CBS is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major facilities and operations in New York City. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the iconic logo. It has called the Tiffany Network, alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley. It can refer to some of CBSs first demonstrations of color television, the network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations that was purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paleys guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, in 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known simply as CBS, Inc. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971, CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom.
The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated stations throughout the United States. The origins of CBS date back to January 27,1927, Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18,1927, with a presentation by the Howard Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, and fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep, particularly the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, in early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the networks Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, and their partner Jerome Louchenheim. With the record out of the picture, Paley quickly streamlined the corporate name to Columbia Broadcasting System. He believed in the power of advertising since his familys La Palina cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchenheim share of CBS, during Louchenheims brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H.
Grebes Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the networks flagship station. WABC was quickly upgraded, and the relocated to 860 kHz. The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, by the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures. The deal came to fruition in September 1929, Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time
New York Philharmonic
It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the Big Five. The Philharmonics home is David Geffen Hall, known as Avery Fisher Hall until September 2015, founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the Big Five orchestras. Its record-setting 14, 000th concert was given in December 2004, the New York Philharmonic was founded in 1842 by the American conductor Ureli Corelli Hill, with the aid of the Irish composer William Vincent Wallace. The orchestra was called the Philharmonic Society of New York. It was the third Philharmonic on American soil since 1799, and had as its intended purpose, the first concert of the Philharmonic Society took place on December 7,1842 in the Apollo Rooms on lower Broadway before an audience of 600. The concert opened with Beethovens Symphony No, the musicians operated as a cooperative society, deciding by a majority vote such issues as who would become a member, which music would be performed and who among them would conduct.
At the end of the season, the players would divide any proceeds among themselves, after only a dozen public performances and barely four years old, the Philharmonic organized a concert to raise funds to build a new music hall. The centerpiece was the American premiere of Beethovens Symphony No,9, to take place at Castle Garden on the southern tip of Manhattan. About 400 instrumental and vocal performers gathered for this premiere, which was conducted by George Loder, the chorals were translated into what would be the first English performance anywhere in the world. However, with the expensive US$2.00 ticket price and a war rally uptown, the audience was kept away. Although judged by some as an odd work with all those singers kept at bay until the end, during the Philharmonics first seven seasons, seven musicians alternated the conducting duties. In addition to Hill, Timm and Étienne, these were William Alpers, George Loder, Louis Wiegers and this changed in 1849 when Theodore Eisfeld was installed as sole conductor for the season.
Eisfeld, along with Carl Bergmann, would be the conductor until 1865 and that year Eisfeld returned to Europe, and Bergmann continued to conduct the Society until his death in 1876. Leopold Damrosch, Franz Liszts former concertmaster at Weimar, served as conductor of the Philharmonic for the 1876/77 season, but failing to win support from the Philharmonics public, he left to create the rival Symphony Society of New York in 1878. Upon his death in 1885, his 23-year-old son Walter took over, Carnegie Hall would remain the orchestras home until 1962. The Philharmonic in 1877 was in financial condition, caused by the paltry income from five concerts in the 1876/77 season that brought in an average of only $168 per concert. At first the Philharmonics suggestion offended Thomas because he was unwilling to disband his own orchestra, because of the desperate financial circumstances, the Philharmonic offered Theodore Thomas the conductorship without conditions, and he began conducting the orchestra in the autumn of 1877.
He left in 1891 to found the Chicago Symphony, taking thirteen Philharmonic musicians with him, another celebrated conductor, Anton Seidl, followed Thomas on the Philharmonic podium, serving until 1898
Eugene Ormandy was a Hungarian-born conductor and violinist, best known for his association with the Philadelphia Orchestra, as its music director. The maestros 44-year association with the orchestra is one of the longest enjoyed by any conductor with a single orchestra, under his baton, the Philadelphia Orchestra had three gold records and won two Grammy Awards. Ormandy was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary as Jenő Blau, the son of Jewish parents Rosalie and Benjamin Blau, Ormandy began studying violin at the Royal National Hungarian Academy of Music at the age of five. He gave his first concerts as a violinist at age seven and, studying with Jenő Hubay, in 1920, he obtained a university degree in philosophy. In 1921, he moved to the United States, around this time Blau changed his name to Eugene Ormandy, Eugene being the equivalent of the Hungarian Jenő. Accounts differ on the origin of Ormandy, it may have either been Blaus own middle name at birth and he became the concertmaster within five days of joining and soon became one of the conductors of this group.
