SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gobustan National Park

Gobustan State Reserve located west of the settlement of Gobustan, about 40 miles southwest of the centre of Baku was established in 1966 when the region was declared as a national historical landmark of Azerbaijan in an attempt to preserve the ancient carvings, mud volcanoes and gas-stones in the region. Gobustan State Reserve is rich in archeological monuments, the reserve has more than 6,000 rock carvings, which depict people, battle-pieces, ritual dances, boats with armed oarsmen, warriors with lances in their hands, camel caravans, pictures of sun and stars, on the average dating back to 5,000-20,000 years. Gobustan State Historical and Cultural Reserve acquired national status in 2006; as a part of the 31st Session of the UNESCO World Legacy Committee held in Christchurch, New Zealand on June 23 - July 2, 2007 included within the World Social Legacy List. The rock carvings and petroglyphs at the site display mesmerizing images of prehistoric life in the Caucasus; the well-preserved sketches display ancient populations travelling on reed boats.

The famed Norwegian anthropologist Thor Heyerdahl returned many times to Azerbaijan between 1961 and his death in 2002 to study the site in his "Search for Odin". The language of the ancient population of Gobustan is disputed, but the petroglyphs still give information about the lives of prehistoric people who lived there. More than 4,000 pictures of animals, natural life experiences and dancing were carved over a span of thousands of years. Most of the petroglyphs are on large cliffs, divided among multiple ancient residences, in some cases they have been carved over older images; the first carvings depicted natural human and animal figures irregularly, but over time they began to more resemble the measurements and proportions of their subjects, including such details as the foot muscles of people in hunting scenes. The heads of the human figures tend to be small and carved without noses, eyes, or ears. However, experts do not interpret this lack of facial features as an indication that the Gobustan artists lacked technical skill, since some of the carvings demonstrate a higher degree of complexity and detail.

Many scenes from tribal life are depicted among the petroglyphs, images from the Seven Beauties cave suggest that women may have participated in hunting. It's estimated that 300 of the planet's estimated 700 mud volcanoes sit in Gobustan and the Caspian Sea. Many geologists as well as locals and international mud tourists trek to such places as the Firuz Crater, Gobustan and end up covered in mud, thought to have medicinal qualities; the nature of Gobustan is much more suitable than other regions of Azerbaijan. However, the natural conditions of these places were different in 20-25 thousand years ago. From the drawings of animals and human figures on the Gobustan, rocks seem to have been under warm climate from 10 to 12 thousand years. People were wearing gentle clothes, men tightened their paws, women were wearing short leather dresses; because of the permanent hot weather and abundant water, these places were the habitats of wild animals: bulls, deer and other animals lived in Gobustan. From the rock drawings and the archeological findings, tigers, foxes and other wild animals have been found in this place in ancient times.

In 1968 while cutting off 3 metres depth stone layer near Atbulakh, accidentally the large bones of an unknown animal were cut off. The workers informed the Ministry of Culture of the Azerbaijan SSR, not knowing what those bones were. After the investigation of the discovered bones, it was determined that these bones were the VI bone of the neck of the southern elephant, which lived in Gobustan; the Gaval Dash is a natural musical stone which can only be found in Azerbaijan. Among the stone books there are a big flat stone formed out of 3 supports. Suffice it to touch the object with a small stone, musical sounds come from it; the stone is called Gaval Dash, the sound can be compared with a tambourine. The Gaval Dash have been formed due the combination of unique climate and gas which can be found in the region of Azerbaijan. Gobustan from "Window to Baku" The Rock Engravings of Gobustan from a site devoted to Jean Auel's books. Archaeoastronomy relating the petroglyphs to other ancient carvings and the theories of Thor Heyerdahl Nature of Azerbaijan National Parks of Azerbaijan State Reserves of Azerbaijan State Game Reserves of Azerbaijan Zoroastrianism in Azerbaijan Gobustan District Ramana, Azerbaijan Khinalyg Yanar Dag Fire Temple of Baku

Derwent Pencil Museum

The Derwent Pencil Museum is in Keswick, in the north-west of England. The museum opened in 1981 and is home to the biggest colouring pencil in the world, the idea of technical manager Barbara Murray; the yellow pencil was completed on 28 May 2001, is 7.91 metres long, weighs 446.36 kilograms. The first pencil factory in Keswick opened in 1832; the second and current factory was started in the 1920s and completed in 1950. The museum now receives over 80,000 visitors a year from all around the world, it is popular with visitors from the county of Yorkshire, due to the importance of pencil production for the local economy during the 1930s. The museum features as one of the locations in the 2012 film Sightseers. In December 2015, the museum was badly damaged by several feet of flood water when the River Greta broke its banks as a result of Storm Desmond and many artefacts were destroyed. Although many of the exhibits were salvaged, one limited-edition collection could not be replaced; the museum reopened to the public on 15 June 2017, with Countryfile presenter John Craven cutting the ribbon..

Derwent Cumberland Pencil Company Sightseers Cumberland Pencil Museum - official site

Battle of San José del Cabo

The Battle of San José del Cabo was a military engagement of the Mexican–American War which took place on two November days in 1847, after the fall of Mexico City. On 21 July, 115 men from the Seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers landed peacefully at La Paz, under the command of Lt. Col. Henry S. Burton. Before departing to capture Mazatlan on 11 Nov. Commodore William Shubrick landed 4 sailors and 20 marines, with a 9-pounder carronade, at San Jose del Cabo under the command of Lt. Charles Heywood. Heywood's men made the old mission building into a fort. Additionally, 12 Californians joined the American force. Captain Manuel Pineda Munoz had sent Vincente Mejia, Jose Matias Moreno and José Antonio Mijares with 150 men from La Paz to demand the surrender of the San Jose del Cabo garrison, refused on 19 Nov. On 19 November at 3 PM, 150 mounted. At sunset, the Mexicans used their 6-pounder to fire upon the Americans along Main Street, which did little damage; the Mexicans were beaten back from an attack on the Mott house at 10 PM and the south end of Main street, the Mexicans retiring only at daylight.20 November was quiet until sunset, when the Mexicans attacked, attempting to capture the American gun and gain the roof of the fort, but grape shot, canister shot and musket fire stopped the attack.

On 21 November, the whalers Magnolia and Edward arrived, the Mexican force withdrew after the discharge of the whalers' guns. Upon hearing of the attack at San José del Cabo, Commodore Shubrick sent the storeship USS Southampton and the first-class sloop-of-war USS Portsmouth to reinforce Heywood's men; the Southampton arrived on November 26 and the Portsmouth on December 3. Captain Pineda, facing two defeats, one at La Paz where he commanded the battle, recalled his company from San José and decided to escalate his attack strength, first at the Siege of La Paz and again at the Siege of San José del Cabo. For his brave action, the Mexicans consider the death of Lieutenant Mijares as heroic and have placed a monument to honor him on the main street of San José del Cabo, called Boulevard Antonio Mijares. Nathan Covington Brooks, A Complete History of the Mexican War. Justin H. Smith, The War With Mexico, Vols. I and II.. John R. Spears, The History of the Navy, Vol. III, pp. 401–409. K. Jack Bauer and Horse Marines.

President James K. Polk's Message on War with Mexico, May 11, 1846, in Documents of American History, 9th edition, Vol. I, p. 311