Four go houses
In the history of go in Japan, the four go houses were four major schools of go instituted and controlled by the state, at the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate. At the same time shogi was organised into three houses. Here "house" implies institution run on the recognised lines of the iemoto system common in all Japanese traditional arts. In particular the house head had, in three of the four cases, a name handed down: Inoue Inseki, Yasui Senkaku, Hayashi Monnyu. References to these names therefore mean to the contemporary head of house; the four houses were the Honinbo, Hayashi and Yasui. They were designed to be on a par with each other, competed in the official castle games called oshirogo; the first of the four houses was the house Honinbo, founded by Honinbo Sansa. Honinbo Sansa was a Buddhist monk, had been appointed Godokoro by Tokugawa Ieyasu after the unification of Japan in 1603, they were nominally Buddhist institutions, with the Honinbo and Hayashi aligned with the Nichiren sect, the Inoue and Yasui with the Jodo Shu.
All players were therefore male. Some outward forms only persisted of that connection, with the oshirogo games being played in Buddhist dress and with shaven heads. After Honinbo Doetsu made a representation that long sleeves were troublesome for the players, a dispensation for shorter sleeves was allowed to them. At least in theory, matters on succession in the houses was subject to the authority of the jisha bugyo, an official regulating religious establishments. Nominations as heir within the iemoto system of the best disciple, who might not be a natural son but in effect adopted, were supposed to be made official. Deaths at an early age affected the Honinbo house, irregular succession could occur with potential for scandal; the official posts of Meijin and godokoro were awarded, somewhat sporadically, brought great prestige to the house. In practice backstairs intrigue was brought to bear on the appointments. More creditably, since the Meijin title could only be awarded to the undisputed master player of the time, there were occasions when it was withheld from two candidates whose merit was close.
The mode of teaching, by apprenticeship, brought a high level of play. Esoteric teaching was normal, with collections of difficult tsumego being compiled, one of which, the Igo Hatsuyōron, is still used for professional training. Prepared variations were used in top games. Go secrets were state secrets, in effect. After a while the Honinbo house emerged as most prestigious, the Hayashi house ran into difficulties being taken over by the Honinbo; the Meiji Restoration threw the system into disarray, but three houses survived some hard times to 1900. Honinbo Shusai arranged that the Honinbo title should become a tournament of the Nihon Kiin after his death; the Yasui house died out.
History of Go
The game of Go originated in China in ancient times. It was considered one of the four essential arts of a cultured Chinese scholar in antiquity and is described as a worthy pastime for a gentleman in the Analects of Confucius, it reached Korea in the 7th century it had reached Japan. The game was described by Thomas Hyde in 1694, but it did not become popular in the West until the late 19th century. According to legend, the game was created as a teaching tool after the ancient Chinese Emperor Yao 堯 designed it for his son, Danzhu 丹朱, to learn discipline and balance. Another suggested genesis for the game is that Chinese warlords and generals used pieces of stone to map attacking positions. Other plausible theories relate Go equipment to flood control. Go's early history is debated, but there are myths about its existence, one of which assuming that Go was an ancient fortune telling device used by Chinese astrologers to simulate the universe's relationship to an individual; the earliest written reference of the game is taken to be the historical annal Zuo Zhuan, referring to a historical event of 548 BC.
It is mentioned in Book XVII of the Analects of Confucius and in two of the books of Mencius. In all of these works, the game is referred to as yì. In ancient China, Go was seen as the refined pastime of the scholars, while xiangqi was the game of the masses. Go was one of the four cultivated arts of the Chinese scholar gentleman, along with calligraphy and playing the musical instrument guqin, examinations of skill in those arts was used to qualify candidates for service in the bureaucracy. Chinese archaeologists have discovered a broken piece of a pottery go board from the Western Han Dynasty in Shaanxi Province; this is the earliest discovery of an existing board unearthed in China. The board was found in the ruins of a watchtower at the tombs of Emperor Jingdi and Empress Wang Zhi of the Western Han Dynasty; the broken fragment of the board measures 5.7 cm to 28.5 cm long, 17 cm to 19.7 cm wide and 3.6 cm thick. Li Gang, a research fellow with the Shaanxi Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, said that this board might have been made from a floor tile, that it did not belong to the royal family since the carvings are too rough.