Ormandy made 16 recordings as a violinist between 1923 and 1929, half of using the acoustic process. Judson greatly assisted Ormandys career, and when Arturo Toscanini was too ill to conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1931 and this led to Ormandys first major appointment as a conductor, in Minneapolis. Ormandy served until 1936 as conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, during the depths of the Great Depression, RCA Victor contracted Ormandy and the Minneapolis Symphony for many recordings. A clause in the contract required them to earn their salaries by performing a certain number of hours each week. Since Victor did not need to pay the musicians, it could afford to send its best technicians, recordings were made between January 16,1934, and January 16,1935. Ormandys recordings included Anton Bruckners Symphony No.7 and Mahlers Symphony No,2, which became extremely well known. Ormandys 44-year tenure with the Philadelphia Orchestra began in 1936 and became the source of much of his lasting reputation, two years after his appointment as associate conductor under Leopold Stokowski, he became its music director.
As music director, Ormandy conducted from 100 to 180 concerts each year in Philadelphia, upon his retirement in 1980, he was made conductor laureate. Ormandy was a quick learner of scores, often conducting from memory and he demonstrated exceptional musical and personal integrity, exceptional leadership skills, and a formal and reserved podium manner in the style of his idol and friend, Arturo Toscanini. One orchestra musician complimented him by saying, He doesnt try to conduct every note as some conductors do, under Ormandys direction the Philadelphia Orchestra continued the lush, legato style originated by Stokowski and for which the orchestra was well known. Ormandys conducting style was praised for its opulent sound, but was criticized for lacking any real individual touch. Ormandy was particularly noted for conducting late Romantic and early 20th century music and he particularly favored Bruckner, Dvořák, Richard Strauss, Tchaikovsky and transcriptions of Bach
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776.
The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city
Richard Charles Rodgers was an American composer of music for more than 900 songs and for 43 Broadway musicals. He composed music for films and television and he is best known for his songwriting partnerships with the lyricists Lorenz Hart and Oscar Hammerstein II. His compositions have had a significant impact on popular music up to the present day and he has won a Pulitzer Prize, making him one of two people to receive each award. Richard began playing the piano at age six,10, Townsend Harris Hall and DeWitt Clinton High School. Rodgers spent his teenage summers in Camp Wigwam where he composed some of his first songs. Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, and collaborator Oscar Hammerstein II all attended Columbia University, at Columbia, Rodgers joined the Pi Lambda Phi fraternity. In 1921, Rodgers shifted his studies to the Institute of Musical Art, Rodgers was influenced by composers such as Victor Herbert and Jerome Kern, as well as by the operettas his parents took him to see on Broadway when he was a child.
In 1919, Richard met Lorenz Hart, thanks to Phillip Leavitt and Hart struggled for years in the field of musical comedy, writing several amateur shows. They made their debut with the song Any Old Place With You. Their first professional production was the 1920 Poor Little Ritz Girl and their next professional show, The Melody Man, did not premiere until 1924. When he was just out of college Rodgers worked as director for Lew Fields. Among the stars he accompanied were Nora Bayes and Fred Allen, Rodgers was considering quitting show business altogether to sell childrens underwear, when he and Hart finally broke through in 1925. They wrote the songs for a show presented by the prestigious Theatre Guild, called The Garrick Gaieties. Only meant to run one day, the Guild knew they had a success, the shows biggest hit — the song that Rodgers believed made Rodgers and Hart — was Manhattan. The two were now a Broadway songwriting force, throughout the rest of the decade, the duo wrote several hit shows for both Broadway and London, including Dearest Enemy, The Girl Friend, Peggy-Ann, A Connecticut Yankee, and Present Arms.
