year for her work in adoption campaigning. 1988 SIFF Award for the best actress in Seattle International Film Festival. 1988 Film Critics Circle of Australia Award for the best actress. 1991 Silver Shell for the best actress in San Sebastián International Film Festival. National Adoption Awareness Week World Wide Orphans Foundation Deborra-Lee Furness on IMDb

Highlander, Isle of Man

Highlander is situated between the 5th and 6th Milestone road-side markers on the Snaefell Mountain Course used for the Isle of Man TT races on the primary A1 Douglas to Peel road in the parish of Marown in the Isle of Man. The site of a former coaching station a restaurant and now a private residence, it is situated in the main Douglas to Peel central valley, where the River Dhoo and the former Douglas to Peel railway line run parallel to the A1 main road; the nearby area is farmland with summits of Greeba Mountain 1,385 feet, Cronk Breck 804 feet, Cronk-ny-Moghlane 620 feet and Slieau Ruy 1,572 feet nearby. The area is dominated by the nearby St. Trinian's Church built as a chantry in the 14th century for the Priory of Ninian of Whithorn from a previous 12th century building on the site; the chapel fell into disrepair by the 17th century and is associated with the many tales of'The Buggane of St. Trinian's' and the Highlander tailor who wagered that he could sew a coat sleeve in the haunted church.

The Highlander was part of the Four Inch Course used for the Tourist Trophy car races held in the Isle of Man between 1905 and 1922, was part of the course used for 1905 International Motorcycle Cup races. It is part of the Snaefell Mountain Course used since 1911 for the TT and from 1923 for the Manx Grand Prix races. A series of major safety revisions and alterations to the Snaefell Mountain Course occurred during the winter of 1953/54 in the Isle of Man; this included road widening and re-profiling by the Isle of Man Highway Board on the A1 road between Crosby and Greeba Castle. This included the Highlander area and its nearby jump, the road jump adjacent to the nearby Ballagarraghyn Cottages were removed for the 1954 Isle of Man TT Races. During the 1954 Senior TT motorcycle solo competitor Simon Sandys-Winsch, a Corporal with the RAF, crashed fatally at the Highlander when riding a 350 cc Velocette in heavy rain and poor road conditions