SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gmina

The gmina is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality. As of January 1, 2019, there were 2477 communes throughout the country, encompassing 940 cities and over 43,000 villages; the gmina has been the basic unit of territorial division in Poland since 1974, when it replaced the smaller gromada. There are three types of gminy: 302 urban gmina consisting of just one city or town, 638 mixed urban-rural gmina consisting of a town and surrounding villages and countryside; some rural gminy have their seat in a town, outside the gmina's division. For example, the rural Gmina Augustów is administered from the town of Augustów, but does not include the town, as Augustów is an urban type gmina in its own right; the legislative and controlling body of each gmina is the elected municipal council, or in a town: rada miasta. Executive power is held by the directly elected mayor of the municipality, called wójt in rural gminy, burmistrz in most urban and urban-rural gminy, or prezydent in towns with more than 400,000 inhabitants and some others which traditionally use the title.

A gmina may create auxiliary units. In rural areas these are called sołectwa, in towns they may be dzielnice or osiedla and in an urban-rural gmina, the town itself may be designated as an auxiliary unit; the only gmina, statutory obliged to have auxiliary units is Warsaw, divided since 2002 into 18 boroughs of a status similar to the urban gminas, although they are not considered as separate division units. For a complete listing of all the gminy in Poland, see List of Polish gminas. Three or more gminas make up a higher level unit called powiat; each and every powiat has the seat in a city or town, which can be an urban gmina or be a part of an urban-rural one. However, several urban gminas that are the major Polish cities and towns have the special status of urban powiats, as of 2020 there is 66 of them; such town or city is a separate single-gmina powiat and if it is the seat of a regular one, it does not belong to it administratively. In the urban powiats, the roles of the powiat organs are fulfilled by the ones of the urban gmina it is made of.

Each gmina carries out two types of tasks: commissioned ones. Own tasks are public tasks exercised by self-government, which serve to satisfy the needs of the community; the tasks can be twofold: compulsory – where the municipality cannot decline to carry out the tasks, must set up a budget to carry them out in order to provide the inhabitants with the basic public benefits optional – where the municipality can carry them out in accordance with available budgetary means, set out only to specific local needs. Own high objectives include matters such as spatial harmony, real estate management, environmental protection and nature conservation, water management, country roads, public streets, bridges and traffic systems, water supply systems and source, the sewage system, removal of urban waste, water treatment, maintenance of cleanliness and order, sanitary facilities and council waste, supply of electric and thermal energy and gas, public transport, health care, care homes, subsidised housing, public education, cultural facilities including public libraries and other cultural institutions, historic monuments conservation and protection, the sports facilities and tourism including recreational grounds and devices and covered markets, green spaces and public parks, communal graveyards, public order and safety and flood protection with equipment maintenance and storage, maintaining objects and devices of the public utility and administrative buildings, pro-family policy including social support for pregnant women and legal care and popularising the self-government initiatives and cooperation within the commune including with non-governmental organizations, interaction with regional communities from other countries, etc.

Commissioned tasks cover the remaining public tasks resulting from legitimate needs of the state, commissioned by central government for the units of local government to implement. The tasks are handed over on the basis of statutory by-laws and regulations, or by way of agreements between the self-government units and central-government administration. Abbreviations used for voivodeships:LS: Lower Silesian Voivodeship, KP: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, LBL: Lublin Voivodeship, LBS: Lubusz Voivodeship, ŁD: Łódź Voivodeship, LP: Lesser Poland Voivodeship, MS: Masovian Voivodeship, OP: Opole Voivodeship, SK: Subcarpathian Voivodeship, PD: Podlaskie Voivodeship, PM: Pomeranian Voivodeship, SL: Silesian Voivodeship, ŚWK: Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, WM: Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, GP: Greater Poland Voivodeship, WP: West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Official report from the Central Statistical Office of Poland dated January 1, 2006

History of Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha and has a history going back to the beginning of the 16th century. It was settled by men from military garrisons and ships, who married native women from Saint Helena and the Cape Colony, its people are multi-racial, descended from European male founders and mixed-race and African women founders. The uninhabited islands of Tristan da Cunha were first sighted in May 1506 during a voyage to India by the Portuguese admiral Tristão da Cunha, although rough seas prevented a landing, he named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha, anglicised to Tristan da Cunha Island. His discovery appeared on nautical maps from 1509 and on Mercator's world map of 1541; some sources state that the Portuguese made the first landing on Tristan in 1520, when the Lás Rafael captained by Ruy Vaz Pereira called for water. Though far west of the Cape of Good Hope, the islands were on the preferred route from Europe to the Indian Ocean in the 17th century.