Their 1920s shows produced standards such as Here in My Arms, Mountain Greenery, Blue Room, My Heart Stood Still, with the Depression in full swing during the first half of the 1930s, the team sought greener pastures in Hollywood. Rodgers wrote a melody for which Hart wrote three consecutive lyrics which either were cut, not recorded or not a hit, the fourth lyric resulted in one of their most famous songs, Blue Moon. In 1935, they returned to Broadway and wrote an almost unbroken string of hit shows that only with Harts death in 1943
Hanley, in Staffordshire, England, is one of the six major towns that joined together to form the city of Stoke-on-Trent in 1910. Hanley was the one of the six towns to be a county borough before the merger. Hanley was incorporated as a borough in 1857 and became a county borough with the passage of the Local Government Act 1888. It is now the main shopping centre, the Potteries Shopping Centre containing many high street chain stores. The name Hanley comes from haer lea, meaning high meadow”, at one time, there were many coal mines in North Staffordshire. Hanley Deep Pit was opened in 1854 and it was the deepest pit in the North Staffordshire coalfield, reaching a depth of 1500 feet. At its peak in the 1930s it employed some 2000 men, the pit was closed in 1962 but much of the headgear and spoilheaps were left in situ. Then, in the 1980s, the site was cleared and converted into Hanley Forest Park. Coal miners in the Hanley and Longton area ignited the 1842 General Strike, the 1986 Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival led to the reclamation of large areas of land west of the city centre area – including the former Shelton steelworks, which had been derelict since 1978.
Ironically, when the Garden Festival closed, the land remained derelict for some time, before being re-developed partly into public parkland and partly for retail, in 2013, a brand new and modern bus station opened in Hanley. This replaced the bus station, on Lichfield Street. The new bus station is the first stage in the project which will see the previous bus station demolished, and replaced with a new centre consisting of shops, restaurants. The new bus station is smaller than its predecessor, and has various routes in. Access to the station is controlled by doors, at both the pedestrian entrance and coach bays. The new bus station links Hanley with towns in North Staffordshire, as well as Buxton, most services are run by First Potteries, though there are a number of smaller independent operators, such as Wardle Transport, BakerBus, and Arriva Midlands. In addition, National Express Coaches connect Hanley with destinations including London, Birmingham and Manchester, the station survived for 100 years – it was closed in 1964, as part of the Beeching Axe, and the land is now a car park.
Hanley is connected to the network, it meets the Trent and Mersey Canal at Festival Park. On 1 April 1910, the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent, by 1925 the area was granted city status
Tony Randall was an American actor and director, best known for his role as Felix Unger in the television adaptation of Neil Simons play The Odd Couple. Randall was born to a Jewish family, in Tulsa, the son of Julia and Mogscha Rosenberg and he attended Tulsa Central High School. Randall attended Northwestern University for a year going to New York City to study at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre. He studied under Sanford Meisner and choreographer Martha Graham, Randall worked as an announcer at radio station WTAG in Worcester, Massachusetts. As Anthony Randall, he starred with Jane Cowl in George Bernard Shaws Candida, Randall served for four years with the United States Army Signal Corps in World War II, refusing an entertainment assignment with Special Services. After the war, he worked at the Olney Theatre in Montgomery County, Randall appeared in minor roles on Broadway and supporting roles on tours. In the 1940s one of his first jobs was playing Reggie on the radio series I Love a Mystery.
In 1946, he was cast as one of the brothers in a production of Katharine Cornells revival of The Barretts of Wimpole Street. His first major role in a Broadway hit was in Inherit the Wind in 1955 portraying Newspaperman E. K. Hornbeck, in 1958, he played the leading role in the musical comedy Oh, Captain. Taking on a role originated on film by Alec Guinness, was a financial failure, but Randall received a Tony Award nomination for his legendary dance turn with prima ballerina Alexandra Danilova. Tony Randalls first major role was as a history teacher, Harvey Weskit. He returned to television in 1970 as Felix Ungar in The Odd Couple, opposite Jack Klugman, the names of Ungars children on The Odd Couple were Edna and Leonard, named for Randalls sister and Randall himself. In 1974, Randall and Jack Klugman appeared in television spots endorsing a Yahtzee spinoff and they appeared in character as Felix and Oscar, and the TV spots were filmed on the same set as The Odd Couple. Later he starred in The Tony Randall Show, playing a Philadelphia judge, in the TV movie that served as the latter shows pilot, Sidney Shorr was written as a gay man, but his characters sexuality was made ambiguous when the series premiered.
