House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
James Edward Oglethorpe was a British soldier, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's worthy poor in the New World focusing on those in debtors' prisons. James Oglethorpe was born in Surrey, the son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe of Westbrook Place and his wife Eleanor Lady Oglethorpe, he entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford in 1714, but in the same year left to join the army of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Through the recommendation of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough he became aide-de-camp to the prince, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18 he served with distinction in the campaign against the Turks. After his return to England, he was elected Member of Parliament for Haslemere in 1722, he became a leading humanitarian, in 1728 he advocated reform of the terrible conditions experienced by sailors in the British Royal Navy by publishing an anonymous pamphlet,'The Sailors Advocate.' In 1728, three years before conceiving the Georgia colony, Oglethorpe chaired a Parliamentary committee on prison reform.
The committee documented horrendous abuses in three debtors' prisons. As a result of the committee's actions, many debtors were released from prison with no means of support. Oglethorpe viewed this as part of the larger problem of urbanisation, depleting the countryside of productive people and depositing them in cities London, where they became impoverished or resorted to criminal activity. To address this problem, Oglethorpe and a group of associates, many of whom served on the prison committee, petitioned in 1730 to form the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America; the petition was approved in 1732, the first ship, led by Oglethorpe, departed for the New World in November. Oglethorpe and the Trustees formulated a contractual, multi-tiered plan for the settlement of Georgia; the plan envisioned a system of "agrarian equality", designed to support and perpetuate an economy based on family farming, prevent social disintegration associated with unregulated urbanisation.
Land ownership was limited to fifty acres, a grant that included a town lot, a garden plot near town, a forty-five-acre farm. Self-supporting colonists were able to obtain larger grants, but such grants were structured in fifty-acre increments tied to the number of indentured servants supported by the grantee. Servants would receive a land grant of their own upon completing their term of service. No one was permitted to acquire additional land through inheritance. With Oglethorpe on that ship were cotton seeds provided by the Chelsea Medicinal Garden in London. Established by the Apothecaries' Company in 1673 for the cultivation and study of medicinal plants, the Garden's mission soon expanded to collect and study plants and trees from all over the world; the cotton seeds given to Oglethorpe were instrumental in establishing the cotton industry in the U. S. South; as discussed below, the plan for the colony was anti-slavery, emphasizing small family-owned farms. But economic pressures led to the lifting of the ban on slavery, as described below—and slavery was indispensable to the rise of large cotton-growing plantations throughout the Deep South.
Oglethorpe and the first colonists arrived at South Carolina on the ship Anne in late 1732, settled near the present site of Savannah, Georgia on 1 February 1733. He negotiated with the Yamacraw tribe for land, built a series of defensive forts, most notably Fort Frederica, of which substantial remains can still be visited, he returned to England and arranged to have slavery banned in Georgia after being moved by an intercepted letter from Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, a slave in Maryland. Oglethorpe and his fellow trustees were granted a royal charter for the Province of Georgia between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers on 9 June 1732. Georgia was a key contested area, it was Oglethorpe's idea that British debtors should be sent to Georgia. Although it is repeated that this would theoretically rid Britain of its so-called undesirable elements, in fact it was Britain's "worthy poor" whom Oglethorpe wanted in Georgia. Few debtors ended up in Georgia; the colonists included many Scots whose pioneering skills assisted the colony, many of Georgia's new settlers consisted of poor English tradesmen and artisans and religious refugees from Switzerland and Germany, as well as a number of Jewish refugees.
There were 150 Salzburger Protestants, expelled by edict from the Archbishopric of Salzburg in present-day Austria, established the settlement of Ebenezer near Savannah. The colony's charter provided for acceptance of all religions except Roman Catholicism; the ban on Roman Catholic settlers was based on the colony's proximity to the hostile settlements in Spanish Florida. On 21 February 1734, Oglethorpe established the first Masonic Lodge within the British Colony of Georgia. Now known as Solomon's Lodge No. 1, F. & A. M. it is the "Oldest Continuously Operating English Constituted Lodge of Freemasons in the Western Hemisphere". For a period in 1736, Oglethorpe's secretary was Charles Wesley well known as a hymnwriter of Met
A blimp, or non-rigid airship, is an airship or barrage balloon without an internal structural framework or a keel. Unlike semi-rigid and rigid airships, blimps rely on the pressure of the lifting gas inside the envelope and the strength of the envelope itself to maintain their shape. Since blimps keep their shape with internal overpressure the only solid parts are the passenger car and the tail fins. A non-rigid airship that uses heated air instead of a light gas as a lifting medium is called a hot-air airship. Volume changes of the lifting gas due to temperature changes or to changes of altitude are compensated for by pumping air into internal ballonets to maintain the overpressure. Without sufficient overpressure, the blimp loses its ability to be steered and is slowed due to increased drag and distortion; the propeller air stream can be used to inflate the ballonets and so the hull. In some models, such as the Skyship 600, differential ballonet inflation can provide a measure of pitch trim control.
