Ibn Battuta (crater)
Ibn Battuta is a small lunar impact crater on the Mare Fecunditatis, a lunar mare in the eastern part of the Moon's near side. It lies to the southwest of the crater Lindbergh, northeast of the prominent Goclenius; the crater is symmetrical, with a wide interior floor. The sloping inner walls have a higher albedo than the surrounding mare, but the interior floor is the same dark shade as the exterior of the crater. There is a small crater on the floor near the western rim, but otherwise no significant markings; the mare to the south and west of Ibn Battuta contains a number of ghost crater formations, consisting of crater rims that have been submerged by lava flows and now form ring-shaped projections in the surface. These are best observed under conditions of oblique lighting, when the terminator still lies on or near the Mare Fecunditatis; this crater was designated Goclenius A before being given its current name by the IAU. It is named after the Moroccan traveller and writer Ibn Battuta
Mare Fecunditatis is a lunar mare, 840 km in diameter. The Fecunditatis basin formed in the Pre-Nectarian epoch, while the basin material surrounding the mare is of the Nectarian epoch; the mare material is of the Upper Imbrian epoch and is thin compared to Mare Crisium or Mare Tranquillitatis. This basin is overlapped with the Nectaris and Crisium basins. Fecunditatis basin meets Nectaris basin along Fecunditatis' western edge, with the area along this zone faulted by arcuated grabens. On the eastern edge of Fecunditatis is the crater Langrenus. Near the center lie the interesting craters Messier and Messier A, it was here that the first automated sample return took place via the Luna 16 probe, in September 1970. Sinus Successus lies along the eastern edge of the mare. Unlike many other maria, there is no mass concentration, or gravitational high, in the center of Mare Fecunditatis. Mascons were identified in the center of other maria from Doppler tracking of the five Lunar Orbiter spacecraft in 1968.
The gravity field was mapped at higher resolution with orbiters such as Lunar Prospector and GRAIL, which unveiled an irregular pattern. The Sea of Fertility - a tetralogy of novels by Mishima Yukio, named after the sea Fecunditatis Mare Fecunditatis at The Moon Wiki High resolution lunar overflight video by Seán Doran, based on LRO data, that starts over the western margin of Mare Fecunditatis and proceeds to Mare Crisium Wood, Chuck. "1.50° S, 52.36 E°". Lunar Photo of the Day
International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies and any surface features on them; the IAU is a member of the International Council for Science. Its main objective is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation; the IAU maintains friendly relations with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. The IAU has its head office on the second floor of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. Working groups include the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, which maintains the astronomical naming conventions and planetary nomenclature for planetary bodies, the Working Group on Star Names, which catalogs and standardizes proper names for stars.
The IAU is responsible for the system of astronomical telegrams which are produced and distributed on its behalf by the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. The Minor Planet Center operates under the IAU, is a "clearinghouse" for all non-planetary or non-moon bodies in the Solar System; the Working Group for Meteor Shower Nomenclature and the Meteor Data Center coordinate the nomenclature of meteor showers. The IAU was founded on 28 July 1919, at the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council held in Brussels, Belgium. Two subsidiaries of the IAU were created at this assembly: the International Time Commission seated at the International Time Bureau in Paris and the International Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams seated in Copenhagen, Denmark; the 7 initial member states were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece and the United States, soon to be followed by Italy and Mexico. The first executive committee consisted of Benjamin Baillaud, Alfred Fowler, four vice presidents: William Campbell, Frank Dyson, Georges Lecointe, Annibale Riccò.
Thirty-two Commissions were appointed at the Brussels meeting and focused on topics ranging from relativity to minor planets. The reports of these 32 Commissions formed the main substance of the first General Assembly, which took place in Rome, Italy, 2–10 May 1922. By the end of the first General Assembly, ten additional nations had joined the Union, bringing the total membership to 19 countries. Although the Union was formed eight months after the end of World War I, international collaboration in astronomy had been strong in the pre-war era; the first 50 years of the Union's history are well documented. Subsequent history is recorded in the form of reminiscences of past IAU Presidents and General Secretaries. Twelve of the fourteen past General Secretaries in the period 1964-2006 contributed their recollections of the Union's history in IAU Information Bulletin No. 100. Six past IAU Presidents in the period 1976–2003 contributed their recollections in IAU Information Bulletin No. 104. The IAU includes a total of 12,664 individual members who are professional astronomers from 96 countries worldwide.
83% of all individual members are male, while 17% are female, among them the union's former president, Mexican astronomer Silvia Torres-Peimbert. Membership includes 79 national members, professional astronomical communities representing their country's affiliation with the IAU. National members include the Australian Academy of Science, the Chinese Astronomical Society, the French Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academies, the National Research Foundation of South Africa, the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, KACST, the Council of German Observatories, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Science Council of Japan, among many others; the sovereign body of the IAU is its General Assembly. The Assembly determines IAU policy, approves the Statutes and By-Laws of the Union and elects various committees; the right to vote on matters brought before the Assembly varies according to the type of business under discussion.