Li said. "That proves that go was being played not only by nobles, but by ordinary people like tomb guards, more than 2,000 years ago", Li noted. In 1954 a complete Go board made out of stone was found in a tomb dating to the Eastern Han dynasty in Wangdu County, Hebei Province; this board has a 17 × 17 grid, which confirms the statement by the 3rd century author Handan Chun in the Classic of Arts that Go was at this time played on a 17 × 17 grid: The go board has 17 lines along its length and breadth, making 289 points in all. The black and white stones each number 150; the earliest board with a 19 × 19 grid to have been found is a ceramic board dating to the Sui dynasty, excavated from Anyang in Henan Province, so sometime between the 3rd and 6th centuries a change in grid size must have taken place. However, the 17 × 17 board has survived in the version of Go played in Tibet. Go is believed to have been introduced to Japan by Kibi Makibi who had studied in Tang China at the beginning of the 8th century.
But the Taihō Code, enacted in 701, has a description of Go and therefore the game may have been introduced a little earlier. After it was introduced from China, Go came to be played during the Nara period, during the following Heian period Go was a favourite aristocratic pastime, as is described in typical literary works of this period such as The Pillow Book and The Tale of Genji. During the Muromachi period, potentates employed semi-professional Go players, called Go-uchi or Jouzu who competed against other clans. At the end of the 16th century, Nikkai served Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu as a Go teacher, in 1578 was recognized as the first Meijin of Go by Oda Nobunaga. In 1612, at the beginning of the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate established Four hereditary "houses" to teach the game of Go: Hon'inbō, Hayashi and Yasui; these four houses competed with each other throughout the 300 years of the Edo period. The wave of Westernization and modernization accompanying the Meiji Restoration in 1868 caused the dissolution of the official iemoto Go system and a wane in general popularity for the game.
In the wake of this upheaval, the Hon'inbō title was transformed into a tournament title. Despite its widespread popularity in East Asia, Go has been slow to spread to the rest of the world, unlike other games of ancient Asian origin, such as chess. Schadler speculates that chess has more widespread appeal because culturally congruent game pieces can be created in chess, while Go is abstract. There is no climactic ending in Go. New players have trouble figuring out when a game of Go is over. Other theories center around the existence of fundamental differences in the level and type of thinking required by Go players as opposed to chess players. While pure analytical thought and the ability to plan many moves in advance are advantageous in chess, in Go a more intuitive approach based on pattern recognition and experience is stressed. A purely analytical approach, due to the sheer
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems; some wiki engines are open source. Some permit control over different functions. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content; the online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, is one of the most viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007.
Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work". "Wiki" is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered'fit', which results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page." Some wikis have an Edit button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode.
An example of this is the VisualEditor on Wikipedia. WYSIWYG controls do not, always provide
Go equipment consists of the objects that are necessary in order to play the game of Go which originated in China. Although the equipment is simple, there is a varying degree of quality and material used in making the equipment, from the economical to the valuable; the oldest known surviving Go equipment is a board carved from rock that dates from the Han Dynasty in China. Other examples of ancient equipment can be found in museums in Korea; the Go board, called the goban 碁盤 in Japanese, is the playing surface on. The standard board is marked with a 19×19 grid. Smaller boards include a 13×13 grid and a 9×9 grid used for shorter games that are used to teach beginners; some 19×19 boards have a 13×13 grid on the reverse side. 17×17 was used in historical times. Chinese boards are square. In Asian go parlors, the tables are lower than the typical game table so that the players can see the positions of the stones. Traditional Japanese goban follow the dimensions: Go boards fall into several types or styles.
Economical boards comprise paper, plastic, or laminate, which can be folded away and stored. They are used by beginners or for when one does not have a proper set available. A board can be hand-drawn on a stiff piece of cardboard for the super-economical. Boards that comprise fabric, paper, or plastic may be rolled into a tube and carried along with stones to make a portable set; some materials hold onto the warp though and need to be weighted at the corners to make the board usable when unrolled. Magnetic sets are available, which comprise metal boards and stones that include magnets, they are useful for traveling. Large magnetic boards are available for demonstration purposes, during lectures and other presentations. Wooden boards, one to two inches thick, are used, they are known as "table boards" because they are placed on tables The wood grain is pleasing to the eye, the stones make a nice sound when placed on the board. Portable boards can be made with slots; some have grids on the reverse.