The engines driving the propellers are directly attached to the gondola, in some models are steerable. Blimps are the most built airships because they are easy to build and easy to transport once deflated. However, because of their unstable hull, their size is limited. A blimp with too long a hull may kink in the middle when the overpressure is insufficient or when maneuvered too fast; this led to the development of rigid airships. Modern blimps are launched somewhat heavier in contrast to historic blimps; the missing lift is provided by lifting the nose and using engine power, or by angling the engine thrust. Some types use steerable propellers or ducted fans. Operating in a state heavier than air avoids the need to dump ballast at lift-off and avoids the need to lose costly helium lifting gas on landing; the origin of the word "blimp" has been the subject of some confusion. Ege notes two possible derivations: Colloquially always were referred to as'Blimps'. Over the years several explanations have been advanced about the origin of this word.
The most common is that in the military vernacular the Type B was referred to as'limp bag', abbreviated to'blimp'. An alternative explanation is that on 5 December 1915, Commander A. D. Cunningham, R. N. of the Capel-Le-Ferne Air Ship Station, flicked the envelope of the airship SS.12 with his fingers during an inspection, which produced a sound that he mimicked and pronounced as'blimp'. The onomatopoeic derivation, as the sound the airship makes when one taps the envelope with a finger, has been recorded in the British Aeronautical Journal. A 1943 etymology published in the New York Times supports the British origin during the First World War when the British were experimenting with lighter-than-air craft; the initial non-rigid aircraft was called the A-limp. Yet a third derivation is given by Barnes & James in Shorts Aircraft since 1900: In February 1915 the need for anti-submarine patrol airships became urgent, the Submarine Scout type was improvised by hanging an obsolete B. E.2c fuselage from a spare Willows envelope.
N. A. S. at Kingsnorth, on seeing the result for the first time, Horace Short noted for his apt and original vocabulary, named it "Blimp", adding, "What else would you call it?" Dr. A. D. Topping researched the origins of the word and concluded that the British had never had a "Type B, limp" designation, that Cunningham's coinage appeared to be the correct explanation; the Oxford English Dictionary notes its use in print in 1916 "Visited the Blimps..this afternoon at Capel." and in 1918 "an onomatopœic name invented by that genius for apposite nomenclature, the late Horace Short." The B-class blimps were patrol airships operated by the United States Navy during and shortly after World War I. The Navy learned a great deal from the DN-1 fiasco; the result was the successful B-type airships. Dr. Jerome Hunsaker was asked to develop a theory of airship design; this was followed by then-Lieutenant John H. Towers, USN, returning from Europe having inspected British designs, the U. S. Navy subsequently sought bids for 16 blimps from American manufacturers.
On 4 February 1917 the Secretary of the Navy directed that 16 nonrigid airships of Class B be procured. Goodyear built 9 envelopes, Goodrich built 5 and Curtiss built the gondolas for all of those 14 ships. Connecticut Aircraft contracted with U. S. Rubber for its two envelopes and with Pigeon Fraser for its gondolas; the Curtiss-built gondolas were powered by OX-5 engines. The Connecticut Aircraft blimps were powered by Hall-Scott engines. In 1930 a former German airship officer, Captain Anton Heinen, working in the US for the US Navy on its dirigible fleet, attempted to design and build a four place blimp called the "family air yacht" for private fliers which the inventor claimed would be priced below $10,000 and easier to fly than a fixed wing aircraft if placed in production, it was unsuccessful. In 2014, there were 13 active advertising airships in the world; the Airsign Airship Group is
Brunswick is a city in and the county seat of Glynn County, United States. As the major urban and economic center of the state's lower southeast, it is the second-largest urban area on the Georgia coast after Savannah and contains the Brunswick Old Town Historic District. British colonists settled the peninsula in 1738 as a buffer to Spanish Florida, it came under provincial control in 1771 and was founded as "Brunswick" after the German duchy of Brunswick–Lüneburg, the ancestral home of the House of Hanover. It was incorporated as a city in 1856. Throughout its history, Brunswick has served as an important port city: in World War II, it served as a strategic military location with an operational base for escort blimps and a shipbuilding facility for the U. S. Maritime Commission. Brunswick supports a progressive economy based on tourism and logistics, with a metropolitan GDP of $3.9 billion. The Port of Brunswick handles 10 percent of all U. S. roll-on/roll-off trade—third in the U. S. behind the ports of Los Angeles and Newark.