The Statutes consider such business to be divided into two categories: issues of a "primarily scientific nature", upon which voting is restricted to individual members, all other matters, upon which voting is restricted to the representatives of national members. On budget matters, votes are weighted according to the relative subscription levels of the national members. A second category vote requires a turnout of at least two-thirds of national members in order to be valid. An absolute majority is sufficient for approval in any vote, except for Statute revision which requires a two-thirds majority. An equality of votes is resolved by the vote of the President of the Union. Since 1922, the IAU General Assembly meets every three years, with the ex
Rudolph Goclenius the Younger
Rudolph Goclenius the Younger was a German physician and professor of physics and mathematics at the Philipps University of Marburg. He was the oldest son of Rudolph Goclenius, professor of rhetoric and ethics at Marburg; as a physician he worked on cures against the plague. He became famous for his miraculous cure with Powder of Sympathy. Based on the hermetic concepts of Paracelsus he published 1608 the proposition of a "magnetic" cure to heal wounds: the application of the salve on the weapon should heal the wounds afflicted by the weapon; this concept was brought to England by the alchemist Robert Fludd. A famous proponent was Sir Kenelm Digby. Synchronising the effects of the powder was suggested in the leaflet Curious Enquiries in 1687 as a means of solving the longitude problem, he is the eponym of the lunar crater Goclenius. In 1651, the Jesuits Riccioli/Grimaldi honored him on behalf of his book Urania on astrology and astronomy. R. Goclenius: Rodolphi Goclenii Iun. D. Aulae Isenburgic. Medici Ordinar.
Uranoscopia, Chiroscopia & Metaposcopia, Hoc est, Coeli Seu Sphaerae Coelestis Syderumque Eius, Linearumque Manus Ac Frontis Contemplatio nova, eruditae & rationalis experientiae testimoniis demonstrata: qua probatur, divinationem ex astris, lineisq manuum & frontis nec impiam esse, nec superstitiosam, & propterea omnibus rerum Physicarum abditarumq studiosis concessam Lichae: Kezelius, 1603 R. Goclenius: De Pestis, fabrisque pestilentis causis, differentiis et signis cum consilio prophylactico & curatorio, gravissimarumque quaestionum declaratione, tractatus perspicuus & methodicus... In multorum communem utilitatem conscriptus a Rodolpho Goclenio, Marpurgi Cattorum 1607: Hutwelcker R. Goclenius: De vita proroganda: h.e. animi corporisque vigore conservando, salubriterque producendo tractatus. D. Uranoscopiae, Metoposcopiae, Et Ophtalmoscopiae, Contemplatio: Qua probatur, divinationem ex astris, lineisq manuu, facie & oculis nec impiam esse nec superstitiosam / Cui acceßit totius Physiognomie solida ex causis & effectis demonstratio, Editio Nova.
Francofurti: Schönwett, 1608 R. Goclenius: Tractatus de magnetica vulnerum curatione, Marburg 1608, Frankfurt 1613 R. Goclenius: Urania cum geminis filiabus: hoc est Astronomia, et astrologia speciali: nunc primo in lucem emigrans Rodolpho Goclenio, medic. Doctore et Professore in Acad. Marpurgensi. Against Jean Roberti. R. Goclenius: Rod. Goclenii, Med. D. Et Mathem. Professoris ordin. in Acad. Marpurgensi, Acroteleution Astrologicum: Triplex hominum genus circa divinationem ex astris in scenam producens, falsamq Astrologiam a vera, exemplis & experimentis distinguens, contra novas criminationes. Annexus quoq est tractatus integer correctior quam fuit ante Cypriani Leovitii, Mathematici Excellentiß. de coniunctionibus magnis, eclipsibus solaribus & Cometis, cum eorundem effectuum historica expositione.... Marpurgi: Egenolphus, 1618 A late discourse made in a solemne assembly of nobles and learned men at Montpellier in France touching the cure of wounds by the powder of sympathy: with instructions how to make the said powder: whereby many other secrets of nature are unfolded by Kenelm Digby, Sir.
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Gutenberg is a lunar impact crater that lies along the west edge of Mare Fecunditatis, in the eastern part of the visible Moon. It is named after German inventor Johannes Gutenberg. To the southeast are the craters Goclenius and Colombo. To the west-southwest is the crater Gaudibert, across the Montes Pyrenaeus that run south from Gutenberg; the rim of Gutenberg is worn and eroded, most notably in the east where it is broken by the overlapping crater Gutenberg E. This crater in turn has gaps in its southeast and southwest rims, forming a passage to the lunar mare to the east. There are clefts and valleys in the southern rim where it joins Gutenberg C; the crater Gutenberg A intrudes into the southwest rim. The floors of Gutenberg and Gutenberg E have been flooded in the past by lava, forming a flat plain across the bottom; this surface is broken across the northeast by a pair of clefts that form a part of the Rimae Goclenius. These extend northwest from the Goclenius region; the central rise of Gutenberg is a semi-circular range of hills that are the most prominent in the south, the concave part lies open to the east.
The floor is otherwise not marred by any significant craters. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Gutenberg. Lunar Photo of the Day, "Land of Manna", October 5, 2006, showing Gutenberg and vicinity