In many team sports which involve scoring goals, the goalkeeper is a designated player charged with directly preventing the opposing team from scoring by blocking or intercepting opposing shots on goal. Such positions exist in bandy, rink bandy, association football, Gaelic football, international rules football, handball, field hockey, ice hockey, roller hockey, ringette, water polo, shinty as well as in other sports. In most sports which involve scoring in a net, special rules apply to the goalkeeper that do not apply to other players; these rules are instituted to protect the goalkeeper. This is most apparent in sports such as ice hockey and lacrosse, where goalkeepers are required to wear special equipment like heavy pads and a face mask to protect their bodies from the impact of the playing object In some sports, goalkeepers may have the same rights as other players. In other sports, goalkeepers may be limited in the actions they are allowed to take or the area of the field or rink where they may be.

In bandy, the goalkeeper defends his team's goal and has special privileges within the game, regulated in section 6 of the Bandy Playing Rules set up by the Federation of International Bandy The goalkeeper's main job is to stop any penetration of the ball into the goal. He is allowed to hold the ball for six seconds, he may chuck it directly into attack. If the ball passes the goal line, it is followed by different actions: If the ball is last touched by a defender, the reaction is an own goal if the ball goes between the goalposts. If it passes outside the goalposts, the reaction is a corner stroke. If last touched by an attacker's stick, passes between the posts, the reaction is a goal, or a disallowed goal. If the ball passes from an attacker over the goal line outside the goalposts, the goalkeeper may retrieve a new ball from a cage hanging on the goal's either side, put the new ball in play with no signal from the referees; the goalkeeper is the only player who may use her hands to play the ball.

According to Rule 6.1 the goalkeeper is required to wear a jersey with a different color from either team's jersey color to avoid confusion for the referee. Goalkeepers wear padded gloves to aid in catching the ball, large shinpads, a padded sweater, a helmet with a face mask, he is the only player in the team. The team might have a reserve goalkeeper, the two may switch at any time during the game, without the need to notify the referee. There is no time-out in bandy, but an exception is sometimes made when the goalkeeper is hurt if they don't have a designated reserve keeper; as the goalkeeper is the team's only player who can see the entire field, they act as an organizer of the team when it is defending for free strokes against them. In handball, the goalkeeper is the only player in the team, allowed to stay in the 6-meter zone throughout the whole competition. A goalkeeper is allowed to save the ball with all parts of his body, including two hands, two legs and so on, only within the defending 6-meter zone.

Whenever the ball is left on the ground within the 6-meter zone, the goalkeeper owns the possession of the ball. A goalkeeper can participate in offense by long-passing the ball to a teammate in the opposing half court for a fast-break score. Common handball goalkeeper clothing: Long-sleeve jersey Long trousers Any body protection In hurling, the goalkeeper's main task is to prevent a goal from being scored against his side by directly defending the team's goal, he takes "puckouts" after a score or wide ball. A goal occurs; the goalkeeper has one special rule pertaining to him, opposing players may not directly physically challenge him while he is in possession of the ball in the small parallelogram, although they may harass him, while if he leaves the small parallelogram he is subject to the same rules as all other players. He wears a different color jersey, e.g. if a team has blue jerseys with white font, the goalkeeper will wear a white jersey of the same design with blue font. Most goalkeepers use a special hurley with a wider bas to aid shot-stopping.

In football, each team's goalkeeper defends their team's goal and has special privileges within the game. The goalkeeper's main job is to stop any penetration of the ball into the goal; the goalkeeper is the only player in the side who may use his or her hands and arms to catch and save the ball, but only within their own penalty area. Goalkeepers are required to wear a distinctive colour jersey, separate from the referee's jersey colour and either team's regular jersey colour, so the referee can identify them. There are no other specific requirements, but goalkeepers are allowed to wear additional protective gear such as padded clothing. Most goalkeepers wear gloves to protect their hands and enhance their grip of the ball. Like every player on

Manierre Dawson

Manierre Dawson was an American painter and sculptor. A precocious and ceaseless experimenter, Dawson independently developed stylistic and material innovations that rivaled his most progressive contemporaries. Dawson was born and raised in Chicago, but lived most of his life in Michigan, he was the second of four sons born to George E. Dawson and Eva Dawson who were avid supporters of the arts as an avocation but preferred "professional" careers for their sons, his younger brother, Mitchell Dawson, was an poet. After high school, Manierre enrolled in the civil engineering program at the Armour Institute of Technology; when he completed his four-year degree in 1909, his civil engineering curriculum had made a lasting impact on his creative vision. Mechanical drawing methods and descriptive geometry courses led him to paint in a geometric style by the end of 1908, his analytic geometry and differential calculus courses contributed directly to his first series of abstract paintings in the spring of 1910.

At that time, he was a first-year employee at the Chicago architectural firm of John Holabird and Martin Roche. After a year with the firm he was granted a six-month leave-of-absence for an educational tour of Europe, he departed in mid-June 1910 for his only trip abroad. His itinerary is well documented in his journal. Disembarking in Liverpool, he made his way across England to France, south through Germany, across Switzerland to Italy, back north for a second stay in Paris, around northern Germany before embarking from Bremerhaven in late-November. In Siena, he exchanged ideas on painting with John Singer Sargent. During his return visit to Paris he attended a Saturday evening soiree at the apartment of Gertrude Stein and he saw paintings by Paul Cézanne in the gallery of Ambrose Vollard. Returning through Hoboken, he stopped in New York to call upon Arthur B. Davies who introduced him to Albert Pinkham Ryder. Fueled by his tour of Europe and meeting Davies, 1911 through 1914 were the most productive years of his career.

He produced some paintings based on old master compositions.. In December 1912, Davies invited Dawson to participate in the International Exhibition of Modern Art in New York but Dawson declined, lamenting that he had nothing appropriate to send; when the exhibition came to Chicago, he met Walter Pach and bought two paintings: Marcel Duchamp's Nu now known as Jeune homme triste dans un train and's Return from the Chase. While the Armory Show still hung in the Art Institute of Chicago, Dawson's employment with Holabird and Roche ended; the circumstances of his termination are not known. In 1914, Dawson participated in two group exhibitions. One, organized by Davies and Pach in conjunction with the Montross Gallery in New York traveled to the Detroit Museum of Art, the Cincinnati Museum of Art, the Peabody Institute in Baltimore; the other, organized by the Milwaukee Art Society resulted in the sale of two paintings to Arthur Jerome Eddy. Summers spent at the family's retreat in southern Mason County, near Ludington, were his most productive periods during his early career and provided rudimentary knowledge of growing and marketing fruit so, in the fall of 1914, he moved there permanently.

He met Lilian Boucher, the daughter of a local farmer, fell in love. They married in three children were born over the next five years. Just as the impact of his civil engineering training is evident in his early work, the events of his life and his profession influenced his art in his career; when he began to make a living from the land and started a family, fertility appears as the theme of some of his works. The long hours in his orchards, pruning and harvesting resulted in compositions consisting of intertwining limbs. Conceived as sculptures but recorded as paintings in the late teens, some were realized in three dimensions. Living in rural Michigan and struggling financially he made art from. Sheets of composite wood were laminated together for thickness and carved into freestanding sculptures. In the mid-1950s he and his wife began wintering in Florida; the first real recognition of his work began in 1966 with a retrospective exhibition mounted by the Grand Rapids Art Museum. An exhibition organized by the John and Mable Ringing Museum in Sarasota and shared with the Norton Museum of Art in West Palm Springs followed a year later.

This exhibition brought Dawson to the attention of Robert Schoelkopf who showed his work in New York in April 1969 and March 1981. When Dawson was diagnosed with cancer in 1968, he sold the Michigan farm and moved to Sarasota permanently, he died on August 15, 1969. Promrs. Darrow gnostic, 1910, Milwaukee Museum of Art Xdx, 1910, Brooklyn Museum of Art Discal Procession, 1910, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC Lucrece, 1911, The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota Mrs. Darrow, 1911, Art Institute of Chicago Meeting, 1912, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Figures in Action, 1912, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond Retrospect, 1913, The Museum of M

Eucalyptus ultima

Eucalyptus ultima is a species of mallee, endemic to a small area in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia. It has smooth bark, linear to narrow lance-shaped leaves, flower buds in groups of nine to fifteen, white flowers and spherical to cup-shaped fruit. Eucalyptus ultima is a mallee that grows to a height of 2.5–7 m and forms a lignotuber. It has smooth grey to pinkish bark, sometimes with rough, fibrous bark near the base. Adult leaves are the same shade of green on both sides, linear to narrow lance-shaped, 55–105 mm long and 5–12 mm wide, tapering to petiole 3–10 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of nine to fifteen on an unbranched peduncle 4–10 mm long, the individual buds on pedicels 2–4 mm long. Mature buds are oval, 5–10 mm long and about 3 mm wide with a conical to horn-shaped operculum, longer than the floral cup. Flowering occurs from April to August and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody shortened spherical to cup-shaped capsule 5–6 mm long and 4–5 mm wide with the valves protruding but fragile.

Eucalyptus ultima was first formally described in 1999 by Lawrie Johnson and Ken Hill in the journal Telopea from specimens collected by Ian Brooker in the Shothole Canyon in the Cape Range National Park in 1977. The specific epithet is from the Latin ultimus meaning "farthest" or "most distant", referring to its occurrence compared to related eucalypts; this mallee is only known from rocky rises in the Cape Range National Park, where it grows in skeletal soils over limestone. This eucalypt is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. List of Eucalyptus species