Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. The state was founded by one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija; the Grand Duchy expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus' and other Slavic lands, including what is now Belarus and parts of Ukraine and Russia. At its greatest extent, in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe, it was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state, with great diversity in languages and cultural heritage. Consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century. Mindaugas, the first ruler of the Grand Duchy, was crowned as Catholic King of Lithuania in 1253; the pagan state was targeted in the religious crusade by the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. The multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state emerged only at the late reign of Gediminas and continued to expand under his son Algirdas.
Algirdas's successor Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo in 1386, bringing two major changes in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: conversion to Catholicism and establishment of a dynastic union between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The reign of Vytautas the Great marked both the greatest territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy and the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, it marked the rise of the Lithuanian nobility. After Vytautas's death, Lithuania's relationship with the Kingdom of Poland deteriorated. Lithuanian noblemen, including the Radvila family, attempted to break the personal union with Poland. However, unsuccessful wars with the Grand Duchy of Moscow forced the union to remain intact; the Union of Lublin of 1569 created a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the federation, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania maintained its political distinctiveness and had separate government, laws and treasury; the federation was terminated by the passing of the Constitution of 3 May 1791, when there was supposed to be now a single country, the Commonwealth of Poland, under one monarch and one parliament.
Shortly afterward, the unitary character of the state was confirmed by adopting the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. However, the newly-reformed Commonwealth was invaded by Russia in 1792 and partitioned between the neighbours, with a truncated state remaining only nominally independent. After the Kościuszko Uprising, the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria in 1795; the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania have the complete name of the state as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia. The title of "grand duchy" was applied to Lithuania from the 14th century onward. In other languages, the grand duchy is referred to as: Belarusian: Вялікае Княства Літоўскае German: Großfürstentum Litauen Estonian: Leedu Suurvürstiriik Latin: Magnus Ducatus Lituaniae Latvian: Lieitija or Lietuvas Lielkņaziste Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė Old literary Lithuanian: Didi Kunigystė Lietuvos Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie Russian: Великое княжество Литовское Ruthenian: Великое князство Литовское Ukrainian: Велике князiвство Литовське The first written reference to Lithuania is found in the Quedlinburg Chronicle, which dates from 1009.
In the 12th century, Slavic chronicles refer to Lithuania as one of the areas attacked by the Rus'. Pagan Lithuanians paid tribute to Polotsk, but they soon grew in strength and organized their own small-scale raids. At some point between 1180 and 1183 the situation began to change, the Lithuanians started to organize sustainable military raids on the Slavic provinces, raiding the Principality of Polotsk as well as Pskov, threatening Novgorod; the sudden spark of military raids marked consolidation of the Lithuanian lands in Aukštaitija. The Livonian Order and Teutonic Knights, crusading military orders, were established in Riga in 1202 and in Prussia in 1226; the Christian orders posed a significant threat to pagan Baltic tribes and further galvanized the formation of the state. The peace treaty with Galicia–Volhynia of 1219 provides evidence of cooperation between Lithuanians and Samogitians; this treaty lists 21 Lithuanian dukes, including five senior Lithuanian dukes from Aukštaitija and several dukes from Žemaitija.
Although they had battled in the past, the Lithuanians and the Žemaičiai now faced a common enemy. Živinbudas had the most authority and at least several dukes were from the same families. The formal acknowledgment of common interests and the establishment of a hierarchy among the signatories of the treaty foreshadowed the emergence of the state. Mindaugas, the duke of southern Lithuania, was among the five senior dukes mentioned in the treaty with Galicia–Volhynia; the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, reports that by the mid-1230s, Mindaugas had acquired supreme power in the whole of Lithuania. In 1236, the Samogitians, led by Vykintas, defeated the Livonian Order in the Battle of Saule; the Order was forced to become a branch of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, making Samogitia, a strip of land that separated Livonia from Prussia, the main target of both orders. The battle provided a break in the wars with the Knights, Lithuania exploited this situation, arranging attacks towards the Ruthenian provinces and annexing Navahrudak and Hrodna.
Belarusian historians consider that Mindаugas was invited to rule Navahrudak and that the union was peaceful. In 1248 a civil war broke out be
Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown
Lesser Poland Province was an administrative division of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1569 until 1793 and the biggest province of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The name of the province comes from historic land of Lesser Poland; the name of the province did not imply its size, but rather seniority. It had two administrative seats one Sudova Vyshnia for Ruthenian lands, another Nowe Miasto Korczyn for Polonian lands; the province consisted of one duchy. Polish historian Henryk Wisner in his 2002 book Rzeczpospolita Wazów. Czasy Zygmunta III i Władysława IV writes that it is not known when lands of the Polish Crown were divided into the two provinces: "Parallel to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, provinces existed, which should be called Sejm provinces, as they became visible during its sessions; these were Provinces of Lithuania, Greater Poland, Lesser Poland. First one covered the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the remaining two were artificially made, it is not known who and in what way created them.
We know that the Sejm was not involved in creation of these provinces". Zygmunt Gloger in his book Historical Geography of the Lands of Old Poland provides this description of the Province of Lesser Poland: “Lesser Poland proper was made of three voivodeships: those of Krakow and Lublin, plus the Duchy of Siewierz, purchased in the 15th century by Bishop of Krakow Zbigniew Olesnicki. Furthermore, to Lesser Poland belonged thirteen towns of Spiš, located behind the Carpathians. Altogether, Lesser Poland had the area of 1,046 sq. miles, 6 sq. miles less than Greater Poland. In the mid-16th century, the three voivodeships of Lesser Poland had 922 Roman-Catholic parishes, 205 towns and 5,500 villages. Following the 1569 Union of Lublin, the lands of Red Ruthenia, Volhynia and Ukraine were added to Royal domain, joining the Province of Lesser Poland; as a result, Lesser Poland consisted of three duchies and three lands. Bełz Voivodeship Bracław Voivodeship Czernihów Voivodeship Kijów Voivodeship Kraków Voivodeship, together with the Duchy of Oświęcim, Duchy of Zator, the thirteen towns of Spiš, Lublin Voivodeship, together with the Łuków Land, Podlaskie Voivodeship Podole Voivodeship Ruś Voivodeship, together with Chełm Land and Halych Land, Sandomierz Voivodeship Wołyń Voivodeship Duchy of Siewierz Prowincya Malopolska, description by Zygmunt Gloger
Podlaskie Voivodeship (1513–1795)
The Podlaskie Voivodeship was formed in 1513 by Sigismund I the Old as a voivodeship in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from a split off part of the Trakai Voivodeship. After Lithuania's union with the Kingdom of Poland in 1569 and formation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the voivodeship was transferred to the Polish Crown, where it belonged to the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown. In ca. 1274, the historical Podlasie region was added to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1391 the Polish King and Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila attempted to transfer the region to Duke Vytautas' brother-in-law, Janusz I of Warsaw, Duke of Masovia, but from 1413 on Podlaskie was managed as part of the Grand Duchy's Trakai Voivodeship. After the administrative reform of 1514, Podlaskie was isolated from Trakai Voivodeship as a separate voivodeship, with the capital at the town of Drohiczyn. King of Poland Sigismund gave a privilege to Iwan Sapieha to form a government of Podlaskie Voivodeship on 29 August 1513.
It consisted of following former Trakai lands Drohoczin, Mielnik and Brzesc. In 1566 based on Brzesc lands there was formed separate Brest Litovsk Voivodeship. In 1569, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund II Augustus transferred Podlaskie voivodeship, together with the Kiev and Braclaw Voivodeships to the Polish Crown. Podlaskie remained part of Poland until the Partitions of Poland. In 1795 it was divided between the Kingdom of Prussia and Russian Empire, but in 1807 its whole territory was annexed by Russia, where it remained in 1918. Zygmunt Gloger gives the following description of Podlasie Voivodeship: “Historic Podlasie stretched from north to south for some 30 miles, was located between Mazovia and Rus principalities of Brzesc and Grodno It was a sparsely populated province, covered by dense forests, with four major rivers: the Biebrza, the Narew, the Bug and the Krzna. Due to population growth in Mazovia and Rus, Podlasie became a settlement area - Mazovians settled near Tykocin and Goniadz, while Ruthenians settled near Bielsk Podlaski.
