SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Glyph

In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing. Glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word or contribute to a specific meaning of what is written, with that meaning dependent on cultural and social usage. In most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet, the dot on a lower-case i is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still to be recognized correctly. However, in Turkish it is a glyph because that language has two distinct versions of the letter i, with and without a dot. In Japanese syllabaries, a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, but in general these separate marks are not glyphs because they have no meaning by themselves. However, in some cases, additional marks fulfill the role of diacritics, to differentiate distinct characters.

Such additional marks constitute glyphs. In general, a diacritic is a glyph if it is contiguous with the rest of the character like a cedilla in French, the ogonek in several languages, or the stroke on a Polish "Ł"; some characters such as "æ" in Icelandic and the "ß" in German may be regarded as glyphs. They were ligatures, but over time have become characters in their own right. However, a ligature such as "ſi", treated in some typefaces as a single unit, is arguably not a glyph as this is just a quirk of the typeface an allographic feature, includes more than one grapheme. In normal handwriting long words are written "joined up", without the pen leaving the paper, the form of each written letter will vary depending on which letters precede and follow it, but that does not make the whole word into a single glyph. Two or more glyphs which have the same significance, whether used interchangeably or chosen depending on context, are called allographs of each other; the term has been used in English since 1727, borrowed from glyphe, from the Greek γλυφή, glyphē, "carving," and the verb γλύφειν, glýphein, "to hollow out, carve".

The word hieroglyph has a longer history in English, dating from an early use in an English to Italian dictionary published by John Florio in 1598, referencing the complex and mysterious characters of the Egyptian alphabet. The word glyph first came to widespread European attention with the engravings and lithographs from Frederick Catherwood's drawings of undeciphered glyphs of the Maya civilization in the early 1840s. In graphonomics, the term glyph is used for a noncharacter, i.e. either a subcharacter or multicharacter pattern. Most typographic glyphs originate from the characters of a typeface. In a typeface each character corresponds to a single glyph, but there are exceptions, such as a font used for a language with a large alphabet or complex writing system, where one character may correspond to several glyphs, or several characters to one glyph. In archaeology, a glyph is a inscribed symbol, it may be part of a writing system such as a syllable, or a logogram. A glyph is "the specific shape, design, or representation of a character".

It is a particular graphical representation, in a particular typeface, of an element of written language, which could be a grapheme, or part of a grapheme, or sometimes several graphemes in combination. If there is more than one allograph of a unit of writing, the choice between them depends on context or on the preference of the author, they now have to be treated as separate glyphs, because mechanical arrangements have to be available to differentiate between them and to print whichever of them is required; the same is true in computing. In computing as well as typography, the term "character" refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems. In typography and computing, the range of graphemes is broader than in a written language in other ways too: a typographical font has to cope with a range of different languages each of which contribute their own graphemes, it may be required to print other symbols such as dingbats; the range of glyphs required increases correspondingly.

In summary, in typography and computing, a glyph is a graphical unit. Character encoding Complex text layout HTML decimal character rendering Letterform Palaeography, the study of ancient writing Punchcutting The dictionary definition of glyph at Wiktionary Media related to Glyphs at Wikimedia Commons

Bhutanese refugees

Bhutanese refugees are Lhotshampas, a group of Nepali language-speaking Bhutanese people. These refugees registered in refugee camps in eastern Nepal during the 1990s as Bhutanese citizens deported from Bhutan during the protest against Bhutanese state and monarch by some of the Lhotshampas demanding democracy and different state; as Nepal and Bhutan have yet to implement any agreement on repatriation, many Bhutanese refugees have since resettled to North America and Europe under the auspices of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Many Lhotshampa migrated to areas of West Bengal and Assam in India independently of the UNHCR; the earliest surviving records of Bhutan's history show that Tibetan influence existed from the 6th century. King Songtsen Gampo, who ruled Tibet from the years 627 to 649, was responsible for the construction of Bhutan's oldest surviving Buddhist temples, the Kyichu Lhakhang in Paro and the Jambay Lhakhang in Bumthang. Settlement in Bhutan by people of Tibetan origin happened by this time.

The first reports of people of Nepalese origin in Bhutan was around 1620, when Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal commissioned a few Newar craftsmen from the Kathmandu valley in Nepal to make a silver stupa to contain the ashes of his father Tempa Nima. Since people of Nepalese origin started to settle in uninhabited areas of southern Bhutan; the south soon became the country's main supplier of food. Bhutanese of Nepalese origin, were flourishing along with the economy of Bhutan. By 1930, according to British colonial officials, much of the south was under cultivation by a population of Nepali origin that amounted to some 60,000 people. Settlement in Bhutan of a large number of people from Nepal happened in the early 20th century; this settlement was encouraged by the Bhutan House in Kalimpong for the purpose of collecting taxes for the government. In the 1930s, the Bhutan House settled 5,000 families of Nepali workers in Tsirang alone. In the 1940s, the British Political Officer Sir Basil Gould was quoted as saying that when he warned Sir Raja Sonam Topgay Dorji of Bhutan House of the potential danger of allowing so many ethnic Nepalese to settle in southern Bhutan, he replied that "since they were not registered subjects they could be evicted whenever the need arose."

