Bahá'í symbols are symbols that have been used, or are used, to express identification with the Bahá'í Faith. While the five-pointed star is the symbol of the religion, being used to represent the human body and Messengers of God, more common symbols include the nine-pointed star, the Greatest Name, the Ringstone symbol, representing perfection, the Messengers of God; the five-pointed star, or haykal is the symbol of the Bahá'í Faith as mentioned by Shoghi Effendi, head of the Bahá'í Faith in the first half of the 20th century: "Strictly speaking the 5-pointed star is the symbol of our Faith, as used by the Báb and explained by Him." The five-pointed star has been used as the outline of special letters or tablets by both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. Haykal is a loan word from the Hebrew word hēyḵāl, which means temple and Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. In Arabic, the word means the body or form of something the human body. In the Bahá'í tradition, the haykal was established by the Báb — who told of Bahá'u'lláh's coming — who represented the haykal as a five-pointed star representing the human body as a head, two hands, two feet.
The Báb wrote many letters, tablets and more in the shape of a five-pointed star, including some that included many derivatives of the word Bahá’. In Bahá'u'lláh's writings the Súriy-i-Haykal, while the meaning of temple remains present, the haykal is used to mean the human body, but the body of the Manifestation of God — a messenger from God — and the person of Bahá'u'lláh himself. In the Tablet, the haykal is used to refer to the word of God, revealed by the Manifestations of God, he says in the same Tablet:"O Living Temple! We have, in truth...ordained Thee to be the emblem of My Cause betwixt the heavens and the earth..." In Islamic belief God has 99 names, in some Islamic traditions it is believed that there is a special hidden 100th name, the greatest. In Bahá'í belief the Greatest Name is Bahá’, translated as "glory" or "splendour". Many symbols of the Bahá'í Faith derive their significance from the word Bahá’, it is the root word used in many other names and phrases including Bahá'í, Bahá'u'lláh, `Abdu'l-Bahá, Yá Bahá'u'l-Abhá, Alláh-u-Abhá.
In Twelver Islam, the Greatest Name, or Most Great Name, refers to the Book of God, thus the fact that Baha'u'llah used the verbiage of the Greatest Name signifies Baha'u'llah's writings similar to Bayán - explanation, in Babism. Bahá'u'lláh referred to Bahá'ís in his writings as "the people of Bahá’", in addition, the Báb sent a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh with 360 derivatives of the word Bahá’. Along with daily prayers, Bahá'ís are encouraged to recite the phrase "Alláh-u-Abhá" 95 times in a form of meditation; the symbol known as Greatest Name is an Arabic calligraphic rendering of "Yá Bahá'u'l-Abhá". This rendering was drawn by the early Bahá'í calligrapher Mishkín Qalam, adopted by Bahá'ís everywhere. Since the symbol refers more directly to the Name of God and of the Messenger of God, than any other symbol in the Bahá'í Faith, it is not used in a casual manner or to adorn the personal artifacts that are put to common use; the symbol can be seen in Bahá'í homes and rings that are produced on a limited scale.
According to the Abjad system of Isopsephy, the word Bahá' has a numerical equivalence of 9, thus there is frequent use of the number 9 in Bahá'í symbols. The most used symbol connected to the number 9 is the nine-pointed star. While the star is not a part of the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, it is used as an emblem representing "9", because of the association of number 9 with perfection and Bahá’; the number 9 comes up several times in Bahá'í history and teachings. On the significance of the number 9, Shoghi Effendi wrote: "Concerning the number nine: the Bahá'ís reverence this for two reasons, first because it is considered by those interested in numbers as the sign of perfection; the second consideration, the more important one, is that it is the numerical value of the word "Bahá’"…"Besides these two significances the number nine has no other meaning. It is, enough to make the Bahá'ís use it when an arbitrary number is to be chosen." Its use on gravestone markers was approved by Shoghi Effendi head of the religion, in 1944.