Randall refused to star in any more shows, favoring the Broadway stage as his medium. From October 30 to November 2,1987, Randall hosted the free preview of HBOs short-lived premium channel Festival, in September 1993, Randall and Jack Klugman reunited in the CBS-TV movie The Odd Couple, Together Again reprising their roles. Randall starred as all of the leading characters in the 1964 classic film 7 Faces of Dr. Lao. The film received an Oscar for William J. Tuttles makeup artistry and his film roles included Oh, Men
Dame Julia Elizabeth Julie Andrews, DBE is an English actress, author, theatre director and dancer. Andrews, an actress and singer, appeared on the West End in 1948. She rose to prominence starring in Broadway musicals such as My Fair Lady, playing Eliza Doolittle, in 1957, Andrews starred in the premiere of Rodgers and Hammersteins written-for-television musical Cinderella, a live network broadcast seen by over 100 million viewers. Andrews made her film debut in Mary Poppins, and won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in the title role. She starred in The Sound of Music, playing Maria, between 1964 and 1986, she starred in The Americanization of Emily, Torn Curtain, Thoroughly Modern Millie, Star. The Tamarind Seed,10, Victor/Victoria, Thats Life. in 2000, Andrews was made a Dame by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the performing arts. In 2002, she was ranked #59 in the BBCs poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, in 2003, she revisited her first Broadway success, this time as a stage director, with a revival of The Boy Friend.
From 2001 to 2004, Andrews starred in The Princess Diaries, The Princess Diaries 2, from 2004 to 2010, she lent her voice to the Shrek animated films, and Despicable Me. She is an author of books and has published her autobiography, Home. Julia Elizabeth Wells was born on 1 October 1935 in Walton-on-Thames and her mother, Barbara Ward Wells was born in Chertsey and married Edward Charles Ted Wells, a teacher of metalwork and woodwork in 1932. However, Andrews was conceived as a result of an affair her mother had with a family friend. Andrews discovered her true parentage from her mother in 1950, although it was not publicly disclosed until her 2008 autobiography, with the outbreak of World War II, Barbara and Ted Wells went their separate ways and were soon divorced. Ted Wells assisted with evacuating children to Surrey during the Blitz, Andrews lived briefly with Ted Wells and her brother John in Surrey. In 1940, Ted Wells sent young Julia to live with her mother and stepfather, the Andrews family was very poor and we lived in a bad slum area of London, Andrews recalled, That was a very black period in my life.
According to Andrews, her stepfather was violent and an alcoholic, Ted Andrews twice, while drunk, tried to get into bed with his stepdaughter, resulting in Andrews fitting a lock on her door. The Andrews family took up residence at the Old Meuse, in West Grove and she had an enormous influence on me, Andrews said of Stiles-Allen, She was my third mother – Ive got more mothers and fathers than anyone in the world. In her memoir Julie Andrews – My Star Pupil, Stiles-Allen records, The range and she had possessed the rare gift of absolute pitch. According to Andrews, Madame was sure that I could do Mozart and Rossini, of her own voice, she says I had a very pure, thin voice, a four-octave range – dogs would come for miles around
Jason Nelson Robards, Jr. was an American stage and television actor. He was a winner of the Tony Award, two Academy Awards and an Emmy Award and he was a United States Navy combat veteran of World War II. He became famous playing works of American playwright Eugene ONeill and regularly performed in ONeills works throughout his career, Robards was cast both in common-man roles and as well-known historical figures. Robards was born in Chicago, the son of Hope Maxine Robards and Jason Robards, Sr. an actor who appeared on the stage. Robards was of German, Welsh, the family moved to New York City when Jason Jr. was still a toddler, and moved to Los Angeles when he was six years old. Later interviews with Robards suggested that the trauma of his parents divorce, as a youth, Robards witnessed first-hand the decline of his fathers acting career. The teenage Robards excelled in athletics, running a 4, 18-mile during his year at Hollywood High School in Los Angeles. Although his prowess in sports attracted interest from several universities, Robards decided to enlist in the United States Navy upon his graduation in 1940.
Following the completion of training and radio school, Robards was assigned to a heavy cruiser. On December 7,1941, the Northampton was at sea in the Pacific Ocean about 100 miles off Hawaii, contrary to some stories, he did not see the devastation of the Japanese attack on Hawaii until the Northampton returned to Pearl Harbor two days later. The Northampton was directed into the Guadalcanal campaign in World War IIs Pacific theater, during the Battle of Tassafaronga in the waters north of Guadalcanal on the night of November 30,1942, the Northampton was sunk by hits from two Japanese torpedoes. Robards found himself treading water until near daybreak, when he was rescued by an American destroyer, for her service in the war, the Northampton was awarded six battle stars. Two years later, in November 1944, Robards was radioman on the USS Nashville, on December 13, she was struck by a kamikaze aircraft off Negros Island in the Philippines. The aircraft hit one of the port five-inch gun mounts, while its two bombs set the midsection ablaze, with this damage and 223 casualties, the Nashville was forced to return to Pearl Harbor and to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, for repairs.
