Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. "Roman mythology" may refer to the modern study of these representations, to the subject matter as represented in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. The Romans treated their traditional narratives as historical when these have miraculous or supernatural elements; the stories are concerned with politics and morality, how an individual's personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. Heroism was an important theme; when the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are more concerned with ritual and institutions than with theology or cosmogony. The study of Roman religion and myth is complicated by the early influence of Greek religion on the Italian peninsula during Rome's protohistory, by the artistic imitation of Greek literary models by Roman authors.
In matters of theology, the Romans were curiously eager to identify their own gods with those of the Greeks, to reinterpret stories about Greek deities under the names of their Roman counterparts. Rome's early myths and legends have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than that of the Greeks. While Roman mythology may lack a body of divine narratives as extensive as that found in Greek literature and Remus suckling the she-wolf is as famous as any image from Greek mythology except for the Trojan Horse; because Latin literature was more known in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, the interpretations of Greek myths by the Romans had a greater influence on narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" than Greek sources. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovid's Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, came to be regarded as canonical; because ritual played the central role in Roman religion that myth did for the Greeks, it is sometimes doubted that the Romans had much of a native mythology.
This perception is a product of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the 19th century, which valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Roman myths were an inspiration for European painting. The Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city; these narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny. In Rome's earliest period and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship; as T. P. Wiseman notes: The Roman stories still matter, as they mattered to Dante in 1300 and Shakespeare in 1600 and the founding fathers of the United States in 1776. What does it take to be a free citizen? Can a superpower still be a republic? How does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny? Major sources for Roman myth include the Aeneid of Vergil and the first few books of Livy's history as well as Dionysius' s Roman Antiquities.
Other important sources are the Fasti of Ovid, a six-book poem structured by the Roman religious calendar, the fourth book of elegies by Propertius. Scenes from Roman myth appear in Roman wall painting and sculpture reliefs; the Aeneid and Livy's early history are the best extant sources for Rome's founding myths. Material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date; the Trojan prince Aeneas was cast as husband of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, patronymical ancestor of the Latini, therefore through a convoluted revisionist genealogy as forebear of Romulus and Remus. By extension, the Trojans were adopted as the mythical ancestors of the Roman people; the characteristic myths of Rome are political or moral, that is, they deal with the development of Roman government in accordance with divine law, as expressed by Roman religion, with demonstrations of the individual's adherence to moral expectations or failures to do so. Rape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of Roman culture, the growth of Rome through conflict and alliance.
Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and established many of Rome's legal and religious institutions. Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were mythologized and, said to have been the lover of the goddess Fortuna; the Tarpeian Rock, why it was used for the execution of traitors. Lucretia, whose self-sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy and led to the establishment of the Republic. Cloelia, A Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena, she escaped the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins. Horatius at the bridge, on the importance of individual valor. Mucius Scaevola, who thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to Rome. Caeculus and the founding of Praeneste. Manlius and the geese, about divine intervention at the Gallic siege of Rome. Stories pertaining to the Nonae Caprotinae and Poplifugia festivals. Coriolanus, a story of politics and morality; the Etruscan city of Corythus as the "cradle" of Trojan and Italian civilization.
The arrival of the Great Mother in Rome. Narratives of divine activity played a more important role in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, for whom ritual and cult were primary. Although Roman religion did not have a basis in scriptures and exegesis, priestly literature was one of the earliest written forms of Latin prose; the books and commentaries of the College of Pontiffs and
A glove is a garment covering the whole hand. Gloves have separate sheaths or openings for each finger and the thumb. If there is an opening but no covering sheath for each finger they are called fingerless gloves. Fingerless gloves having one large opening rather than individual openings for each finger are sometimes called gauntlets, though gauntlets are not fingerless. Gloves which cover the entire hand or fist but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens. Mittens are warmer than other styles of gloves made of the same material because fingers maintain their warmth better when they are in contact with each other. A hybrid of glove and mitten contains open-ended sheaths for the four fingers and an additional compartment encapsulating the four fingers; this compartment can be lifted off the fingers and folded back to allow the individual fingers ease of movement and access while the hand remains covered. The usual design is for the mitten cavity to be stitched onto the back of the fingerless glove only, allowing it to be flipped over to transform the garment from a mitten to a glove.
These hybrids are called convertible mittens or glittens, a combination of "glove" and "mittens". Gloves protect and comfort hands against cold or heat, damage by friction, abrasion or chemicals, disease. Latex, nitrile rubber or vinyl disposable gloves are worn by health care professionals as hygiene and contamination protection measures. Police officers wear them to work in crime scenes to prevent destroying evidence in the scene. Many criminals wear gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints, which makes the crime investigation more difficult. However, the gloves themselves can leave prints that are just as unique as human fingerprints. After collecting glove prints, law enforcement can match them to gloves that they have collected as evidence. In many jurisdictions the act of wearing gloves itself while committing a crime can be prosecuted as an inchoate offense. Fingerless gloves are useful where dexterity is required that gloves would restrict. Cigarette smokers and church organists use fingerless gloves.
