Xinhua News Agency
Xinhua News Agency or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China. Xinhua is the biggest and most influential media organization in China, as well as the largest news agency in the world in terms of correspondents worldwide. Xinhua is a ministry-level institution subordinate to the Chinese central government, is the highest ranking state media organ in the country alongside the People's Daily, its president is a member of the Central Committee of China's Communist Party. Xinhua operates more than 170 foreign bureaux worldwide, maintains 31 bureaux in China—one for each province, autonomous region and directly-administered municipality plus a military bureau. Xinhua is the sole channel for the distribution of important news related to the Communist Party and Chinese central government, its headquarters in Beijing are strategically located within close proximity to Zhongnanhai, which houses the headquarters of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the office of the President of the People's Republic of China.
Xinhua is a publisher as well as a news agency—it owns more than 20 newspapers and a dozen magazines, it publishes in several languages, besides Chinese, including English, Spanish, Russian, Arabic and Korean publishing in cyberspace. The predecessor to Xinhua was the Red China News Agency, founded in November 1931 as the Chinese Soviet Zone of Ruijin, Jiangxi province, it republished news from its rival Central News Agency for party and army officials. The agency got its name of Xinhua in November 1935, at the end of the Long March which relocated the Communists from Jiangxi to Shaanxi. By the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Xinhua's Reference News not only translated CNA news from the Kuomintang, but international news from agencies like TASS and Havas. Xinhua first started using letterpress printing in 1940. During the Pacific War the agency developed overseas broadcasting capabilities and established its first overseas branches, it began broadcasting to foreign countries in English from 1944.
In 1949, Xinhua followed a subscription model instead of its previous limited distribution model. In the direct aftermath of the Chinese Civil War, the agency represented the People's Republic of China in countries and territories with which it had no diplomatic representation, such as British Hong Kong. In 1956, Xinhua began reporting on other opinions critical of the party. In 1957, Xinhua switched from a journal format to a newspaper format; the agency was described by media scholars as the "eyes and tongue" of the Party, observing what is important for the masses and passing on the information. A former Xinhua director, Zheng Tao, noted that the agency was a bridge between the Party, the government and the people, communicating both the demands of the people and the policies of the Party. People's Daily, for example, uses Xinhua material for about a quarter of its stories. In 2018, the U. S. Justice Department ordered the state-run Xinhua to register as foreign agents to combat Chinese propaganda operations among other activities.
Xinhua delivers its news across the world in eight languages: Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Portuguese and Japanese, as well as news pictures and other kinds of news. It has made contracts to exchange news and news pictures with more than eighty foreign news agencies or political news departments. Xinhua is responsible for handling, in some cases, censoring reports from foreign media destined for release in China. By 2010, the agency had begun converging its news and electronic media coverage and increasing its English coverage through its wire service. Xinhua acquired commercial real estate on New York's Times Square and is developing its English-language reporting staff. Xinhua has started an English-language satellite news network; the Chinese media's internal publication system, in which certain journals are published for government and party officials, provides information and analysis which are not available to the public. The State values these internal reports because they contain much of China's most sensitive and high-quality investigative journalism.
Xinhua produces reports for the "internal" journals. Informed observers note that journalists like to write for the internal publications because they can write less polemical and more comprehensive stories without making the omissions of unwelcome details made in the media directed to the general public; the internal reports, written from a large number of countries consist of in-depth analyses of international situations and domestic attitudes towards regional issues and perceptions of China. The Chinese government's internal media publication system follows a strict hierarchical pattern designed to facilitate party control. A publication called Reference News—which includes translated articles from abroad as well as news and commentary by Xinhua reporters—is delivered by Xinhua personnel, rather than by the national mail system, to officials at the working level and above. A three-to-ten-page report called Internal Reference is distributed to officials at the ministerial level and higher.
One example was the first reports on the SARS outbreak by Xinhua which only government officials were allowed to see. The most classified Xinhua internal reports are issued to the top dozen or so party and government officials; the Xinhua headquarters is located in Beijing, strategically located within close proximity to Zhongnanhai, which houses the headquarters of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the office of the President of the People's Repub
Beijing central business district
The Beijing Central Business District, or Beijing CBD, is the primary area for finance and business services in Beijing, China. Beijing CBD occupies 3.99 km2 of the Chaoyang District on the east side of the city. Geographically situated to the east of the city center, sandwiched between the 3rd Ring Road and the 4th Ring Road, the Beijing CBD is undergoing large-scale development; as Beijing is becoming one of the most important international financial centers in China, Beijing CBD was positioned as the secondary core area in Beijing's International Financial Center Development strategic plan published in May, 2008. Beijing CBD is emerging as China's media center as Beijing Television Station just moved in its new headquarters in this area and the new CCTV Headquarters was opened on 15 June 2008 night. In the eight years since the government decided to speed up construction of the district, the Beijing CBD has attracted 117 Fortune 500 businesses in the financial, information technology and service industries.