The headquarters of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center is located 5 miles north of the central business district of the city and is adjacent to Brunswick Golden Isles Airport, which provides commercial air service to the area. In the 2010 U. S. census, the population of the city proper was 15,383. Brunswick is located on a harbor of the Atlantic Ocean 40 mi north of Florida and 80 mi south of South Carolina. Brunswick is bordered on the west by Oglethorpe Bay, the East River, the Turtle River, it is bordered on the south by the Brunswick River and on the east by the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in the Mackay River, which separates it from the Golden Isles. The Mocama, a Timucua-speaking people occupied the lands in what is now Brunswick; the Spanish established missions in Timucuan villages beginning in 1568. During this time, much of the Native American population was depleted through enslavement and disease; when the Province of Carolina was founded in 1663, the British claimed all lands south to the 31st parallel north, but little colonization occurred south of the Altamaha River as the Spanish claimed this land.
Three years after the Province of Georgia was founded in 1733, James Oglethorpe had the town of Frederica built on St. Simons Island, challenging Spaniards who laid claim to the island; the Spanish were driven out of the province after British victories in the battles of Bloody Marsh and Gully Hole Creek in 1742. The area's first European settler, Mark Carr, arrived in 1738. Carr, a Scotsman, was a captain in Oglethorpe's Marine Boat Company. Upon landing, he established his 1,000-acre tobacco plantation, which he called "Plug Point", along the East and Brunswick rivers; the Province of Georgia purchased Carr's fields in 1771 and laid out the town of Brunswick in the grid plan akin to that of Savannah, with large, public squares at given intervals. The town was named for the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Germany, the ancestral home of George III and the House of Hanover. Brunswick was a rectangular tract of land consisting of 383.5 acres. The first lot was granted on June 30, 1772. However, about this time Brunswick lost most of its citizens, many of whom were Loyalists, to East Florida, the Caribbean Basin, the United Kingdom for protection during the American Revolutionary War.
From 1783 to 1788 a number of these lots were regranted and there collected in Brunswick a few families who desired proper education for their children. By the act of the General Assembly on February 1, 1788, eight town commissioners were appointed and Glynn Academy was chartered, the funding of, to come from the sales of town lots. Brunswick was recognized as an official port of entry in 1789 by an act of the United States Congress. In 1797 the General Assembly transferred the seat of Glynn County from Frederica to Brunswick. At the end of the eighteenth century, a large tract of land surrounding Brunswick on three sides had been laid off and designated as Commons. Commissioners were named in 1796 to support these efforts; the General Assembly authorized them to sell 500 acres of Commons, one-half of the proceeds to go to the construction of the courthouse and jail and one-half to the support of the academy. In 1819 the commissioners erected a suitable building for school purposes on the southeastern corner of Reynolds and L streets.
This was the first public building in Brunswick. It was abandoned four years but a new building was erected on Hillsborough Square in 1840 using Commons proceeds. A courthouse and jail were built around this time; the town was incorporated as a city on February 22, 1856. It was at this time that state representative Jacob Moore in conjunction with others conspired to control the Commons, any proceeds that might be had from sales. Moore managed to persuade the Georgia General Assembly to pass legislation giving him control over significant amounts of local real estate; this precipitated a period of strife, pitting the powerful interests, headed by Rep. Moore, against the common citizenry, it was into this turmoil that Carey Wentworth Styles appeared, in 1857, when he moved his family to Brunswick from Edgefield, South Carolina. Styles, an attorney, was attracted to the area by news of the civil strife; as one observer wrote, the citizens of Brunswick were in "need of a defender". Styles became embroiled in the dispute, siding with the citizenry.