Boards have been made from every type of wood, which includes particle board with or without veneer. Wood, such as spruce or katsura 桂, that has a light color with a fine grain that does not compete with the grid lines is considered most suitable; the most valued boards are made from kaya, a mellow yellow. Available are bamboo boards; the tensile strength of bamboo is comparable to that of steel making it durable but heavier than other wooden boards of the same size. A wooden floor board with legs is the most traditional and expensive of all boards. To play on these boards, the Japanese would sit on tatami mats; the legs are carved to resemble gardenias. These boards are still used for important tournament games in Asia. Chinese versions of floor boards are not always made from blocks of wood, more resemble a small table with an inlaid go board; the legs raise the board to the correct height. The board can range from 14–21 cm high; the thickest boards are the most elegant. The undersides have a square recesses to prevent warping and to amplify the sounds of the stones hitting the surface.
The best boards are made from Miyazaki kaya, rare. These are classified according to the quality of the wood grain. Itame refers to a irregular grain. Masame boards are further classified as tenmasa, most-prized tenchimasa Prices of kaya boards range from US$1,000 to $20,000 plus. Boards made of other woods, such as Alaskan spruce, Agathis, or katsura are cheaper, around $500 to $2,000. Maintaining wooden boards requires that they be properly stored in a humidity and temperature controlled environment to prevent discoloration, cracking, woodworm and other serious wear. Prolonged exposure to sunlight can bleach the board. Boards transported between climates with differing humidity levels may be subjected to warping or cracking due to changing moisture content in the wood. Go stones, or go-ishi 碁石,棋子, are round objects placed on the board, they are colored either black or white, for each player, number 181 for black and 180 for white. There are two styles or shapes of stones depending on where a player obtains them from: The Japanese and Korean style, lens shaped.
This is the most popular style. The Chinese style, called yunzi 雲子,云子, or'cloud' abbreviation for "Yunnan pebble", because they are flat underneath and convex on top; this style is less common outside of China. Flat bottom stones can be useful for post-game analysis. However, they are harder to pick up. Yunzi is available in double convex shape; the material varies. Some stones are made out of plastic, porcelain or marble, but the traditional Japanese and Korean stones are made out of slate for black and clamshell for white. Chinese style stones can be made of glass; the exact method of creation is a well-kept secret and was in fact lost for a time in the early 20th century due to instability within the country. Stone thickness can vary
In go and shōgi, a jōseki or jouseki is the studied sequences of moves for which the result is considered balanced for both black and white sides. In go, because games start with plays in the corners, go jōsekis are about corner play as the players try to gain local advantages there in order to obtain a better overall position. Though less common, there are jōsekis for the middle game. In Japanese, jō means "fixed" or "set" and seki means stones, giving the literal meaning "set stones", as in "set pattern". In Chinese, the term for joseki is dìngshì; the concept of "balance", here refers to an equitable trade-off between securing territory in the corner versus making good thickness toward the sides and the center. In application, these concepts are dynamic, deviations from a jōseki depend upon the needs of the situation and the available opportunities. While learning jōseki is a tool to defend against a local loss, players always seek to take advantage of weaknesses in the opponent's shapes deviating from the jōseki.
Jōsekis comprise patterns that have gained acceptance in professional games. Hence, the basic definition may be misleading for new players in that a jōseki can be misconstrued as foolproof and unalterable and as optimal for all situations. Many jōsekis are in fact useful only for study within an artificially confined corner, in real play are only considered good form when used in proper combination with other plays on the board. Knowing a particular jōseki means that one knows a sequence of moves, resulting in a balance or fair trade-off between black and white positions; this is in practice much easier than appraising how jōsekis relate to the rest of the board – hence, knowledge of jōseki is regarded as shallow, when compared with the ability to integrate a strategy into a complex game landscape. One go proverb states that "learning jōsekis loses two stones in strength," which means that the rote learning of sequences is not advantageous. Hence, the study of jōsekis is regarded as a double-edged sword and useful only if learned by understanding the principles behind each move, instead of by rote.