In northern districts of Podlasie, near Augustow, the Yotvingians resided After the 1241 Mongol invasion of Poland, Podlasie turned into a desert, with population decimated by Asiatic hordes. Poles did not return here until the late 13th century, despite the fact that the province was controlled by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania King Sigismund I the Old created Podlasie Voivodeship, part of Lithuania, but in 1569 was transferred to Poland, after the Union of Lublin After the third partition of Poland, most of the voivodeship was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia; when in 1815, Congress Poland was divided into new provinces, the Podlasie Voivodeship was re-created, but it covered only a small part of Podlasie itself, together with areas belonging to historic Mazovia and Lesser Poland. As a result, boundaries of Podlasie proper changed. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the voivodeship had two senators, who were the voivode and the castellan of Podlasie, it was divided into three lands, those of Drohiczyn and Mielnik.
Each land had its own regional government, elected two envoys to the Sejm. Furthermore, the voivodeship sent two deputies to the Lesser Poland Tribunal at Lublin or Radom”; the Voivodeship consisted of the following ziemias: Bielsk Land, Bielsk). Local sejmiks took place in Bielsk, where the szlachta elected two deputies of the Sejm, Drohiczyn Land, Drohiczyn). Local sejmiks took place in Drohiczyn, electing two deputies of parliament, Mielnik Land, Mielnik). Local sejmik took place in Mielnik; the emblem of the region is connected by two arms of Polish and Lithuanian – an eagle without a crown on a red field, Lithuanian knight. The governor of the Podlaskie Voivodeship was first located in Bielsk Podlaski, but moved to Drohiczyn. Voivodes included Iwan Sapieha 1513 – 1517 Janusz Kostewicz 1520 – 1527 Iwan Sapieha 1529 – 1541 Mikołaj Pac 1543 – 1551 Mikołaj Narbutt 1551 – 1555 Paweł Sapieha 1555 – 1558,also the Voivode of smoleński Bazyli Tyszkiewicz 1558 – 1569 the Voivode of smoleński Mikołaj Kiszka 1569 – 1587 Stanisław Radzymiński 1588 – 1591 Janusz Zasławski 1591 – 1604 the Voivode of wołyński Tomasz Gostomski 1605 – 1605 the Voivode of mazowiecki Jan Zbigniew Ossoliński 1605 – 1613 the Voivode of sandomierski Jan Wodyński 1613 – 1616 Stanisław Warszycki 1616 – 1617 Wojciech Niemira 1617 – 1625 Andrzej Chądzyński 1625 – 1631 Paweł Szczawiński 1633 – 1634 Stanisław Niemira 1634 – 1648 Paweł Warszycki 1649 – 1652 the Voivode of mazowiecki Prokop Leśniowolski 1652 – 1653 Jan Piotr Opaliński 1653 – 1661 the Voivode of kaliski Wojciech Emeryk Mleczko 1665 – 1673 Wacław Leszczyński 1673 – 1688 Marcin Oborski 1688 – 1698 Stefan Mikołaj Branicki 1699 – 1709 Stanisław Mateusz Rzewuski 1710 – 1728 the Voivode of bełski, hetman polny koronny Michał Józef Sapieha 1728 – 1738 Karol Józef Hiacynt Sedlnicki 1738 – 1745 podskarbi wielki koronny Michał Antoni Sapieha 1746 – 1752 podkanclerzy litewski Michał Józef Rzewuski 1752 – 1762 Bernard Stanisław Gozdzki 1762 – 1771 Antoni Miączy
Greater Poland known by its Polish name Wielkopolska, is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań; the boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. Since the Middle Ages, the proper or exact/strict Wielkopolska included the Poznań and Kalisz voivodeships. In the wider sense, it encompassed Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław voivodeships. One another meaning included Mazovia and Royal Prussia. After the Partitions of Poland, Greater Poland was identified with the Grand Duchy of Posen; the region in the proper sense coincides with the present-day Greater Poland Voivodeship. Because Greater Poland was the settlement area of the Polans and the core of the early Polish state, the region was at times called "Poland"; the more specific name is first recorded in the Latin form Polonia Maior in 1257, in Polish in 1449. Its original meaning was the Older Poland, as opposed to Lesser Poland, a region in south-eastern Poland with its capital at Kraków which became the main center of the state later.