Furthermore, Lhotshampa were forbidden from settling north of the subtropical foothills. Expatriate Nepalese, who resettled in West Bengal and Assam after leaving Bhutan, formed the Bhutan State Congress in 1952 to represent the interests of other expatriates in India as well as the communities they had left behind. An effort to expand their operations into Bhutan with a satyagraha movement in 1954 failed in the face of the mobilization of Bhutan's militia and a lack of enthusiasm among those Nepalese in Bhutan, who did not want to risk their tenuous status; the Bhutanese government further diffused the Bhutan State Congress movement by granting concessions to the minority and allowing Nepalese representation in the National Assembly. The Bhutan State Congress continued to operate in exile until its decline and gradual disappearance in the early 1960s; the leaders in exile were permitted to return. Toward the end of the reign of the second King Jigme Wangchuck in the 1950s, the numbers of new immigrants had swelled causing tension between the King and the Dorji family in the Bhutan House.

Amnesty was given through the Citizenship Act of 1958 for all those who could prove their presence in Bhutan for at least 10 years prior to 1958. On the other hand, the government banned further immigration in 1958. From 1961 onward however, with Indian support, the government began planned developmental activities consisting of significant infrastructure development works. Uncomfortable with India's desire to bring in workers in large numbers from India, the government tried to prove its own capacity by insisting that the planned Thimphu-Phuntsholing highway be done with its own workforce; the government attempted to rein in immigration. While the project was a success, completing the 182-kilometer highway in just two years, the import of workers from India was inevitable. With most Bhutanese self-employed as farmers, Bhutan lacked a ready supply of workers willing to take up the major infrastructure projects; this led to the large-scale immigration of skilled and unskilled construction workers from India.

These people were of Nepali origin and settled in the south, as required, among legal and illegal residents alike. With the pressures of the developmental activities, this trend remained unchecked or inadequately checked for many years. Immigration check posts and immigration offices were in fact established for the first time only after 1990. By the 1980s, the government had become acutely conscious not just of widespread illegal immigration of people of Nepali origin into Bhutan, but of the total lack of integration of long-term immigrants into the political and cultural mainstream of the country. Most Lhotshampa remained culturally Nepalese. For its part, the government had ignored illegal settlement, but had encouraged intermarriage with cash payments as a means of assimilation. However, this was met with negligible success as far as actual assimilation. There was a perception of a Greater Nepal movement emerging from the Nepali-dominated areas in Nepal, Darjeeling and West Bengal which the Bhutanese feared as Nepali chauvinism.

Perceiving this growing dichotomy as a threat to national unity, the government promulgated directives in the 1980s that sought to preserve Bhutan's cultural identity as well as to formally embrace the citizens of other ethnic groups in a "One Nation, One People" policy. The government implied that the "c

Hiding Place (band)

Hiding Place were a rock band from East Kilbride, Scotland. The band comprised singer Paul McCallion, guitarists JayJay and Del Robertson Somerville, Doug Smith, with Pitchshifter drummer Jason Bowld joining in 2004; the band's debut release was the At One Time or Another EP in 2004. They toured in support of InMe and released " the Truth Looks Clearer Empty" that year, they toured with The Rasmus and opened for Metallica, "Cruel Kindness" followed in November 2004. McCallion and Bowles were part of the'supergroup' This Is Menace, along with members of Pitchshifter, Therapy?, Hundred Reasons, Funeral for a Friend and Carcass. Release date: 2004-03-22CD: "No Cure" "Slave Trade" "Fear And Loathing" "At One Time Or Another" Release date: 2004-06-28CD: " The Truth Looks Clearer Empty" "Unreal" "Dark Eyes And Red Tears" "..." Release date: 2004-11-087": "Cruel Kindness" " The Truth Looks Clearer Empty"CD: "Cruel Kindness" "Broken Bridges" "Don't Fear The Reaper" "Cruel Kindness" Release date:"Cruel Kindness" "The Ghost of You" "Reality" "Dark Eyes Red Tears" "Broken Bridges" "Dead Against You" "Illusion" "Unreal" "Revbrations" "Don't Fear the Reaper" "" The band's MySpace page