Every jōseki should be used as a specific tool. Just as using an improper tool in machinery can be devastating, choosing the wrong jōseki can be worse than improvising one's own moves. In his book A Way of Play for the 21st Century, Go Seigen compared choosing the proper jōseki to choosing the proper medicine: "Pick the right one, you feel better. Pick the wrong one, you die." Rui Naiwei remarked that "playing josekis is easy choosing the right one is hard." A jōseki may fall out of use for various reasons, some of which may seem minor to the amateur player. There is no definitive guide to. Corner jōsekis conventionally start with one player occupying a corner point, in an empty 19×19 area of the board, the other player replying with an approach move; the initial play in the corner is always on a 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 4-4 or 4-5 point. Other plays that have been experimented with include 5-5, 6-3 and 6-4, all of which sacrifice territory for influence. Of those plays, the classical 3-4 point and more contemporary 4-4 point are the most used.
The standard approaches are at 5-3 or 5-4 to the 3-4 point, at 3-6/6-3 to the 4-4 point. The number of subsequent variations is quite large. Useful is the tenuki concept of breaking away from a sequence, to play elsewhere, before the'official' endpoint of the jōseki. After a jōseki sequence has ended, a play returning to the same area may be termed a follow-up play. There is no formal theory for these, it is imperative that players should not play a jōseki from rote memorization but adapt according to the overall board situation. It is important to keep in mind that go is a game involving marginal analysis and jōsekis are heuristics of sound play. Playing jōsekis blindly will not improve one's game. Go opening theory Fuseki Avalanche joseki Taisha joseki Shogi opening Joseki sequences at Sensei's Library
Within most systems and at most levels in the game of Go, a handicap is given to offset the strength difference between players of different ranks. In the game of Go, a handicap is given by means of stones and compensation points. In contrast to an game, in which Black plays first, White plays the first move in a game with handicap; the rank difference within a given amateur ranking system is one guide to how many handicap stones should be given to make the game a more equal contest. As a general rule, each rank represents the value of one stone. For example, a 3 kyu player gives a 7 kyu player four handicap stones to allow for an interesting game with equal challenge for both players. If traditional fixed placement of the handicap stones is used, nine stones is the maximum handicap. Larger handicaps are possible; the above rank relationship reliably applies for single-digit kyu and amateur dan ranks. The advantage of moving first is equivalent to only half a stone of handicap, as the opponent has the initiative.
Because White gets the next move after Black places the handicap stones, a nominal handicap of n stones is therefore in reality half a stone less than n. Nowadays professional ranks are awarded by professional Go players' organizations. Before the late 20th century, they were used as strength measurement, with a difference in skill of less than a third of a stone per rank. Small boards are used for novice players just learning to play Go, or for quick games; as the fewer moves made when playing on smaller boards gives White fewer chances to overcome the advantage conferred by the handicap, smaller handicaps are used on smaller go boards. The per-rank handicap is therefore reduced, by a scaling factor. Various estimates have been given for the factor that applies to 13×13, in the range 2.5 up to 4. The evidence is; the corresponding factor for a 9×9 board is not easy to understand, the change for each stone added is large. One theoretical approach is according to the distribution of the number of moves made in a game on a board of a given size relative to the number made on a 19×19 board.
Using estimates that a 19×19 game will last about 250-300 moves, a 13×13 game about 95-120 moves, a 9×9 game about 40-50 moves, a quadratic formula for the ratio of the mean number of plays may apply. Arguing that White catches up by means of Black's'small errors', so that White's deficit drifts at a constant rate, it makes sense to take the ratio of game lengths as scaling factor; each full stone of handicap on a 13×13 board is in any case equivalent to about 2.5 to 3 ranks, each full stone on a 9×9 board is equivalent to about 6 ranks. For example, if the appropriate handicap is 9 stones on a 19×19 board, the handicap between those two players is reduced to 4 stones on a 13x13 board and 2 stones on a 9×9 board. A 5 stone handicap on a 9×9 board is accordingly equivalent to a handicap of 27 or 28 stones on a 19×19 board; these figures have wide support. They can be used to give rankings, by converting 13×13 handicaps back to rank difference. There are 9 star points marked on a 19 x 19 board – in each corner on the point, in the middle of each side on the fourth line,.
Traditionally handicaps are always placed on the star points, as follows: As the stones are always at the same points in the corners, Black always plays more openings, doesn't gain experience playing the openings, or others such as, etc. except on two and three stones. Some have advocated free placement of handicap stones. Free placement means. Here is the list of countries and servers that use free placement of handicap stones: Although free placement is less common because many players are attached to tradition in East Asian countries, it offers advantages which are not available with fixed placement. For weaker players: They can choose their opening strategies according to their own understanding of the game, thus follow a consistent strategy, they can think for themselves and learn about different opening strategies through actual game experience. The mandatory handicap points stress influence rather than taking territory directly, they can learn a much larger range of corner plays in actual competition against stronger opponents.
