Carrera Island is one of the two Diego Islands in the Gulf of Paria and Tobago. Situated off the northwest peninsula of Trinidad, the islet comprises 20 acres; when Trinidad was under Spanish rule, Carrera Island was known as Isla Carrera. Since the late 19th century, Carrera has been used as a prison island; the Government of Trinidad and Tobago announced the facility shall be mothballed by the end of 2013, at which time all prisoners incarcerated there will be transferred to mainland correctional facilities. Islands of Trinidad and Tobago
Grenada tree anole
The Grenada tree anole, or Richard's anole is a species of anole lizard in the family Dactyloidae. The species is endemic to the Caribbean; the specific name, richardii, is in honor of French botanist Louis Claude Marie Richard. A. richardii is native to Grenada and the Grenadines islands, it has been introduced to Tobago. A. richardsii is large for an anole, with males reaching a maximum length of 140 mm snout-to-vent. It has brown dorsal surface, with a green-gray to yellow ventral surface, its dewlap is yellow, or gray-green. Females and juveniles have a yellow or cream-colored lateral stripe. Anolis richardii at the Encyclopedia of Life. Anolis richardii at the Reptile Database. Boulenger, G. A.. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. Second Edition. Volume II. Iguanidæ... London: Trustees of the British Museum.. Xiii + 497 pp. + Plates I-XXIV.. Duméril, A. M. C.. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire naturelle complète des Reptiles. Tome quatrième.. Paris: Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret. 571 pp. + errata et emendanda...
Nicholson, Kirsten E.. "It is time for a new classification of anoles". Zootaxa 3477: 1-108.. Schwartz, A.. A Check-list of West Indian Amphibians and Reptiles. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 1. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 216 pp
The green iguana known as the American iguana, is a large, arboreal herbivorous species of lizard of the genus Iguana. It is native to Central America, South America, the Caribbean; this animal is called the iguana. The green iguana ranges over a large geographic area, from southern Brazil and Paraguay as far north as Mexico and the Caribbean islands, they have been introduced from South America to Puerto Rico and are common throughout the island, where they are colloquially known as gallina de palo and considered an invasive species. S. Virgin Islands and the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. A herbivore, it has adapted with regard to locomotion and osmoregulation as a result of its diet, it grows to 1.5 meters in length from head to tail, although a few specimens have grown more than 2 metres with bodyweights upward of 20 pounds. Found in captivity as a pet due to its calm disposition and bright colors, it can be demanding to care for properly. Space requirements and the need for special lighting and heat can prove challenging to an amateur hobbyist.
The species was first described by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1758. In the two centuries since numerous subspecies have been identified, but classified as regional variants of the same species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-sequence data to explore the phylogenic history of the green iguana, scientists from the United States, Mexico and El Salvador studied animals collected from 17 different countries; the topology of phylogeny indicated that the species originated in South America and radiated through Central America and the Caribbean. The study revealed no unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for subspecific status but did indicate the deep lineage divergence between Central and South American populations; the word iguana is derived from a Spanish form of the Taíno name for the species: iwana. In some Spanish speaking countries, males of the species are referred to as gorrobo or ministro and juveniles are called iguanita or gorrobito; the native range of the green iguana extends from southern Mexico to central Brazil, Dominican Republic and Bolivia and the Caribbean.
They have been introduced to Grand Cayman, Puerto Rico, Florida and the United States Virgin Islands. Furthermore, green iguanas colonised the island of Anguilla in 1995 after being washed ashore following a hurricane. Though the species is not native to Martinique, a small wild colony of released or escaped green iguanas endures at historic Fort Saint Louis. Green iguanas are diurnal and are found near water. Agile climbers, Iguana iguana can land unhurt. During cold, wet weather, green iguanas prefer to stay on the ground for greater warmth; when swimming, an iguana remains submerged, letting its four legs hang limply against its side. They propel through the water with powerful tail strokes. In South and Central America, where the green iguana is native, it is an endangered species in some countries because people have been hunting and eating this “chicken of the trees” for a long time. Despite their name, green iguanas can come in different colors. In southern countries of their range, such as Peru, green iguanas appear bluish in color with bold blue markings.
On islands such as Bonaire, Curaçao, Grenada, a green iguana's color may range from green to lavender and pink. Green iguanas from the western region of Costa Rica are red, animals of the northern ranges, such as Mexico, appear orange. Juvenile green iguanas from El Salvador are bright blue as babies, but they lose this color as they get older. Adult iguanas found on most of St. Lucia on the northeast coast and Grand Anse, have many differences from other green iguana populations, they are light green with predominant black stripes. Instead of the typical orange dewlap, the iguanas of St. Lucia have a black dewlap; when compared to the common green iguana, females lay about half the amount of eggs, 25 instead of 50. Scales to the back of their head, near the jawbone, are smaller, their iris is cream. Other green iguanas have yellow eyes. Green iguanas possess a row of spines along their backs and along their tails, which helps to protect them from predators, their whip-like tails can be used to deliver painful strikes and like many other lizards, when grabbed by the tail, the iguana can allow it to break, so it can escape and regenerate a new one.
In addition, iguanas have a well-developed dewlap. This dewlap is used in territorial displays. Green iguanas have excellent vision, enabling them to detect motions at long distances; as green iguanas have only a few rod cells, they have poor vision in low-light conditions. At the same time, they have cells called “double cone cells” that give them sharp color vision and enable them to see ultraviolet wavelengths; this ability is useful when basking so the animal can ensure that it absorbs enough sunlight in the forms of UVA and UVB to produce vitamin D. Green iguanas have a white photosensory organ on the top of their heads called the parietal eye, in contrast to most other lizards that have lost this primitive feature; this "eye" has only a rudimentary retina and lens and cannot form images, but is sensitive to changes in light and dark and can detect movement. This helps
Speyside, Trinidad and Tobago
Speyside is a village in northern Tobago within Saint John Parish. It lies on the leeward coast, across from the island of Little Tobago, 26 km northeast of Scarborough, overlooking Tyrrel's Bay. At the census of population in 2000, the town had a population of 59. Speyside has some of the best coral reefs on the island of Tobago, is a popular dive site; the reefs are less disturbed than the more famous Buccoo Reef in southwestern Tobago
Chacachacare is an island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, located at 10° 41' north latitude and 61° 45' west longitude. The island is 3.642 km² in area. It is one of the Bocas Islands, which lie in the Bocas del Dragón between Venezuela. Chacachacare is the westernmost of the Bocas Islands which belong to Tobago. Patos Island, which lies further west, was part of Trinidad and Tobago until 1942, when it was ceded to Venezuela, it was named El Caracol by Christopher Columbus because of its shape. At various times in its history Chacachacare has served as a cotton plantation, a whaling station and a leper colony. "Chacachacare, at the west of the first Boca, is horseshoe shaped and hilly. The hills slope towards the inside of the horseshoe. At the junction of the arms of the horseshoe, the land is marshy. At times of spring tides or in rough weather the sea passes over the isthmus. Boats can be hauled from calm water on the east to La Tinta, so called on account of the colour of the sand, black, the water being clear, but the sand beneath it makes it look black.
In 1791, there were many people living on this island, cultivating ground provisions and sugar apples. During the time of slavery large quantities of cotton were grown, which after emancipation was abandoned; when the price of cotton was high, the industry was re-established by Messrs. Gerold and Urich. There were three or four whaling stations carried on by Messrs. Gerold and Urich, Tardieu and F. Urich and Partners. Looking across the Boca Grande there is a view of the Venezuelan mountains eight miles away. On a clear day they appear to be much closer. On the land side of the bay there is a fringe of deadly Manchineel tree. Tall cacti and aloes grow on the cliffs on the southern shore. There is a pebbly beach—Bande de Sud—inside which there is a lagoon from what in the early days the islanders attempted to extract salt. About 1887 a stone pier and a large house for the use of a sanatorium was erected on the island by S. Chittendon. At present there is only a lighthouse on the west and the Leper Asylum on the island."
The famous Venezuelan revolutionary, Santiago Mariño, who joined forces with Simón Bolivar and was instrumental in the liberation of Venezuela from Spanish rule, used Chacachacare as a base for his successful 1813 invasion of Venezuela with a tiny band of 45 "Patriots". His sister, Concepción Mariño, played a part in the Venezuelan War of Independence from her estate on the island. Today, Chacachacare remains uninhabited, except for staff maintaining a lighthouse on the island, the Hindu Temple founded in 1945 continues to be functional with religious activities, it is regularly used for camping and visits by recreational boats. Many Trinidadians go to this island, as well as Huevos, for day trips; this is popularly referred to as "going down the islands". The island was spotted by Christopher Columbus on his third New World voyage on 12 August 1498, his little fleet spent the night anchored in Monkey Harbour, he named the island ` Port of Cats'. He had mistaken the call of howler monkeys for a "wildcat".
The island became a nuns quarters and a leper colony. In 1942, 1,000 U. S. Marines were built barracks on the island; the island was abandoned by the 1980s, when the nuns left their quarters and when the last leper, on the island died in 1984. The colony had been abandoned since. In 1999, Donald Trump visited Chacachacare during the Miss Universe contest and contemplated having a casino and hotel built on the island; the Bolo Rocks are a series of rocks located at the southwestern point of Chacachacare. They were named after a slave named Bolo. Cabresse Island is a small islet located just off the northern point of Chacachacare. List of islands of Trinidad and Tobago Anthony, Michael. Historical Dictionary of Trinidad and Tobago. Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham, Md. and London. ISBN 0-8108-3173-2. Carmichael, Gertrude; the History of the West Indian Islands of Trinidad and Tobago, 1498-1900. Alvin Redman, London. Chacachacare: The sad legacy of an idyllic island in the Caribbean - Tri-City Herald Chacachacare Interactive Map - Chaguaramas Development Authority
Saint Giles Island
The St Giles Islands are small islands off the northeast tip of Tobago. It is the northernmost point in Tobago; the main island is steep sided, hosts tropical dry forest and wind-swept littoral scrub. At least five species of reptiles have been recorded for the island. One is a snake - Boddaert's tropical racer, four are lizards - Green iguanas, Turnip-tailed geckos, Ocellated geckos, an unidentified species of skink in the sub-family Mabuyinae. Islands of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago. The island lies 11 km off the northeastern coast of Venezuela and sits on the continental shelf of South America. Though geographically part of the South American continent, from a socio-economic standpoint it is referred to as the southernmost island in the Caribbean. With an area of 4,768 km2, it is the fifth largest in the West Indies; the original name for the island in the Arawaks' language was Iëre which meant "Land of the Hummingbird". Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage; this has since been shortened to Trinidad. Caribs and Arawaks lived in Trinidad long before Christopher Columbus encountered the islands on his third voyage on 31 July 1498; the island remained Spanish until 1797, but it was settled by French colonists from the French Caribbean Martinique. In 1889 the two islands became a single British Crown colony.
Trinidad and Tobago obtained self-governance in 1958 and independence from the United Kingdom in 1962. Major landforms include the hills of the Northern and Southern Ranges, the Caroni and Oropouche Swamps, the Caroni and Naparima Plains. Major river systems include the Caroni and South Oropouche and Ortoire Rivers. There are many other natural landforms such as waterfalls. Trinidad has two seasons per calendar year: the dry season. El Cerro del Aripo, at 940 metres, is the highest point in Trinidad, it is part of the Aripo Massif and is located in the Northern Range on the island, northeast of the town of Arima. The demographics of Trinidad and Tobago reflect the diversity of this southern-most country in the West Indies, it is sometimes known as a "rainbow island" or more fondly "a callaloo". There is a wide range of ethnicity and culture; the variety of denominations has followed this pattern for decades: Protestant 32.1%, Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1%.
Religion in Trinidad and Tobago consists of a diverse array of denominations including Roman Catholic, other Christian denominations and Muslim faiths. There are a minority of people who are followers of Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Amerindian religions, Sikhism, Chinese folk religion and Bahá'í. Catholicism constitutes the largest religious denomination of the country; as of the 2011 Trinidad and Tobago Census, the population was 35.43% East Indian, 34.22% African, 7.66% Mixed – African and East Indian, 15.16% Mixed – Other. Venezuela has had a great impact on Trinidad's culture, such as introducing the music style parang to the island. Many groups overlap. For example, a "Dougla" is a person of African and East Indian descent who may identify as being part of either group. There are multiple festivals featuring the music of the Caribbean and the steelpan, which originated in Trinidad and is the country's national instrument; these festivals include the world-renowned Carnival, J'ouvert, Panorama, the national steel pan competition.
Trinidad has many public holidays, such as Indian Arrival Day, Emancipation Day, Independence Day, Republic Day, Labour Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Phagwah, Eid al-Fitr, Corpus Christi, Good Friday, Easter Monday and Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day. There are places that can be visited that hold cultural significance, such as Mount Saint Benedict and the Temple in the Sea. Further information: Natural history of Trinidad and Tobago The island of Trinidad has a rich biodiversity; the fauna is overwhelmingly of South American origin. There are about 100 species of mammals including the Guyanan red howler monkey, the collared peccary, the red brocket deer, the ocelot and about 70 species of bats. There are over 400 species of birds including the endemic Trinidad piping-guan. Reptiles are well represented, with about 92 recorded species including the largest species of snake in the world, the green anaconda, the spectacled caiman, one of the largest lizards in the Americas, the green iguana.
The largest of turtles nests on Trinidad's northern beaches. There are 37 recorded frog species, including the tiny El Tucuche golden tree frog, the more widespread huge cane toad. About 43 species of freshwater fishes are known including the well known guppy, it is estimated that there are at least 80,000 arthropods, at least 600 species of butterflies. The economy of Trinidad and Tobago is diversified, based to a large extent on oil, natural gas and agriculture, it is one of the leading gas-based export centres in the world, being the leading exporter of ammonia and methanol and among the top five exporters of liquefied natural gas. This has allowed Trinidad to capitalise on the biggest mineral reserves within its territories, it is an oil-rich country and stable economically. The Venezuela Tertiary Basin is a subsidence basin formed between the Caribbean and South American plates, is bounded on the north by the coast ranges of Venezuela and the Northern Range of Trinidad, bounded on the south by the Guayana Shield.
This Guayana shield supplied fine-grained clastic sediments, which with the subsidence, formed a regional negative gravity anomaly and growth faults. Oil and g