Robards served honorably during the war, but was not a recipient of the U. S. Navy Cross for bravery, contrary to what has been reported in numerous sources, the inaccurate story derives from a 1979 column by Hy Gardner. On the Nashville, Robards first found a copy of Eugene ONeills play Strange Interlude in the ships library, while in the Navy, he first started thinking seriously about becoming an actor. He had emceed for a Navy band in Pearl Harbor, got a few laughs and his father suggested he enroll in the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. Robards was awarded the Good Conduct Medal of the Navy, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, Robards got into acting after the war and his career began slowly
Guys and Dolls
Guys and Dolls is a musical with music and lyrics by Frank Loesser and book by Jo Swerling and Abe Burrows. The premiere on Broadway was in 1950 and it ran for 1200 performances and won the Tony Award for Best Musical. The musical has had several Broadway and London revivals, as well as a 1955 film adaptation starring Marlon Brando, Jean Simmons, Frank Sinatra and Dolls was selected as the winner of the 1951 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Guys and Dolls was conceived by producers Cy Feuer and Ernest Martin as an adaptation of Damon Runyons short stories and these stories, written in the 1920s and 1930s, concerned gangsters and other characters of the New York underworld. Runyon was known for the dialect he employed in his stories, mixing highly formal language. Frank Loesser, who had spent most of his career as a lyricist for movie musicals, was hired as composer, George S. Kaufman was hired as director. When the first version of the book, or dialogue, written by Jo Swerling was deemed unusable, Feuer.
Loesser had already much of the score to correspond with the first version of the book. Burrows would recall as follows, Frank Loessers fourteen songs were all great, on, the critics spoke of the show as integrated. The word integration usually means that the composer has written songs that follow the story line gracefully, well, we accomplished that but we did it in reverse. The character of Miss Adelaide was created specifically to fit Vivian Blaine into the musical, when Loesser suggested reprising some songs in the second act, Kaufman warned, If you reprise the songs, we’ll reprise the jokes. A pantomime of never-ceasing activities depicts the hustle and bustle of New York City, three small-time gamblers, Nicely-Nicely Johnson, Benny Southstreet, and Rusty Charlie, argue over which horse will win a big race. The band members of the Save-a-Soul Mission, led by the pious and beautiful Sergeant Sarah Brown, call for sinners to Follow the Fold and Bennys employer, Nathan Detroit, runs an illegal floating crap game.
Due to local policeman Lt. Brannigans strong-armed police activity, he has only one likely spot to hold the game. However, the owner, Joey Biltmore, requires a $1,000 security deposit, Nathan hopes to get $1,000 by winning a bet against Sky Masterson, a gambler willing to bet on virtually anything. Nathan proposes a bet which he believes he cannot lose, Sky must take a doll of Nathans choice to dinner in Havana, Sky agrees, and Nathan chooses Sarah Brown. At the mission, Sky claims he wants to be saved and he offers Sarah a deal, He will bring the mission one dozen genuine sinners if she will accompany him to Havana the next night. Sarah rebuffs him, telling him that she plans to fall in love with an upright, Sky replies that he plans on being surprised when he falls in love
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, movement, since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, musicals. These were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan. Musicals are performed around the world and they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller fringe theatre, Off-Broadway or regional theatre productions, musicals are often presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia, the three main components of a book musical are its music and book. The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its team, which includes a director. A musicals production is characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties, lighting.
The creative team and interpretations generally change from the production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the production, for example. There is no fixed length for a musical, while it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are usually presented in two acts, with one intermission, and the first act is frequently longer than the second. A book musical is usually built four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show. Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades, moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are often performed in song. Proverbially, when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing, many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length.
Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the characters, the material presented in a musical may be original, or it may be adapted from novels, classic legends, historical events or films. On the other hand, many musical theatre works have been adapted for musical films, such as West Side Story, My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, Oliver
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States and the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 684,451 residents as of 2015, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. In July 2013, it was the major city in the United States. The city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border, a major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015. The Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named Seattle in 1852, after Chief Siahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Logging was Seattles first major industry, but by the late-19th century, growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing.
The Seattle area developed as a technology center beginning in the 1980s, in 1994, Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle. The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District, to the Central District, the jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock subgenre grunge, archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay, the first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River.
Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party, members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28,1851. The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, after a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, david Swinson Doc Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Sealth of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name Seattle appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23,1853, in 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14,1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of managing the city