For stronger players: Many more variations with fewer repetitions mean the game is more refreshing and interesting to the strong player. They may be more willing to teach the weaker player. With free placement, weaker players may not place their stones in respect to their comparable handicap to their opponent, thus eliminating the point of the handicap; the standard fixed handicap points allow for a good standard that allows novices to have the handicap they need since they are not experienced and may not be able to take advantage of the free placement of handicap stones. Therefore, free
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. The game was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago and is believed to be the oldest board game continuously played to the present day. A 2016 survey by the International Go Federation's 75 member nations found that there are over 46 million people worldwide who know how to play Go and over 20 million current players, the majority of whom live in East Asia; the playing pieces are called "stones". One player uses the other, black; the players take. Once placed on the board, stones may not be moved, but stones are removed from the board if "captured". Capture happens when a stone or group of stones is surrounded by opposing stones on all orthogonally-adjacent points; the game proceeds. When a game concludes, the winner is determined by counting each player's surrounded territory along with captured stones and komi. Games may be terminated by resignation. A teacher might simplify the explanation by saying to a student "you may place your stone on any point on the board, but if I surround that stone, I will remove it."
The standard Go board has a 19×19 grid of lines, containing 361 points. Beginners play on smaller 9×9 and 13×13 boards, archaeological evidence shows that the game was played in earlier centuries on a board with a 17×17 grid. However, boards with a 19×19 grid had become standard by the time the game had reached Korea in the 5th century CE and Japan in the 7th century CE. Go was considered one of the four essential arts of the cultured aristocratic Chinese scholars in antiquity; the earliest written reference to the game is recognized as the historical annal Zuo Zhuan. Despite its simple rules, Go is complex. Compared to chess, Go has both a larger board with more scope for play and longer games, and, on average, many more alternatives to consider per move; the lower bound on the number of legal board positions in Go has been estimated to be 2 x 10170. The word "Go" is derived from the full Japanese name igo, derived from its Chinese name weiqi, which translates as "board game of surrounding" or "encircling game".
To differentiate the game from the common English verb to go, "g" is capitalized, or, in events sponsored by the Ing Chang-ki Foundation, it is spelled "goe". The Korean word baduk derives from the Middle Korean word Badok, the origin of, controversial. Less plausible etymologies include a derivation of "Badukdok", referring to the playing pieces of the game, or a derivation from Chinese 排子, meaning "to arrange pieces". Go is an adversarial game with the objective of surrounding a larger total area of the board with one's stones than the opponent; as the game progresses, the players position stones on the board to map out formations and potential territories. Contests between opposing formations are extremely complex and may result in the expansion, reduction, or wholesale capture and loss of formation stones. A basic principle of Go is that a group of stones must have at least one "liberty" to remain on the board. A "liberty" is an open "point" bordering the group. An enclosed liberty is called an "eye", a group of stones with two or more eyes is said to be unconditionally "alive".
Such groups cannot be captured if surrounded. The general strategy is to expand one's territory, attack the opponent's weak groups, always stay mindful of the "life status" of one's own groups; the liberties of groups are countable. Situations where mutually opposing groups must capture each other or die are called capturing races, or semeai. In a capturing race, the group with more liberties will be able to capture the opponent's stones. Capturing races and the elements of life or death are the primary challenges of Go. A player may pass on determining; the game ends when both players pass, is scored. For each player, the number of captured stones is subtracted from the number of controlled points in "liberties" or "eyes", the player with the greater score wins the game. Games may be won by resignation of the opponent. In the opening stages of the game, players establish positions in the corners and around the sides of the board; these bases help to develop strong shapes which have many options for life and establish formations for potential territory.
Players start in the corners because establishing territory is easier with the aid of two edges of the board. Established corner opening sequences are called "joseki" and are studied independently."Dame" are points that lie in between the boundary walls of black and white, as such are considered to be of no value to either side. "Seki" are mutually alive pairs of black groups where neither has two eyes. A "ko" is a repeated-position shape. After the forcing move is played, the ko may be "taken back" and returned to its original position; some "ko fights" may be important and decide the life of a large group, while others may be worth just one or two points. Some ko fights