The Dutch East India Company required their ships to follow this route, on 17 February 1643 the crew of the Heemstede, captained by Claes Gerritszoon Bierenbroodspot, made the first confirmed landing. The Heemstede replenished their supplies with fresh water, fish and penguins and left a wooden tablet with the inscription "Today, 17 February 1643, from the Dutch fluyt Heemstede, Claes Gerritsz Bierenbroodspot from Hoorn and Jan Coertsen van den Broec landed here.". Thereafter, the Dutch East India Company returned to the area four more times to explore whether the islands could function as a supply base for their ships; the first stop was in 5 September 1646 on a voyage to Batavia, Dutch East Indies, the second was an expedition by the galliot Nachtglas, which left from Cape Town on 22 November 1655. The crew of the Nachtglas noticed the tablet left by the Heemstede on 10 January 1656 near a watering place, they left a wooden tablet themselves as well, like they did on Nachtglas Eijland. The Nachtglas, commanded by Jan Jacobszoon van Amsterdam, examined Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island and made rough charts for the Dutch East India Company.

Dutch sailors stayed on the island for four weeks in 1658, made their last stop in April 1669, when their idea of utilizing the islands as a supply base was abandoned due to the absence of a safe harbour. In the 17th century ships were sent from Saint Helena by the English East India Company to Tristan to report on a proposed settlement there, but that project came to nothing; the first survey of the archipelago was made by the French corvette Heure du Berger in 1767. Soundings were taken and a rough survey of the coastline was made; the presence of water at the large waterfall of Big Watron and in a lake on the north coast were noted, the results of the survey were published by a Royal Navy hydrographer in 1781. A British naval officer who visited the group in 1760 gave his name to Nightingale Island. John Patten, the master of an English merchant ship, part of his crew lived on Tristan from August 1790 to April 1791, during which time they captured 3600 seals; the first known attempt to climb Queen Mary's Peak was in 1793 by the French naturalist Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars, but this was without success.

He did catalogue hundreds of plants from this expedition. During this time American whalers frequented the neighboring waters, in December 1810 an American named Jonathan Lambert "late of Salem and citizen thereof," along with an Italian named Thomas Currie and another named Williams, made Tristan their home, establishing the first permanent settlement on the island. Lambert declared himself sovereign and sole possessor of the group "grounding my right and claim on the rational and sure ground of absolute occupancy". Lambert's sovereignty was short lived, as he and Williams were drowned while out fishing in May 1812. Currie was joined, however, by two other men and they began to cultivate vegetables and oats, breed pigs. War having broken out in 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom, the islands were used as a base by American cruisers sent to prey on British merchant ships; this and other considerations urged by Lord Charles Somerset governor of Cape Colony, led the British government to authorize taking "possession" of the islands as dependencies of the Cape.

The formal proclamation of annexation was made on 14 August 1816. The British wanted to ensure that the French, their repeated enemies, would not be able to use the islands as a base for a rescue operation to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on Saint Helena. Attempts to colonize Inaccessible Island failed; the islands were occupied by a garrison of British Marines, a civilian population was built up. Whalers set up on the islands as a base for operations in the Southern Atlantic. In January 1817 the first successful climb was made to the peak of Queen Mary's Peak. A small garrison was maintained on Tristan until November 1817. At their own request William Glass, a Scottish corporal from Kelso in the Royal Artillery, was left behind with his wife, two children and, two masons, thus was begun the present settlement. From time to time additional settlers shipwrecked mariners decided to remain. In 1827 they persuaded five coloured women from Sa

Agualva-Cacém

Agualva-Cacém is a Portuguese city located in the municipality of Sintra. It comprises the civil parishes of Agualva, Cacém, Mira-Sintra, São Marcos, equivalent to 81,845 inhabitants of the municipalities population; the name Agualva-Cacém belonged to a civil parish that encompassed 10.51 km2 of the municipality of Sintra. On 12 July 2001, that parish was elevated to the status of city and divided into four civil parishes; the toponym "Agualva" is derived from the Latin "Aqua alba". Agualva-Cacém is divided into four civil parishes, which fall within a territorial extent within the Greater Lisbon subregion, an area of residential suburbs. With the Reorganização Administrativa do Território das Freguesias - Law Nº. 11-A/2013, 21st of January, 2013, the four parishes were merged in two unions of parishes: União das Freguesias de Agualva e Mira-Sintra and União das Freguesias do Cacém e S. Marcos; the train station exists since 1887. It was remodeled in 2013. Anta de Agualva Gruta do Colaride D. Domingos Jardo, Bishop of Lisbon Bebé, footballer playing for S.

L. Benfica. There are several football clubs in two futsal clubs.