Some gloves include a gauntlet that extends partway up the arm. Cycling gloves for road racing or touring are fingerless. Guitar players use fingerless gloves in circumstances where it is too cold to play with an uncovered hand. Gloves are made of materials including cloth, knitted or felted wool, rubber, neoprene and metal. Gloves of kevlar protect the wearer from cuts. Gloves and gauntlets are integral components of pressure suits and spacesuits such as the Apollo/Skylab A7L which went to the moon. Spacesuit gloves combine toughness and environmental protection with a degree of sensitivity and flexibility. Gloves appear to be of great antiquity. According to some translations of Homer's The Odyssey, Laërtes is described as wearing gloves while walking in his garden so as to avoid the brambles. Herodotus, in The History of Herodotus, tells how Leotychides was incriminated by a glove full of silver that he received as a bribe. There are occasional references to the use of gloves among the Romans as well.
Pliny the Younger, his uncle's shorthand writer wore gloves in winter so as not to impede the elder Pliny's work. A gauntlet, which could be a glove made of leather or some kind of metal armour, was a strategic part of a soldier's defense throughout the Middle Ages, but the advent of firearms made hand-to-hand combat rare; as a result, the need for gauntlets disappeared. During the 13th century, gloves began to be worn by ladies as a fashion ornament, they were made of linen and silk, sometimes reached to the elbow. Such worldly accoutrements were not for holy women, according to the early 13th century Ancrene Wisse, written for their guidance. Sumptuary laws were promulgated to restrain this vanity: against samite gloves in Bologna, 1294, against perfumed gloves in Rome, 1560. A Paris corporation or guild of glovers existed from the thirteenth century, they made them in skin or in fur. By 1440, in England glovers had become members of the Dubbers or Bookbinders Guild until they formed their own guild during the reign of Elizabeth I.
The Glovers' Company was incorporated in 1613. It was not until the 16th century that gloves reached their greatest elaboration; the 1592 "Ditchley" portrait of her features her holding leather gloves in her left hand. In Paris, the gantiers became gantiers parfumeurs, for the scented oils, musk and civet, that perfumed leather gloves, but their trade, an introduction at the court of Catherine de Medici, was not recognised until 1656, in a royal brevet. Makers of knitted gloves, which did not retain perfume and had less social cachet, were organised in a separate guild, of bonnetiers who might knit silk as well as wool; such workers were organised in the fourteenth century. Knitted gloves were a refined handiwork that required five years of apprenticeship. In the 17th century, gloves made of soft chicken skin became fashionable; the craze for gloves called "limericks" took hold. This particular fad was the product of a manufacturer in Limerick, who fashioned the gloves from the sk
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either attached to stiff boards. An attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly enhance a book's content by creating book-like objects with artistic merit of exceptional quality. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was Stationery binding that deals with books intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books, manifold books, day books, portfolios, etc.
Computers have now replaced the pen and paper based accounting that constituted most of the stationery binding industry. Second was Letterpress binding which deals with making books intended for reading, including library binding, fine binding, edition binding, publisher's bindings. A third division deals with the repair and conservation of old used bindings. Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions; the size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, to large-run publisher's binding. There are cases where binding jobs are combined in one shop. For the largest numbers of copies, commercial binding is effected by production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to complete, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, graphic arts, it requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly. A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will find an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed and efficiency. Bookbinding is an artistic craft of great antiquity, at the same time, a mechanized industry; the division between craft and industry is not so wide. It is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.
The first problem is still. The craft of bookbinding originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus; the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book; when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC. Similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment; the modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.