Greater Poland comprises much of the area drained by the Warta River and its tributaries, including the Noteć River. The region is distinguished from Lesser Poland with the lowland landscape, from both Lesser Poland and Mazovia with its numerous lakes. In the strict meaning, it covers an area of about 33,000 square kilometres, has a population of 3.5 million. In the wider sense, it has 60,000 square kilometres, 7 million inhabitants; the region's main metropolis is Poznań, on the Warta. Other cities are Kalisz to the south-east, Konin to the east, Piła to the north, Ostrów Wielkopolski to the south-east, Gniezno to the north-east, Leszno to the south-west. An area of 75.84 square kilometres of forest and lakeland south of Poznań is designated the Wielkopolska National Park, established in 1957. The region contains part of Drawa National Park, several designated Landscape Parks. For example, the Rogalin Landscape Park is famous for about 2000 monumental oak trees growing on the flood plain of the river Warta, among numerous ox-bow lakes.
Greater Poland formed the heart of the 10th-century early Polish state, sometimes being called the "cradle of Poland". Poznań and Gniezno were early centres of royal power, but following devastation of the region by pagan rebellion in the 1030s, the invasion of Bretislaus I of Bohemia in 1038, the capital was moved by Casimir I the Restorer from Gniezno to Kraków. In the Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth, which initiated the period of fragmentation of Poland, the western part of Greater Poland was granted to Mieszko III the Old; the eastern part, with Gniezno and Kalisz, was part of the Duchy of Kraków, granted to Władysław II. However, for most of the period the two parts were under a single ruler, were known as the Duchy of Greater Poland; the region came under the control of Władysław I the Elbow-high in 1314, thus became part of the reunited Poland of which Władyslaw was crowned king in 1320. In the reunited kingdom, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the country came to be divided into administrative units called voivodeships.
In the case of the Greater Poland region these were Kalisz Voivodeship. The Commonwealth had larger subdivisions known as prowincja, one of, named Greater Poland. However, this prowincja covered a larger area than the Greater Poland region itself taking in Masovia and Royal Prussia. In 1768 a new Gniezno Voivodeship was formed out of the northern part of Kalisz Voivodeship; however more far-reaching changes would come with the Partitions of Poland. In the first partition, northern parts of Greater Poland along the Noteć were taken over by Prussia, becoming the Netze District. In the second partition the whole of Greater Poland was absorbed by Prussia, becoming part of the province of South Prussia, it remained so in spite of the first Greater Poland uprising, part of the unsuccessful Kościuszko Uprising directed chiefly against Russia. More successful was the Greater Poland Uprising of 1806, which led to the region's becoming part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw. However, following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Greater Poland was again partitioned, with the western part going to Prussia.
The eastern part joined the Russian-controlled Kingdom of Poland, where it formed the Kalisz Voivodeship until 1837 the Kalisz Governorate. Within the Prussian empire, western Greater Poland became the Grand Duchy of Posen, which theoretically held some autonomy. Following an unrealized uprising in 1846, the more substantial but still unsuccessful uprising of 1848, the Grand Duchy was replaced by the Province of Pos
The Bracław Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Created in 1566 as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it was passed to the Crown of Poland in 1569 following the Union of Lublin. After partitions of Poland in 1793 the voivodeship was taken by the Russian Empire and replaced with the Bratslav Viceroyalty. In 1648-57 the territory of voivodeship was a part of Cossack Hetmanate following the Khmelnytsky Uprising and Truce of Andrusovo, while in 1672-99 it became part of Ottoman Ukraine, a vassal Ottoman Empire. Together with the Podole Voivodeship it formed the historical province of Podolia and part of a bigger Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown; the capital of the voivodeship was in Braclaw, but local voivodes resided in Winnica. It was divided into County of County of Winnica; the County of Braclaw itself was divided into two districts—Braclaw and Zwinogrodek. In 1791, the Great Sejm created Boh County, but it was never created due to the Polish–Russian War of 1792.