The ringstone symbol was designed by `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's son and successor, as its name implies, is the most common symbol found on rings worn by Bahá'ís, but it is used on necklaces, book covers, paintings. It consists of two stars interspersed with a stylized Bahá’; the lower line is said to represent humanity and the world of creation, the upper line the world of God, the middle line represents the special station of Manifestation of God and the world of revelation. The position of Manifestation of God in this symbol is said to be the linking point to God; the two stars or haykals represent Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb. The writings of Bahá’u’lláh contain many allegories and symbolic language taken from nature, referring to spiritual principles. Christopher Buck analyses a selection of six key scenarios (the Promised One, the Covenant, illumination and the beloved, the Maid of H
Epistle to the Son of the Wolf
The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf is the last major work of Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, written in 1891 just before his death in 1892. It is a letter written to "the son of the Wolf," Shaykh Muhammad Taqi known as Áqá Najafi, a Muslim cleric in Isfáhán, where his family was the most powerful clerical family. Bahá'u'lláh called the father, Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the Wolf because of his responsibility for the execution of the Nahrí brothers in Isfahan in 1879; the father and son were known for their persecution of the Bahá’ís. In the book, Bahá ` u ` lláh calls upon him to repent, his father Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, Mír Muḥammad Ḥusayn, the Imám Jum'ih of Isfahán, surnamed were the conspirators against two brothers, Muhammad-Husayn Nahrí and Muhammad-Hasan Nahrí. The brothers came from an established mercantile family in Isfahan; the Imám-Jum'ih of the city owed the brothers money and – when the two asked for a payment – he devised a plan to rid his debt. After confronting Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir and Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, the son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh of this issue, the three devised a plan to imprison the brothers on account of their Bahá’í religion.
The two brothers were subsequently arrested, paraded around Isfahan with crowds jeering abuse, publicly executed in a humiliating manner. Bahá'u'lláh wrote several tablets lamenting the loss of the two brothers, denouncing the treachery that provoked their murder. One such tablet, Lawh-i-Burhán, addressed to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir accuses him and his accomplice Mír Muḥammad Ḥusayn of the persecution of the Bahá'ís. Bahá’u’lláh was heartbroken by the death of the brothers – he had met the two whilst a prisoner in Adrianople, he eulogized the two, naming them the "King of Martyrs" and the "Beloved of Martyrs", the "Twin Shining Lights". In this book Bahá'u'lláh described historical events such as His "arrest in Níyávarán and of the kind of chains that bound Him and of the machinations against Him by members of the Persian embassy in Constantinople, he wrote about his suggestion to Kamál Páshá, a Turkish official, that his government convene a gathering to plan for a world language and script. In the book entitled God Passes By, Shoghi Effendi gave the date of this meeting as 1863.
In this work Bahá'u'lláh quotes extensively from his own revealed scriptures. This makes a large portion of the work a summary of excerpts on critical concepts expressed in previous works in a condensed form. In the Epistle to the Son of Wolf Baha'u'llah alluded to His own Will and Testament — the Kitáb-i-'Ahd — as the Crimson Book. In this document he named his son, `Abdu'l-Bahá as his successor. Bahá’í Reference Library. Text of the English translation
The Kitáb-i-Íqán is one of many books held sacred by followers of the Bahá'í Faith. One Bahá'í scholar states that it can be regarded as the "most influential Quran commentary in Persian outside the Muslim world," because of its international audience, it is sometimes referred to as the Book of Iqan or The Iqan. The work was composed in Persian and in Arabic by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, in 1861, when he was living as an exile in Baghdad in a province of the Ottoman Empire. While Bahá'u'lláh had claimed to have received revelation some ten years earlier in the Síyáh-Chál, a dungeon in Tehran, he had not yet declared his mission. References to his own station therefore appear only in veiled form. Christopher Buck, author of a major study of the Íqán, has referred to this theme of the book as its "messianic secret," paralleling the same theme in the Gospel of Mark; the Íqán constitutes the major theological work of Bahá'u'lláh, hence of the Bahá'í Faith. It is sometimes referred to as the completion of the Persian Bayán.
When it was lithographed in Bombay in 1882, it was the first work of Bahá'í scripture to be published. It was first translated into English in 1904, one of the first works of Bahá'u'lláh to appear in English. Shoghi Effendi, who retranslated the work into English in 1931, referred to the work as follows: A model of Persian prose, of a style at once original and vigorous, remarkably lucid, both cogent in argument and matchless in its irresistible eloquence, this Book, setting forth in outline the Grand Redemptive Scheme of God, occupies a position unequalled by any work in the entire range of Bahá'í literature, except the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Bahá'u'lláh's Most Holy Book; the uncle of the Báb, Ḥájí Mírzá Siyyid Muḥammad, had been perplexed to hear that the promised one of Islam was his own nephew. When he was told that this was the same objection voiced by the uncle of the prophet of Islam, he was shaken and decided to investigate the matter. In 1861 he traveled to Karbila, Iraq, to visit his brother, Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥasan-'Alí, went to Baghdad to meet Bahá'u'lláh.
There he posed four questions about the signs of the appearance of the promised one in writing to Bahá'u'lláh. The 200 pages of the Kitáb-i-Íqán were written in the course of at most two days and two nights in reply about January 15, 1861; the book is in two parts: the first part deals with the foundational discourse that divine revelation is progressive and religions are related to one another, with each major monotheistic religion accepting the previous ones and in veiled terms, prophesying the advent of the next one. Since the questioner is a Muslim, Bahá'u'lláh uses verses from the Bible to show how a Christian could interpret his own sacred texts in allegorical terms to come to believe in the next dispensation. By extension the same method of interpretation can be used for a Muslim to see the validity of the claims of the Báb; the second and larger part of the book is the substantive discourse and deals with specific proofs, both theological and logical, of the mission of the Báb. One of the best-known and best-loved passages of this part is known as the "Tablet of the True Seeker."
Shoghi Effendi has offered the following lengthy description of the book's content: Within a compass of two hundred pages it proclaims unequivocally the existence and oneness of a personal God, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, omniscient and almighty. Well may it be claimed that of all the books revealed by the Author of the Bahá'í Revelation, this Book alone, by sweeping away the age-long barriers that have so insurmountably separated the great religions of the world, has laid down a broad and unassailable foundation for the complete and permanent reconciliation of their followers. Bahá'u'lláh. Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 1-931847-08-8. Buck, Christopher. Symbol & Secret: Qur'án Commentary in Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Iqán. Los Angeles, USA: Kalimát Press. ISBN 0-933770-80-4. Effendi, Shoghi. God Passes By. Wilmette, Illin
`Abdu’l-Bahá', born `Abbás, was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh and served as head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1892 until 1921. `Abdu’l-Bahá was canonized as the last of three "central figures" of the religion, along with Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb, his writings and authenticated talks are regarded as a source of Bahá'í sacred literature. He was born in Tehran to an aristocratic family. At the age of eight his father was imprisoned during a government crackdown on the Bábí Faith and the family's possessions were looted, leaving them in virtual poverty, his father was exiled from their native Iran, the family went to live in Baghdad, where they stayed for nine years. They were called by the Ottoman state to Istanbul before going into another period of confinement in Edirne and the prison-city of `Akká. `Abdu’l-Bahá remained a political prisoner there until the Young Turk Revolution freed him in 1908 at the age of 64. He made several journeys to the West to spread the Bahá'í message beyond its middle-eastern roots, but the onset of World War I left him confined to Haifa from 1914–1918.
The war replaced the hostile Ottoman authorities with the British Mandate, who knighted him for his help in averting famine following the war. In 1892 `Abdu'l-Bahá was appointed in his father's will to be his successor and head of the Bahá'í Faith, he faced opposition from all his family members, but held the loyalty of the great majority of Bahá'ís around the world. His Tablets of the Divine Plan helped galvanize Bahá'ís in North America into spreading the Bahá'í teachings to new territories, his Will and Testament laid the foundation for the current Bahá'í administrative order. Many of his writings and letters are extant, his discourses with the Western Bahá'ís emphasize the growth of the faith by the late 1890s. `Abdu'l-Bahá's given name was `Abbás. Depending on context, he would have gone by either Mírzá `Abbás or `Abbás Effendi, both of which are equivalent to the English Sir `Abbás, he preferred the title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. He is referred to in Bahá'í texts as "The Master". ` Abdu ` l-Bahá was born in Iran on 23 May 1844, the eldest son of Bahá ` u ` lláh and Navváb.
He was born on the same night on which the Báb declared his mission. Born with the given name of `Abbás, he was named after his grandfather Mírzá `Abbás Núrí, a prominent and powerful nobleman; as a child, `Abdu'l-Bahá was shaped by his father's position as a prominent Bábí. He recalled how he met the Bábí Táhirih and how she would take "me on to her knee, caress me, talk to me. I admired her most deeply". ` Abdu' l-Bahá had a carefree childhood. The family's Tehran home and country houses were beautifully decorated. `Abdu'l-Bahá enjoyed playing in the gardens with his younger sister with whom he was close. Along with his younger siblings – a sister, Bahíyyih, a brother, Mihdí – the three lived in an environment of privilege and comfort. With his father declining a position as minister of the royal court, it was customary not to send children of nobility to schools. Most noblemen were educated at home in scripture, rhetoric and basic mathematics. Many were educated to prepare themselves for life in the royal court.
Despite a brief spell at a traditional preparatory school at the age of seven for one year, `Abdu'l-Bahá received no formal education. As he grew he was educated by his mother, uncle. Most of his education however, came from his father. Years in 1890 Edward Granville Browne described how `Abdu'l-Bahá was "one more eloquent of speech, more ready of argument, more apt of illustration, more intimately acquainted with the sacred books of the Jews, the Christians, the Muhammadans...scarcely be found amongst the eloquent."When `Abdu'l-Bahá was seven, he contracted tuberculosis and was expected to die. Though the malady faded away, he would be plagued with bouts of illness for the rest of his life. One event that affected `Abdu'l-Bahá during his childhood was the imprisonment of his father when `Abdu'l-Bahá was eight years old. `Abdu'l-Bahá accompanied his mother to visit Bahá'u'lláh, imprisoned in the infamous subterranean dungeon the Síyáh-Chál. He described how "I saw a steep place. We entered a small, narrow doorway, went down two steps, but beyond those one could see nothing.
In the middle of the stairway, all of a sudden we heard His …voice:'Do not bring him in here', so they took me back". Bahá'u'lláh was released from prison but ordered into exile, `Abdu'l-Bahá eight joined his father on the journey to Baghdad in the winter of 1853. During the journey `Abdu'l-Bahá suffered from frost-bite. After a year of difficulties Bahá'u'lláh absented himself rather than continue to face the conflict with Mirza Yahya and secretly secluded himself in the mountains of Sulaymaniyah in April 1854 a month before `Abdu'l-Bahá's tenth birthday. Mutual sorrow resulted in his mother and sister becoming constant companions. `Abdu'l-Bahá was close to both, his mother took active participation in his education and upbringing. During the two-year absence of his father `Abdu'l-Bahá took up the duty of managing the affairs of the family, before his age
Summons of the Lord of Hosts
The Summons of the Lord of Hosts is a collection of the tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, that were written to the kings and rulers of the world during his exile in Adrianople and in the early years of his exile to the fortress town of Acre in 1868. Bahá'u'lláh claimed to be the Promised One of all religions and all ages and summoned the leaders of East and West to recognize him as the promised one; the Summons of the Lord of Hosts is the printing of five distinct tablets of this material. See online text hereThe Súriy-i-Haykal or Tablet of the Temple, is a composite work which consists of a tablet followed by five messages addressed to Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Tsar Alexander II of Russia, Queen Victoria, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar; the messages were written while Bahá'u'lláh was in Adrianople, shortly after its completion, Bahá'u'lláh instructed the Surih and the tablets to the kings be written in the form of a pentacle, symbolizing the human temple, added to it the conclusion: Thus have We built the Temple with the hands of power and might, could ye but know it.
This is the Temple promised unto you in the Book. Draw ye nigh unto it; this is that which could ye but comprehend it. Be fair, O peoples of the earth! Which is preferable, this, or a temple, built of clay? Set your faces towards it, thus have ye been commanded by God, the Help in Peril, the Self-Subsisting. Shoghi Effendi, who described the tablet as one of Bahá'u'lláh's most challenging works, writes about the Súriy-i Haykal, "words which reveal the importance He attached to those Messages, indicate their direct association with the prophecies of the Old Testament", referring to the prophecy where Zechariah had promised the rebuilding of the Temple in the End of Times. In the Book of Zechariah it is recorded: And speak unto him, Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH. Shoghi Effendi, in The Promised Day is Come, refers to this rebuilding of the temple as fulfilled in the return of the Manifestation of God in a human temple. Throughout the tablet, Bahá'u'lláh address the Haykal and explains the glory, invested in it.
Bahá ` u ` lláh, in response to a question, has stated. Adib Taherzadeh has written that "t is fascinating to know that the One Who speaks with the voice of God in this Tablet is identical with the One spoken to." Regarding the Haykal, Bahá'u'lláh writes that it refers to the human or physical temple of the Manifestation of God. He states that the Manifestation of God is a pure mirror that reflects the sovereignty of God and manifests God's beauty and grandeur to mankind. In essence Bahá'u'lláh explains that the Manifestation of God is a "Living Temple" and every time that Bahá'u'lláh addresses the Haykal he shows a new facet of God's revelation; the Haykal, which represents the Manifestation of God who spreads the Word of God in the form of a human temple, has members each of whom symbolize one of the signs and attributes of God. To the eyes of the Haykal he asks it to not look at the world of creation, but instead to focus on the beauty of God. To the Haykal's ears Bahá'u'lláh asks it to become deaf to the voices of the ungodly and to listen to the Word of God.
To the tongue of the Haykal Bahá ` u ` lláh states. To the hands of the Haykal Bahá'u'lláh asks them to stretch out upon all humankind and hold within their grasp the reins of God. Bahá'u'lláh states that from the heart of the Haykal knowledge will emerge and raise scientists who will bring about technological achievements. Another symbol used by Bahá'u'lláh in describing the Haykal is through the four letters that compose the word in Arabic. Bahá'u'lláh in the tablet explains the spiritual significance of each letter: H is for Huwiyyah, Y is for Qadír, K is for Karím, L is for Fadl. Regarding the five other messages to the rulers that form the pentacle of the Súriy-i-Haykal, Bahá'u'lláh tells them he is the Manifestation of God for this day, that they should accept his message; the message to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, the longest message, was delivered to the Shah by Badí‘, a youth, killed by the Shah shortly thereafter. See online text hereThe Súriy-i-Ra'ís, or "Tablet of the Chief", which addresses Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha, the Ottoman Prime Minister, was written in August 1868, when Bahá'u'lláh and the other Bahá'ís were being exiled from Adrianople to Gallipoli to their final destination of the prison city of Acre.
The Súriy-i Ra'ís, written in Arabic, was revealed in honour of Muhammad Isma'il Kashani, a faithful believer of Bahá'u'lláh. In the tablet, Bahá'u'lláh writes about Âli Pasha's claimed abuse of civil power. In the tablet, Bahá'u'lláh tells Âli Pasha, whom he calls chief, to listen to the voice of God, that no power on earth can prevent him from proclaiming God's message and from achieving his purpose. Bahá'u'lláh further accuses Âli Pasha of conspiring with the Qajar Empire's ambassador to harm him, forecasts that because of this injustice he will find himself with a "manifest loss." Furthermore, Bahá'u'lláh compares Âli Pasha with those who rose up against previous prophets, such as Nimrod against Abraham, Pharaoh against Moses, the Sasanian emperor against Muhammad. Regarding Âli Pasha's superior, Sultan A
Shoghí Effendí Rabbání, better known as Shoghi Effendi, was the Guardian and appointed head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957. Shoghi Effendi spent his early life in ʿAkkā, his education was directed to serving as secretary and translator to his grandfather, `Abdu'l-Bahá leader of the Bahá'í Faith and son of the religion's founder, Bahá'u'lláh. After the death of `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1921, the leadership of the Bahá'í community changed from that of a single individual to an administrative order with executive and legislative branches, the head of each being the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, respectively. Shoghi Effendi was referred to as the Guardian, had the authority to interpret the writings of the three central figures of the religion and define the sphere of legislative authority, his writings are limited to commentaries on the works of the central figures, broad directives for the future. Future hereditary Guardians were permitted in the Bahá'í scripture by appointment from one to the next with the prerequisite that appointees be male descendants of Bahá'u'lláh.
At the time of Shoghi Effendi's death, all living male descendants of Bahá'u'lláh had been declared Covenant-breakers by either `Abdu'l-Bahá or Shoghi Effendi, leaving no suitable living candidates. Shoghi Effendi died without appointing a successor Guardian, the Universal House of Justice, the only institution authorized to adjudicate on situations not covered in scripture announced that it could not legislate to make possible the appointment of a successor to Shoghi Effendi. Shoghi Effendi was the last person acknowledged as Guardian of the Bahá' í Faith. Born in ʿAkkā in the Acre Sanjak of the Ottoman Empire in March 1897, Shoghi Effendi was related to the Báb through his father, Mírzá Hádí Shírází, to Bahá'u'lláh through his mother, Ḍíyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. `Abdu'l-Bahá, who provided much of his initial training influenced Shoghi Effendi from the early years of his life. Shoghi Effendi learned prayers from his grandfather. `Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that people address the child as "Shoghi Effendi", rather than as "Shoghi", as a mark of respect towards him.
From his early years, Shoghi Effendi was introduced to the suffering which accompanied the Bahá'ís in Akká, including the attacks by Mírzá Muhammad `Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. As a young boy, he was aware of the desire of Sultan Abdul Hamid II to banish `Abdu'l-Bahá to the deserts of North Africa where he was expected to perish. At one point, Shoghi Effendi was warned not to drink coffee in the homes of any of the Bahá'ís in the fear that he would be poisoned; as the eldest grandson of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi from his earliest childhood had a special relationship with his grandfather. According to one account, when Shoghi Effendi was only 5 years old, he pestered his grandfather to write a tablet for him, common practice for `Abdu'l-Bahá, he wrote the following for his grandson: He is God! O My Shoghi, I have no time to talk, leave me alone! You said write, I have written. What else should be done? Now is not the time for you to write, it is the time for jumping about and chanting O My God! Therefore, memorize the prayers of the Blessed Beauty and chant them that I may hear them.
Because there is no time for anything else. Shoghi Effendi set out to memorize a number of prayers, chanted them as loud as he could; this caused family members to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá to quieten him down, a request which he refused. Shoghi Effendi received his early education at home with the other children in the household attended a French Christian Brothers school in Haifa, boarded at another Catholic school in Beirut. Shoghi Effendi attended the Syrian Protestant College for his final years of high school and first years of university, where he earned an arts degree in 1918, he reports being unhappy in school and returned on vacations to Haifa to spend time with `Abdu'l-Bahá. During his studies, he dedicated himself to mastering English—adding this language to the Persian, Turkish and French languages in which he was fluent—so that he could translate the letters of `Abdu'l-Bahá and serve as his secretary. Shoghi Effendi was protected from World War I due to the neutrality of the Syrian Protestant College.
Though political tensions in 1917 meant the college was closed student life continued. In the summer of 1918 `Abdu’l-Bahá’s life was in critical danger until the entry of General Allenby’s troops to Haifa. With the Armistice looming and having completed his studies Shoghi Effendi was ready to return to his grandfather. In the Autumn of 1918 Shoghi Effendi went back to Haifa to assist `Abdu'l-Bahá in his mounting correspondence. In a private letter to a friend from late 1918 Shoghi Effendi reflects on the untold sufferings of the War but anticipates that "this is indeed the era of service". After studying at the American University of Beirut he went to Balliol College, Oxford, in England, where he matriculated in "Economics and Social Sciences", while still perfecting his translation skills. Shoghi Effendi was happy during his time in Balliol. Accounts from his contemporaries remember him as a popular student, he was acquainted with future British prime minister Anthony Eden but they were not close friends.
His studies were interspersed with occasional trips around the United Kingdom to meet Bahá’í communities. Shoghi Effendi was touched meeting the small group of Bahá’ís from Manchester. During this period Shoghi Effendi began what would be a life-lo
Tabernacle of Unity
The Tabernacle of Unity is a small book, first published in July 2006, containing Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet, from the early `Akká period, to Mánikchí Ṣáḥib, a prominent Zoroastrian, a companion Tablet addressed to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, the secretary to Mánikchí Ṣáḥib at that time. These, together with three shorter inspirational Tablets, offer a glimpse of Bahá'u'lláh’s relationship with the followers of Zoroastrianism; the title of this work is taken from the following passage: This Tablet, revealed at the request of Mánikchí Ṣáḥib in pure Persian, consists of 19 paragraphs. It emphasizes the universality of Bahá'u'lláh's prophetic claim, includes some of the central teachings of the Bahá'í Faith; this is a lengthy Tablet revealed on 1 July 1882. Among the subjects discussed are: The nature of creation; the connection between faith and reason. The reconciliation of the differences that exist among the laws and ordinances of various religions, their respective claims to exclusivity. Their differing degrees of eagerness to welcome others into their fold.
This Tablet is Bahá'u'lláh's reply to questions asked by Ustád Javán-Mard, an early Bahá'í of Zoroastrian background and ex-student of Mánikchí Ṣáḥib. The questions are relating to the following subjects: In what tongue and towards what direction should God be worshipped? The Faith of God Opposition Sháh Bahrám The Bridge of Sirát, Paradise and Hell The soul The lineage and ancestry of Bahá'u'lláh These two short Tablets, each addressed to a believer of Zoroastrian background, are inspirational in nature, calling the believers for deeds, not words. Bahá' í Hinduism Bahá' í Faith and Zoroastrianism Bahá ` u ` lláh. Tabernacle of Unity. Haifa, Israel: Bahá'í World Centre. ISBN 0-85398-969-9. Hatcher, J. S.. The Ocean of His Words: A Reader's Guide to the Art of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-259-7. Taherzadeh, A.. The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 3: `Akka, The Early Years 1868–77. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-144-2. BWNS: New volume of Bahá'í sacred writings is published Tablet to Mánikchí Ṣáḥib, a provisional translation with an introduction and a brief outline, by Ramin Neshati.
Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism: The Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria and Translation by Juan R. I. Cole