More than 60 percent of overseas-funded companies in Beijing are in the CBD. A majority of foreign embassies in Beijing - the No 1, No 2 and No 3 embassy districts are now concentrated in the Beijing CBD and its neighboring areas; the Beijing CBD Administrative Committee, established in 2001, is in charge of planning and management and aims to facilitate investments and improve the work environment for professionals. The committee provides information to investors on laws and state policies as well as a one-stop service, which has simplified approval procedures and raised efficiency; the establishment of the Beijing CBD Chamber of Finance, the Beijing CBD Chamber of Media Industry and Beijing CBD Association of Property Management & Real Estate Development has facilitated communication and cooperation between the government and enterprises. The Beijing CBD International Business Festival and Beijing CBD International Forum have put the Beijing CBD on the map worldwide. China World Trade Center Tower III Beijing Yintai Centre Beijing TV Centre Fortune Plaza CMG Headquarters Jing Guang Centre China World Trade Center SK Tower Beijing China Zun Beijing Ritan High School Beijing Financial Street List of economic and technological development zones in Beijing
King & Wood Mallesons
King & Wood Mallesons is a multinational law firm headquartered in Hong Kong. Its predecessor firms included King & Wood, a member of the Red Circle of leading Chinese law firms, Mallesons Stephen Jaques, one of the Big Six leading Australian law firms, British-headquartered, "Silver Circle" law firm SJ Berwin. KWM is the first and only global law firm based in Asia and as of March 2015 was the largest law firm headquartered outside of the United States or European Union, it is the 6th largest firm in the world by number of lawyers and one of the top thirty by revenue, as at 2015. In 2016, BRW named the firm as Australia's best professional services firm and best law firm with revenue over $200 million. KWM alumni include judges of a number of courts, including the High Court of Australia, the Federal Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of New South Wales and Victoria, as well as a former Prime Minister, the President of the Australian Human Rights Commission, members of the Commonwealth Parliament.
King & Wood Mallesons formed on 1 March 2012 as a combination of Chinese firm King & Wood PRC Lawyers and Australian firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, following votes in November 2011. The firm uses a Swiss Verein structure, has four financially independent partnerships: Australia. Mallesons Stephen Jaques was considered one of, the most profitable of, the Big Six law firms in Australia; the "Mallesons" part of the firm's name comes from one of the Melbourne founding partners - Alfred Brooks Malleson. Malleson was born at Richmond Hill, on the Surrey side of the Thames in 1831; as a 25-year-old London solicitor, Malleson borrowed £10 from his uncle to go to Melbourne, in 1856. Malleson was a leading practitioner, his obituary in The Argus in 1892 recorded that his expertise was "in company law and in the banking business. Several of the associated banks entrusted their legal affairs to the firm, as well as a large number of leading insurance and other companies, so that Mr Malleson had always as much as he could do".
In 1858, the firm handled the legal work to establish The National Bank of Australasia, which remains one of the firm's key clients as the present-day National Australia Bank. The "Stephen" part of the firm's former name, Mallesons Stephen Jaques, comes from the Sydney founder - Montague Stephen, he was the second son of Sir Alfred Stephen, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales from 1844 to 1873. Montague Stephen founded the Sydney practice in 1849. One of his earliest clients was the "Australian Mutual Provident Society". Today AMP Limited remains one of the firm's key clients; the "Jaques" part of the firm's name comes from a second "Alfred" - Alfred Jaques. He became a partner of the Sydney firm in 1878. In 1888 the firm's name changed to Stephen Jaques & Stephen - the name which continued until the 1980s. In 1974, Stephen Jaques & Stephen merged with Davies Cater of Canberra; this firm had been established in 1926 - predating the opening of the Provisional Parliament House in Canberra.