Braclaw Voivodeship had the Castellan of Braclaw. It had six deputies to the Sejm—two from Braclaw County, two from Winnica County, two from District of Zwinogrodek. Local sejmiks took place in Winnica. Today the region belongs to Ukraine. Zygmunt Gloger in his monumental book Historical Geography of the Lands of Old Poland gives a detailed description of Braclaw Voivodeship: After the Union of Lublin, the province of Podolia was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland. Soon afterwards, Ukrainian Podolia, located lower than Podole Voivodeship, between the Dniestr and the Boh rivers, was turned into Braclaw Voivodeship, it had three castles at Braclaw and Zwinogrod In 1570, a special royal commission was created to mark the borders of the voivodeship. Its western boundary was marked by the Murachwa river, in the southeast, it was separated from Wallachia by the Dniestr; the commission marked northern border of the voivodeship along the Black Tatar Trail, to settle arguments between Braclaw and Kijow Voivodeships, King Stefan Batory in 1584 stated that boundary line was to be marked by the Uhorski Tykicz river In the late 16th century, most of Braclaw Voivodeship was a depopulated wild field.
Political and social life existed only in the agricultural belt, located in the immediate vicinity of royal castles. Settlers however began to move into the desert along southern border of the province, in the area called Pobereze After the Union of Lublin, when Ukrainian lands were annexed by the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, life became more organized, with Polish-style starostas, nobility and courts The County of Winnica was smaller, but more populated, it had the area of 200 sq. miles, along the Boh river. The County of Braclaw had the area of 420 sq. miles, consisted of two districts - Braclaw and Zwinogrod. The district of Zwinogrod covered the desert of the Blue Waters, but due to destruction of the Zwinogrod Castle, it did not emerge as a separate county In 1584, Stefan Batory divided this area between Braclaw and Kijow Voivodeship, along the Uhorski Tykicz river In 1569, first voivode of Braclaw was Prince Roman Sanguszko, while first castellan was Knyaz Jedrzej Kapusta. In 1589 Polish Sejm ordered that all official documents in Braclaw Voivodeship should be written in Old East Slavic language The voivodeship had two senators, six deputies to the Sejm, two deputies to the Lesser Poland Tribunal at Lublin.
Furthermore, like in neighbouring Podole Voivodeship, Braclaw had its own border judges, who cooperated with officials of the Ottoman Porte and the Crimean Khanate, solving conflicts between citizens of the two countries In 1598 the Sejm ordered that all courts and sejmiks be moved from Braclaw to Winnica. As a result, Winnica became to be regarded the capital of the voivodeship. Since in the 18th century the population of the region grew, in 1791 the Sejm created another county, called Boh County, increasing number of deputies from the voivodeship from six to eight. After the Partitions of Poland, Russian authorities created Braclaw Governorate, whose lands were divided between Podolia Governorate, Volhynian Governorate, Kiev Governorate According to the 1625 census, Braclaw Voivodeship had 285 villages, but its population grew so fast that in the early 1790s, the number of villages grew to 1,500 Before the Union of Lublin, there were some 30 castles and strongholds in the province. Fifty years after the union, the number of castles grew significantly.
Most of them were private, with the strongest one being Uman In the 18th century, the voivodeship had several grand residences of Polish magnates, among them was Zofiowka of the Potocki family, located in close proximity to Uman. Voivodeship Governor seat: Bracław Regional council for all Ruthenian lands Sądowa Wisznia Regional council seats: Winnica Bracław County, Bracław Winnica County, Winnica Zwinogrodek District or Zwinogrodek County, Boh County, created in 1791, Roman Sanguszko Aleksander Zasławski Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki Adam Kisiel Andrzej Potocki Stanisław Lubomirski Podole Voivodeship Kijów Voivodeship Jedysan
Kcynia is a town in Nakło County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, with 4,712 inhabitants. It has several churches. In 1913, the town had a population of 4,000, including 3,000 Roman Catholics, 800 Protestants, 200 Jews. In 1939, the Jewish synagogue was destroyed by the Germans. Bernadetta Blechacz, Polish Olympian javelin thrower Ismar Isidor Boas, German gastroenterologist Jan Czochralski, Polish chemist Otto Krümmel, German geographer Mieczysław Rakowski, Polish communist politician and Prime Minister