The book was not needed in ancient times, as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages long, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were longer, running to hundreds of pages; the Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning "to cut". The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways; the first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound; this is overcome in the second method, to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah. With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and end, th
A sounding board known as a tester and abat-voix is a structure placed above and sometimes behind a pulpit or other speaking platforms which helps to project the sound of the speaker. It is made of wood; the structure may be specially shaped to assist the projection, for example, being formed as a parabolic reflector. In the typical setting of a church building, the sounding board may be ornately carved or constructed; the term abat-voix, from the French word for the same thing, is used in English. Sounding board may be used figuratively to describe a person who listens to a speech or proposal in order that the speaker may rehearse or explore the proposition more fully; the term is used inter-personally to describe one person listening to another, to their ideas. When a person listens and responds with comments, they provide a perspective that otherwise would not be available through introspection or thought alone. Baldachin - canopy over altar or throne Chhatri
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Morocco leather is a soft, pliable form of leather used for gloves and the uppers of ladies' shoes and men's low cut shoes, but traditionally associated with bookbindings, linings for fine luggage, the like. Morocco leather was imported to Europe from Morocco, from the late 16th century it was valued in luxury bookbindings in Western countries because of its strength and because it showed off the gilding, it was used in the Islamic world from an earlier date. The finest grades of Morocco leather are goatskin, but by the late 19th century other skins were substituted in practice sheepskin and split calfskin. For example, French Morocco is a variety made of sheepskin; the tanning process varied but the traditional tanning material was sumac. The traditional tanning process elaborate. Morocco leather is always dyed, traditionally most red or black, but green, brown or other colors were available, in modern times there is no special constraint on color
Kefir or kephir, alternatively milk kefir, or búlgaros, is a fermented milk drink similar to a thin yoghurt, made with a yeast and bacterial fermentation starter of kefir grains. The drink originated in Eastern Europe and Russia, where it is prepared by inoculating cow, goat, or sheep milk with kefir grains; the word kefir, known in Russian since at least 1867, is of Eastern European and Russian origin, although some sources see a connection to Turkic köpür or kef. Traditional kefir was made in goatskin bags. Kefir spread from the former Soviet Union to the rest of Europe, the United States by the early 21st century, it has become known in Latin America as búlgaros, or "Bulgarian drink". In Taiwan, researchers were able to produce kefir from yeasts and lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains, they report. Despite this, it is still unclear how to reproduce the complex microbiota found in kefir grains. Traditional kefir is fermented at ambient temperatures overnight. Fermentation of the lactose yields a sour, carbonated alcoholic beverage, with a consistency and taste similar to thin yogurt.
The kefir grains initiating the fermentation are a combination of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in a matrix of proteins and sugars. This symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast forms "grains". A complex and variable community of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts can be found in these grains. While some microbes predominate, Lactobacillus species are always present. Successive batches of kefir may differ due to factors such as the kefir grains rising out of the milk while fermenting or curds forming around the grains, as well as room temperature. Kefir grains contain kefiran, a water-soluble polysaccharide, which imparts a creamy texture and feeling in the mouth; the grains range in color from white to yellow. The latter is the outcome of leaving the grains in the same milk during fermentation for longer than the optimal 24-hour period and continually doing so over many batches. Grains may grow to the size of walnuts or larger. During fermentation, changes in the composition of ingredients occur.
Lactose, the sugar present in milk, is broken down to lactic acid by the lactic acid bacteria, which results in acidification of the product. Propionibacteria further break down some of the lactic acid into propionic acid. A portion of lactose is converted to kefiran, indigestible by gastric digestion. Other substances that contribute to the flavor of kefir are pyruvic acid, acetic acid and acetoin, citric acid and amino acids resulting from protein breakdown; the slow-acting yeasts, late in the fermentation process, break lactose down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Depending on the process, ethanol concentration can be as high as 1–2%, with the kefir having a bubbly appearance and carbonated taste; this makes kefir different from yogurt and most other sour milk products where only bacteria ferment the lactose into acids. Most modern processes, which use shorter fermentation times, result in much lower ethanol concentrations of 0.2–0.3%. As a result of the fermentation little lactose remains in kefir.
People with lactose intolerance are able to tolerate kefir, provided the number of live bacteria present in this beverage consumed is high enough. It has been shown that fermented milk products have a slower transit time than milk, which may further improve lactose digestion. For the preparation of commercially-prepared kefir, so-called mild kefir, kefir grains are no longer used, but rather a powdered preparation of bacteria and yeast, allowing the flavor to be kept consistent. Variations that thrive in various other liquids exist, vary markedly from kefir in both appearance and microbial composition. Water kefir is grown for a day or more at room temperature in water with sugar, sometimes with lemon juice and added dry fruit such as figs. Kefir products contain nutrients in varying amounts from negligible to significant, including dietary minerals, essential amino acids, conjugated linoleic acid, in amounts similar to unfermented cow, goat, or sheep milk. At a pH of 4.2 - 4.6, kefir is composed of water and by-products of the fermentation process, including carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Typical of milk, several dietary minerals are found in kefir, such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, molybdenum and zinc in amounts that have not been standardized to a reputable nutrient database. Similar to milk, kefir contains vitamins in variable amounts, including vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E. Essential amino acids found in kefir include methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, threonine and valine, as for any milk product. Probiotic bacteria found in kefir products include: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus la