Separation of church and state
The separation of church and state is a concept defining the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state. It may refer to creating a state, with or without explicit reference to such separation. The concept parallels various other social and political ideas, including secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty. Whitman observes that in many European countries, the state has, over the centuries, taken over the roles of the church. Many societies in antiquity had imperial cults where heads of state were worshiped as messiahs, ancient history is replete with examples of political leaders who derived legitimacy through religious titles. Sargon of Akkad was referred to as the deputy of Ishtar, julius Caesar was elected as Pontifex Maximus, the chief priest of the Roman state religion before he became the consul of Rome. Caligula referred to himself as a god when meeting with politicians, in this work, Augustine posited that major points of overlap were to be found between the earthly city and the city of God, especially as people need to live together and get along on earth.
Thus Augustine held that it was the work of the city to make it possible for a heavenly city to be established on earth. For centuries, monarchs ruled by the idea of divine right, sometimes this began to be used by a monarch to support the notion that the king ruled both his own kingdom and Church within its boundaries, a theory known as caesaropapism. On the other side was the Catholic doctrine that the Pope, as the Vicar of Christ on earth, should have the authority over the Church. In the West the issue of the separation of church and state during the medieval period centered on monarchs who ruled in the secular sphere, at the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther articulated a doctrine of the two kingdoms. While there was a diversity of views in the days of the Radical Reformation. Anabaptists came to teach that religion should never be compelled by state power, approaching the issue of church-state relations primarily from the position of protecting the church from the state.
In the 1530s, Henry VIII, angered by the Pope Clement VIIs refusal to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, decided to break with the Church and set himself as ruler of the Church of England. The monarchs of Great Britain have retained ecclesiastical authority in the Church of England since Henry VIII, having the current title, englands ecclesiastical intermixing did not spread widely, due to the extensive persecution of Catholics that resulted from Henrys power grab. Some of these people voluntarily sailed to the American Colonies specifically for this purpose, the concept of separating church and state is often credited to the writings of English philosopher John Locke. For Locke, this created a right in the liberty of conscience. At the same period of the 17th century, Pierre Bayle and some fideists were forerunners of the separation of Church and State, maintaining that faith was independent of reason
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is the multi-disciplinary academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs and institutions. It describes, compares and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, Religious studies draws upon multiple disciplines and their methodologies including anthropology, psychology and history of religion. Religious studies originated in the 19th century, when scholarly and historical analysis of the Bible had flourished, early influential scholars included Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the Netherlands. Today religious studies is practiced by scholars worldwide, in its early years, it was known as Comparative Religion or the Science of Religion and, in the USA, there are those who today know the field as the History of religion. The field is known as Religionswissenschaft in Germany and Sciences des religions in the French-speaking world, the term religion originated from the Latin noun religio, that was nominalized from one of three verbs, relegere and reeligere.
During the Medieval Period, the religious was used as a noun to describe someone who had joined a monastic order. The religious studies scholar Walter Capps described the purpose of the discipline as to provide training, in directing and conducting inquiry regarding the subject of religion. At the same time, Capps stated that its purpose was to use prescribed modes and techniques of inquiry to make the subject of religion intelligible. Some scholars of religious studies are interested in studying the religion to which they belong. It has argued that studying religion is useful in appreciating and understanding sectarian tensions. Throughout the history of studies, there have been many attempts to define the term religion. Other forms of definition are polythetic, producing a list of characteristics that are common to religion, in this definition there is no one characteristic that need be common to every form of religion. Conversely, other scholars of religious studies have argued that the discipline should reject the term religion altogether, in this perspective, religion is argued to be a Western concept that has been forced upon other cultures in an act of intellectual imperialism.
According to scholar of religion Russell T. McCutcheon, many of the peoples that we study by means of this category have no equivalent term or concept whatsoever, there is, for instance, no word for religion in languages like Sanskrit. Before religious studies became a field in its own right, flourishing in the United States in the late 1960s, one of these figures was the famous pragmatist William James. His 1902 Gifford lectures and book The Varieties of Religious Experience examined religion from a perspective and is still influential today. His essay The Will to Believe defends the rationality of faith, Max Weber studied religion from an economic perspective in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, his most famous work. As a major figure in sociology, he has no doubt influenced sociologists of religion, Émile Durkheim holds continuing influence as one of the fathers of sociology
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
It was adopted on December 15,1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was originally proposed to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification, the First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, and many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, and is therefore subject to greater regulation. The Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, in Near v. Minnesota and New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in almost all cases.
The Petition Clause protects the right to all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, eight of the other thirteen states made similar pledges. However, these declarations were generally considered mere admonitions to state legislatures, after a brief debate, Masons proposal was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. For the constitution to be ratified, nine of the thirteen states were required to approve it in state conventions, opposition to ratification was partly based on the Constitutions lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. Constitution was eventually ratified by all thirteen states and this language was greatly condensed by Congress, and passed the House and Senate with almost no recorded debate, complicating future discussion of the Amendments intent. The First Amendment, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights, was submitted to the states for ratification on September 25,1789, and adopted on December 15,1791.
In Reynolds v. United States the Supreme Court used these words to declare that it may be accepted almost as a declaration of the scope. Congress was deprived of all power over mere opinion, but was left free to reach actions which were in violation of social duties or subversive of good order. In these two sentences is found the distinction between what properly belongs to the church and what to the State. Originally, the First Amendment applied only to the federal government, for example, was officially Congregationalist until the 1830s. Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, in the words of Jefferson, the clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect a wall of separation between church and State. That wall must be high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach, in Torcaso v. Watkins, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution prohibits states and the federal government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
Kirkus Reviews is an American book review magazine founded in 1933 by Virginia Kirkus. The magazine is headquartered in New York City, Kirkus Reviews, published on the first and 15th of each month, previews books prior to their publication. Kirkus reviews over 7,000 titles per year, in 2014, Kirkus Reviews started the Kirkus Prize. It is one of the richest literary awards in the world, bestowing $50,000 prizes annually to authors of fiction, Kirkus operates a number of additional services, including Kirkus Editorial, Kirkus Indie, and Kirkus Marketing. And, Motoko reported, Authors seemed to have a relationship with Kirkus. Not surprisingly, it had to do with what the reviewers said about their books, one book reviewed in the Kirkus Indie is chosen to be included in the bi-weekly magazine and one is included in the weekly email newsletter. Virginia Kirkus was hired by Harper & Brothers to establish a book department in 1926. The department was eliminated as a measure in 1932, so Kirkus left. Initially, she arranged to get galley proofs of 20 or so books in advance of their publication, almost 80 years and it was sold to The New York Review of Books in 1970 and sold by the Review to Barbara Bader and Josh Rubins.
In 1985, magazine consultant James B, david LeBreton bought Kirkus from Kobak in 1993. BPI Communications, owned by Dutch publisher VNU, bought Kirkus from LeBreton in 1999, at the end of 2009, the company announced the end of operations for Kirkus. The journal was purchased from VNU on February 10,2010 by businessman Herbert Simon and it was thereafter renamed Kirkus Media, and book industry veteran Marc Winkelman was made publisher. Official website Kirkus Service at Library of Congress Authorities, with 4 catalog records Virginia Kirkus at Library of Congress Authorities, with 7 catalog records
The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress determined King George IIIs rule to be tyrannical and infringing the rights as Englishmen. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were forced out of Boston in 1776, but captured and they blockaded the ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but failed to defeat Washingtons forces. After a failed Patriot invasion of Canada, a British army was captured at the Battle of Saratoga in late 1777, a combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States.
The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, the lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies, in 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles, none did and Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes on the colonies for the first time.
All official documents, newspapers and pamphlets—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps, the colonists did not object that the taxes were high, but because they had no representation in the Parliament. Benjamin Franklin testified in Parliament in 1766 that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire, stationing a standing army in Great Britain during peacetime was politically unacceptable. London had to deal with 1,500 politically well-connected British officers who became redundant, in 1765, the Sons of Liberty formed. They used public demonstrations, boycott and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable, in Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice admiralty court and looted the home of chief justice Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765, moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances stating that taxes passed without representation violated their rights as Englishmen.
Colonists emphasized their determination by boycotting imports of British merchandise, the Parliament at Westminster saw itself as the supreme lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to levy any tax without colonial approval