Soon after, in 1976, the firm established its London office. In 1982, Stephen Jaques & Stephen merged with Stone James of Perth; the merged firm was called "Stephen Jaques Stone James". Stone James had been established in 1832 by a third "Alfred" - Alfred Stone, Western Australia's first solicitor; the merger reflected the growing importance of the vast mineral resources of Western Australia and its large offshore energy projects. In 1987, Stephen Jaques Stone James merged with Mallesons; the firm subsequently adopted the name of "Mallesons Stephen Jaques". At the time of the merger, Stephen Jaques Stone James - one of the leading Sydney based firms - had 79 partners and 251 solicitors and Mallesons - one of the leading Melbourne based firms - had 37 partners and 83 solicitors; the 1987 merger was driven by an assessment that Sydney, Australia's international business centre and largest city, Melbourne, the traditional home to many of Australia’s major corporations and financial institutions, had become one legal market.
This had happened as a result of advances in computer technologies. In addition, it was felt that the merger of the two firms - with their similar cultures and backgrounds, with many shared clients - would give the firm the necessary depth of legal talent, the level of technological and know-how support, to be able to assist key clients internationally, as well as in Australia; the merger enabled the firm to look after clients in Sydney, Melbourne and Canberra. In 1989, the firm opened an office in Brisbane. Mallesons Stephen Jacques established its Hong Kong office in 1989, Beijing office in 1993; the firm established an alliance with Posman Kua Aisi Lawyers of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea in 1995. In 2004 the firm strengthened its Beijing resources by taking on some lawyers and support staff from the former local office of Denton Wilde Sapte; that year Mallesons merged with the Hong Kong and Shanghai corporate boutique Kwok & Yih. The firm was named "Australian law firm of the year" by PLC Global, Who's Who Legal, IFLR Asian Awards, INSTO Distinction Awards, others, for many years.
King & Wood was among the first law firms established in the People’s Republic of China during the modern era. In 1993, King & Wood’s founding partners were still working with a state-sponsored organization, the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, when the central government permitted private ownership of law firms, allowing them to create the firm; the firm’s clients included
Hummer was a brand of trucks and SUVs, first marketed in 1992 when AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee. In 1998, General Motors purchased the brand name from AM General and marketed three vehicles: the original Hummer H1, based on the military Humvee, as well as the new H2 and H3 models that were based on smaller, civilian-market GM platforms. By 2008, Hummer's viability in the economic downturn was being questioned, it was placed under review by GM management. Rather than being transferred to the Motors Liquidation Company as part of the GM bankruptcy in 2009, the brand was retained by GM, in order to investigate its sale. In 2009, a Chinese manufacturer, Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company, announced that it would acquire Hummer, pending government approvals, but withdrew its bid. On February 24, 2010, Reuters reported that the Chinese ministry of commerce had prevented the deal, although a ministry spokesperson denied rejecting the application, stalled for eight months.
At the end of February, General Motors announced. Although the automaker announced two days that it had been approached with new offers, by April 2010, any sale became unlikely, as inventory was depleted and Hummer dealerships began shutting down. After filling a rental-car fleet order, the last Hummer H3 rolled off the line at Shreveport on May 24, 2010; the original maker of Hummer, AM General, lost their bid to build the HMMWV's replacement for the U. S. military in 2015. The original Hummers were designed by AM General Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of American Motors Corporation, were built at their Mishawaka assembly plant in Indiana; the Humvee replaced the military Jeeps that were produced by AMC until 1982. In 1979, the United States Army was seeking contractors for a new "High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle" which could follow the tracks and ruts of full size army trucks. At that time, General Dynamics and Chrysler Defense had HMMWV designs under development. Among the four competitors for the contract, AM General designed an new vehicle to meet the Army's requirements.
In less than one year, it was the first to deliver a prototype vehicle. Initial production versions were delivered to the Army's proving grounds in April 1982. After testing was completed AM General was awarded the contract to supply its HMMWV to the United States armed forces; the first models were built in a variety of military-based equipment and versions. The first contract was in 1983, worth US$1.2 billion to produce 55,000 "Humvees" by 1985. The first production vehicle was assembled by AM General on January 2, 1985; the contract was increased for an additional 15,000 units. AM General had planned to sell a civilian version of the Humvee as far back as the late 1980s. Having the same structure and most mechanical components, the civilian Hummers were finished in automotive gloss paint, adding passenger car enhancements such as air conditioning, sound insulation, upgraded upholstery, stereo systems, wood trim, convenience packages; the civilian model began in part because of the persistence of Arnold Schwarzenegger, who saw an Army convoy while filming a movie.