He announced his i
Jekyll Island is located off the coast of the U. S. state of Georgia, in Glynn County. It is one of the Golden Isles of Georgia barrier islands; the island is run by a self-sustaining, self-governing body. Long used seasonally by indigenous peoples of the region, beginning in the colonial era, some of its lands became owned. A few structures still stand made of a coastal building material of crushed oyster shells; the island was developed in the late early 20th centuries. It was evacuated during World War II by order of the US government. In 1947 the state of Georgia acquired all the property, for preservation. A popular tourist destination, the island has beaches frequented by vacationers. Guided tours of the Landmark Historic District are available. Bike trails, walks along the beaches and sandbars, Summer Waves, a water park, are among the active attractions; the historic district features numerous impressive and ambitious buildings from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The island is full of wildlife, consisting of many different mammals and birds living and breeding in the island's inland salt marshes.
In 2018, Architectural Digest named Jekyll Island the 11th most beautiful small town in America. Jekyll Island is one of only four Georgia barrier islands that has a paved causeway to allow access from the mainland by car, it has 5,700 acres of land, including 4,400 acres of solid earth and a 200-acre Jekyll Island Club Historic District. The rest is tidal marshlands on the island's western shore; the island measures about 7 miles long by 1.5 miles wide, has 8 miles of wide, flat beaches on its east shore with sand packed hard enough for easy walking or biking, boasts 20 miles of hiking trails. Like the other Golden Isles, Jekyll is made of older Pleistocene land mass and smaller sections of younger Holocene land; the climate is humid subtropical, with rainfall concentrated in the hottest months. The north end of the island is the main area, affected by human development over the past few hundred years. Early settlers and the loggers who came afterwards developed plantations in this area, they used fallen trees for the construction of ships.
In the early 20th century, much of what was considered wilderness was developed into golf courses. A short winding road leads to one of the three picnic areas on the island. To the west is a vast marsh hammock and a view of the Sidney Lanier Bridge, a 480-foot -tall cable-stay bridge on Hwy 17. A large fishing pier extends northwest from the picnic area. To the east, a bridge crosses Clam Creek, in front of an inland marsh, to connect the picnic area to the North End Beach and Driftwood Beach; these beaches are characterized by another tidal creek emptying into St. Simons Sound and a boneyard of pine and water oak tree roots; the two-story house built from tabby in 1742 stands along N. Riverview Rd; the frame is intact, while the roof and windows are gone. Tabby was an indigenous material developed along the coast, formed from crushed oyster shells and water to make a kind of cement, it is featured in several historic sea island structures dating from the antebellum plantation era. The house was occupied by Major William Horton during the British colonial period.
He developed Georgia's first brewery. The remains of the house have been meticulously preserved over the past 100 years as an example of coastal Georgia building techniques. Across the street from the Horton House ruin is the du Bignon cemetery, established by the next family to own the house and much of the island for generations, its tabby wall surrounds the graves of five people. Just across the street from the entrance to the Clam Creek picnic area is the campground, an 18-acre facility in a cleared maritime forest; the campground has running water for restrooms and laundry, as well as a store and bike rentals. The southern end of the island was unused by settlers and visitors until the late 19th century, when the army installed a gun mount on the southern end during the Spanish–American War; the installation looked over St. Andrews Sound toward Little Cumberland. In the first half of the 20th century and motels were built by the Jekyll Island Authority along the northern beaches of the island.
The multiple parallel dunes on the southernmost tip are a result of sand from the eroding north beaches traveling southward and being deposited in a recurved spit. This picnic area on the ocean side of the island features plenty of picnic tables, a full bathroom with showers, a boardwalk to traverse the 20-foot -high dune ridge to the beach; the dune is needed to protect the wooded interior of the island from erosion due to storms. This area was repaired in 1983, with bulldozers pushing new primary dunes into place to correct the damage caused by 30 years of beachgoers trampling over the enormous dunes to the beach. Access to this beach is by way of a long boardwalk, it was built in the mid-1980s by the producers of the film Glory, filmed here, has been named for the film. The boardwalk repaired, can be accessed from the soccer complex at the south end of the Jekyll Island; the boardwalk passes through a variety of natural habitats, ranging from ancient dunes to freshwater sloughs. St. Andrews is a picnic area on the intercoastal side of the island, facing the mainland.
It is the farthest point on the beach from Clam Creek. This beach is popular with fishing birds. Dolphins
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Battle of Bloody Marsh
The Battle of Bloody Marsh was a battle that took place on July 7, 1742, between Spanish and British forces on St. Simons Island, part of the Province of Georgia, resulting in a victory for the British. Part of a much larger conflict, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the battle was for the British fortifications of Fort Frederica and Fort St. Simons, with the strategic goal the sea routes and inland waters they controlled. With the victory, the Province of Georgia established undisputed claim to the island, it is now part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The British won the Battle of Gully Hole Creek, which took place on the island the same day. James Oglethorpe led the colonization of Georgia for Great Britain, had chosen Savannah as the principal port for the new colony. In the 1730s, Spain and Great Britain were disputing control of the border between Georgia and La Florida, where the Spanish had several settlements and forts. Given a heightened threat of Spanish invasion, Oglethorpe sought to increase his southern defenses.
Accompanied by rangers and two Native American guides, Oglethorpe picked St. Simons Island as the site for a new town and fort. In 1734, Oglethorpe convinced the Parliament and the colonial trustees to pay for a military garrison at the fort; the trustees recruited a large group of colonists to settle St. Simons Island; the ships bearing the settlers and supplies arrived at Tybee Island early in 1736. From there, some went to the mainland while others traveled via periaguas to St. Simons Island to found Frederica; the town and its fort were built on the elbow of the Frederica River to control approaches from both directions. In 1737, Oglethorpe returned to England to acquire more funding and permission to raise a regiment of soldiers, he was appointed commander-in-chief of all British forces in the colonies of South Carolina and Georgia. Oglethorpe subsequently recruited a company of Scots from Inverness, to migrate with their families to settle at Darien on the mainland, at the mouth of the Altamaha River.
The men formed a military unit known locally as the Highland Independent Company. Official British records list it as Oglethorpe's Regiment of Foot, it was ranked as 42nd Regiment of Foot in 1747, disbanded 29 May 1749 in Georgia. Two forts had been constructed about five miles apart on St. Simons Island. Between the two ran a road the width of one wagon, named Military Road; this served to supply the garrison at Fort Frederica and settlers in the nearby village from Fort St. Simons; the battles took place after a Spanish invasion of the island. They were part of the larger conflict known as the War of Jenkins' Ear, it derived its name from an incident in 1731. A Spanish boarding party had gone aboard a British brig Rebecca, off the Florida coast, found that its captain Robert Jenkins was smuggling; the Spanish officer cut off one of Jenkins' ears for piracy. Parliament used the nearly forgotten incident to rally public opinion to their side in 1739, but the war was due to trade and territorial competition between Britain and Spain.
On October 30, 1739, Great Britain declared war on Spain. Spanish governor Don Manuel de Montiano commanded the invasion force, which by some estimates totaled between 4,500 and 5,000 men. Of that number 1,900 to 2,000 were ground assault troops. Oglethorpe's forces, consisting of regulars and native Indians, numbered fewer than 1,000; the garrison at Fort St. Simons resisted the invasion with cannonade, but could not prevent the landing. On the 5 July 1742, Montiano landed nearly 1,900 men from 36 ships near Gascoigne Bluff, close to the Frederica River. Faced with a superior force, Oglethorpe decided to withdraw from Fort St. Simons before the Spanish could mount an assault, he ordered the small garrison to spike the guns and slight the fort, to deny the Spanish full use of the military asset. The Spanish took over the remains of the fort the following day, establishing it as their base on the island. After landing troops and supplies, consolidating their position at Fort St. Simons, the Spanish began to reconnoiter beyond their perimeter.
They found the road between Fort St. Simons and Fort Frederica, but assumed the narrow track was just a farm road. On the 7 July the Spanish undertook a reconnaissance in force along the road with 115 men under the command of Captain Sebastian Sanchez. One and a half miles from Fort Frederica, Sanchez' column made contact with Oglethorpe's soldiers, under command of Noble Jones; the ensuing skirmish became known as the Battle of Gully Hole Creek. The British routed the Spanish, capturing nearly a third of their soldiers. Oglethorpe's forces advanced along Military Road toward Fort St. Simons in pursuit of the retreating Spanish; when Spanish prisoners revealed that a larger Spanish force was advancing from the opposite direction toward Frederica, Oglethorpe left to gather reinforcements. The British advance party, in pursuit of the defeated Spanish force, engaged in a skirmish fell back in face of advancing Spanish reinforcements; when the British reached a bend in the road, Lieutenants Southerland and Macoy ordered the column to stop.
They took cover in a semi-circle shaped area around a clearing behind trees and palmettos, waiting for the advancing Spanish having taken cover in the dense forest. They watched as the Spanish broke rank, stacked arms and, taking out their kettles, prepared to cook dinner; the Spanish thought they were protected because they had the marsh on one side of them and the forest on the other. The British forces opened fire from behind the cover of trees and bushes, catching the Spanish off-guard, they fired multiple volleys from behind