In 1992, AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee vehicle to the public under the brand name "Hummer". In December 1999, AM General sold the brand name to General Motors, but continued to manufacture the vehicles. GM was responsible for the distribution of all Hummers produced by AM General. Shortly thereafter, GM introduced two of its own design models, the H2 and H3, renamed the original vehicle H1. AM General continued to build the H1 until it was discontinued in 2006, was contracted by GM to produce the H2; the H3 was built in Shreveport, LA alongside the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon pickups, with which it shared the GMT-355 platform. Hummer dealership buildings featured an oversized half Quonset Hut style roof, themed to the Hummer brand's military origins. By 2006, the Hummer began to be exported and sold through importers and distributors in 33 countries. On October 10, 2006, GM began producing the Hummer H3 at its Port Elizabeth plant in South Africa for international markets.
The Hummers built there at first were only left-hand drive, but right-hand drive versions were added and exported to Australia and other markets. The H2 was assembled in Kaliningrad, Russia, by Avtotor, starting in 2006 and ending in 2009; the plant produced a few hundred vehicles annually, its output was limited to local consumption with five dealers in Russia. On June 3, 2008, one day prior to GM's annual shareholder meeting, Rick Wagoner, GM's CEO at that time, said the brand was being reviewed, had the possibility of either being sold, having the production line redesigned, or being discontinued; this was due to the decreasing demand for large SUVs as a result of higher oil prices. After the announcement, a pair of Indian automakers, including Mahindra & Mahindra, expressed interest in purchasing all or part of Hummer. In April 2009, GM President Fritz Henderson stated several interested parties had approached GM regarding the Hummer business. On June 1, 2009, as a part of the General Motors bankruptcy announcement, the company revealed that the Hummer brand would be discontinued.
However, the following day GM announced that instead it had reached a deal to sell the brand to an undisclosed buyer. After GM announced that same day that the sale was to an undisclosed Chinese company, CNN and the New York Times identified the buyer of the Hummer truck unit as China-based Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company Ltd; that day, Sichuan Tengzhong itself announced the deal on their own we
Government of China
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs: the legislative branch, the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee the presidency, including the President and the Vice-President the executive branch, the State Council, whose Premier is the head of government the military branch, the People's Liberation Army and the People's Armed Police, via the Central Military Commission, whose Chairman is the Commander-in-chief the supervisory branch, the National Supervisory Commission the judicial branch, the Supreme People's Court the prosecutorial branch, the Supreme People's Procuratorate The legal power of the Communist Party is guaranteed by the PRC Constitution and its position as the supreme political authority in the PRC is realised through its comprehensive control of the state and media. According to a prominent government spokesman:We will never copy the system of Western countries or introduce a system of multiple parties holding office in rotation.
The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress, the President, the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of Vice Premiers, five State Councilors, 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate party and state functions, with the party deciding general policy and the state carrying it out; the attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are the leaders of the party. This dual structure thereby creates a single centralized focus of power. At the same time there has been a move to separate party and state offices at levels other than the central government, it is not unheard of for a sub-national executive to be party secretary. This causes conflict between the chief executive and the party secretary, this conflict is seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful; some special cases are the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau where the Mainland Chinese national laws do not apply at all and the autonomous regions where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is a member of the local ethnic group while the party general secretary is non-local and Han Chinese.
Under the Constitution of China, the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about two weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, the budget, major personnel changes. Most national legislation in the PRC is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee. Although the NPC approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, the NPC and its standing committee has asserted its role as the national legislature and has been able to force revisions in some laws. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a fuel tax to finance the construction of expressways; the Politburo Standing Committee, is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. It has been composed of five to nine members, has seven members.
Its mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the party's Constitution, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee; the membership of the PSC is ranked in protocol sequence. The general secretary has been ranked first. Since the 1990s, the general secretary, chairman of the National People's Congress, the chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party's top anti-graft body, the first-ranked secretary of the secretariat have also been members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Power is concentrated in the Paramount leader Xi Jinping, who heads the four most important political and state offices: He is General Secretary of the Communist Party, general secretary of the Central Committee, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, President of the PRC.
Experts have observed growing limitations to the Paramount leader's de facto control over the government. The Constitution was first created on September 20, 1954. Before that an interim constitution-like document created by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was in force; the second promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, contained Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, the Presidency was gone; the 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution. The current constitution is the PRC's fourth promulgation. On December 4, 1982, it has served as a stable constitution for 30 years; the roles of the presidency and the courts were normalized, under the constitution, all citizens were equal. Amendments in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2018 recognized private property, safeguarded human righ
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti