London Borough of Bromley
The London Borough of Bromley is the most south-eastern of the 32 London boroughs that, along with the City of London, make up Greater London. The borough is named after its principal town; the local authority is Bromley London Borough Council. The borough occupies 59 square miles; the majority of the borough is Metropolitan Green Belt, including nearly all of the land south of the A232-A21 route between West Wickham and Pratts Bottom. It is perhaps the most rural borough and contains more of the North Downs than any other, as that escarpment is broad between Bromley and Banstead. Most of the population lives in the north and west of the borough, with an outlier at Biggin Hill in the far south; the borough shares borders with the London Boroughs of Lewisham and Greenwich to the North, Bexley to the North East and Lambeth to the North West, as well as Croydon to the West. It borders the Sevenoaks District of Kent to the East and South, the Tandridge District of Surrey to the South West. Westerham Heights, the highest point in London at an altitude of 804 feet, is on the southern boundary.
The Prime Meridian passes through Bromley. About 30% of the land in Bromley is farmland, the highest figure of a London Borough; the borough was formed on 1 April 1965 by the London Government Act 1963. It covered the areas of the Municipal Borough of Bromley, the Municipal Borough of Beckenham, Penge Urban District, Orpington Urban District and the Chislehurst part of Chislehurst and Sidcup Urban District; the local government authorities that until had administered those other areas were similtaneously abolished by the London Government Act on 1 April 1965. In 1969, after a local campaign, local government responsibility for the village of Knockholt was transferred to the neighbouring Sevenoaks Rural District: before 1965, it had been part of the Orpington Urban District; the borough is urban and rural, the former to the north and much part of the built-up area of suburban London. The principal parts of the northern section, from west to east, are Beckenham, which includes Eden Park and Elmers End.
The built-up area around Orpington not only encompasses its direct outskirts of Chelsfield, Derry Downs, Goddington and Petts Wood. Other smaller suburban areas include Anerley and nearby Crystal Palace. In addition, parts of Mottingham, Sydenham and Ruxley lie within the borough boundaries. There are two main built-up areas in the southern part of the borough: West Wickham. Biggin Hill and Keston with Leaves Green and Nash are separate, rural settlements. Local attractions include Down House, Chislehurst Caves, Holwood House, Crofton Roman Villa, the site of The Crystal Palace. Bromley is divided into 22 wards with a total of 60 council seats; these are represented by: Conservative: 50 Labour: 8 Independents: 2Bromley was under Conservative control from its creation until the local elections of 7 May 1998 when a Liberal Democrat/Labour coalition assumed power. After a number of by-elections and a defection, the Conservatives regained control on 5 July 2001; the 22 wards are shown on the accompanying map.
Ward names straddle the named settlements and suburban areas above: their boundaries are fixed, whereas the latter are not. In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 8,944; this rose throughout the nineteenth century, as the district became built up. When the railways arrived, the rate of population growth increased; the population peaked in the 1970s. In the 2011 UK Census, the borough had a population of 309,392. All major religions are represented, but of those stating a choice, 60.07% described themselves as Christian. In 2001, of the population, 43.47% were in full-time employment and 11.06% in part-time employment – compared to a London average of 42.64% and 8.62%, respectively. Residents were predominantly owner-occupiers, with 32.53% owning their house outright, a further 42.73% owning with a mortgage. Only 1.42% were in local authority housing, with a further 12.74% renting from a housing association, or other registered social landlord. A study in 2017 showed.
The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2011 census in Bromley. Bromley is one of only six London Boroughs not to have at least one London Underground station within its boundaries. However, the borough has many railway stations served by London Overground, Thameslink and Southern; the borough has several stops on the Tramlink network. It was reported that Boris Johnson plans to introduce either an extension of the Bakerloo Line to Hayes, in Bromley, passing through Beckenham Junction, or an extension of the DLR to Bromley North. One last option is the extension of the London Overground to Bromley North; the most is the extension of the Bakerloo Line, but would not be scheduled to begin till 2040, if accepted. National Rail stations: Crystal Palace Birkbeck Beckenham Junction Shortlands Bromley North Bromley South St Mary Cray Sundridge Park Ravensbourne Bickley Elmstead Woods Chislehurst Petts Wood Orpington Chelsfield Knockholt Kent House Penge East Penge West Anerley Lower Sydenha
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Orpington is a town and electoral ward in the London Borough of Bromley, Greater London, England, at the south-eastern edge of London's urban sprawl. It is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Before the creation of Greater London in 1965, Orpington was in the county of Kent. Stone Age tools have been found in several areas of Orpington, including Goddington Park, Priory Gardens, the Ramsden estate, Poverest. Early Bronze Age pottery fragments have been found in the Park Avenue area. During the building of Ramsden Boys School in 1956, the remains of an Iron Age farmstead were excavated; the area was occupied in Roman times, as shown by Crofton Roman Villa and the Roman bath-house at Fordcroft. During the Anglo-Saxon period, Fordcroft Anglo-Saxon cemetery was used in the area; the first record of the name Orpington occurs in 1038, when King Cnut's treasurer Eadsy gave land at "Orpedingetune" to the Monastery of Christ Church at Canterbury. The parish church pre-dates the Domesday Book.
On 22 July 1573, Queen Elizabeth I was entertained at Bark Hart and her horses stabled at the Anchor and Hope Inn. On the southern edge of Orpington, Green St Green is recorded as'Grenstretre', which means a road covered with grass, it is known in the 1800s as Greenstead Green. Until the railway came, the local commercial centre was nearby St Mary Cray, rather than Orpington. St Mary Cray had a regular market, industry, whereas Orpington was just a small country village surrounded by soft fruit farms, hop fields and orchards; these crops attracted Romani people, working as itinerant pickers, to annual camps in local meadows and worked-out chalk pits. Although this work has ended, the Borough still provides a permanent site for travellers at Star Lane, historic gatherings are commemorated in local street names, such as Romany Rise. In 1967, Eric Lubbock Liberal MP for Orpington, promoted a Private Member's Bill to provide permanent Gypsy sites. In 1971, an international meeting of Romany people was held at Orpington.
Orpington has been part of the London Borough of Bromley since the 1st of April 1965, previous to this Orpington's local government was the Orpington Urban District. Orpington forms part of the Orpington and the current MP is Jo Johnson who has held the seat since 2010. Gareth Bacon is the London Assembly member for the Bexley and Bromley constituency in which Orpington is located. Orpington's mayor is Councillor Ian Payne due to Orpington being a part of the London Borough of Bromley. 2011 census data reports that the population of Orpington was 15,311 with 52% being female leaving 48% male. The average age is 42 above the national average age of 40. 86% of Orpington's population was born in England, second is Scotland with 1.1%. 95.1% of Orpington's population speak English, second is all other Chinese with just 0.4%. Christianity is the prominent religion in Orpington with 63.1% of the population identifying as Christian, no religion was second with 24.4% and Muslim third at 2.1%. Notably 45 people identify as 5 Buddhist as their religion.
51.1% of the local population is married, 23.8% are single, 8.2% cohabit with a partner of the opposite sex and 0.5% cohabit with a partner of the same sex. The leading occupation is professionals who make up 19.2% of the population followed by administrative and secretarial at 16.2%. After the Conservative member for the Orpington constituency, Donald Sumner, had resigned to become a county court judge, a by-election was held on 15 March 1962. Orpington was considered a safe Conservative seat, but Eric Lubbock, the Liberal candidate, won with a 22% swing away from the Conservatives; the result was headline news across the nation. It is from this win that the revival of the Liberal Party is dated; the High Street and adjacent Walnuts Shopping Centre contain a variety of high-street shops. There is a general market three days a week in front of Orpington College. A large Tesco supermarket opened in 2009 on the site of a former multi-storey car park. There are several restaurants in the town centre.
A restricted parking zone was introduced into Orpington high street, which enabled the council to wipe away road markings indicating parking restrictions. By combining the lack of markings, with CCTV monitoring, the council has been able to reduce the amount of street clutter and improve the quality of the High Street environment. There are ` big box' retail outlets including the new Nugent Shopping Park. Following the relocation of Marks & Spencer from their town-centre store to the Nugent Shopping Park, their previous site was taken over by Sainsbury's, who moved from their site nearby in the Walnuts; the Walnuts Leisure Centre, just east of the High Street, has a six-lane, 33.3 metre indoor swimming pool, squash courts and a gym with sauna and steam room, as well as a sports hall used for activities such as badminton, basketball and fitness classes. The sports hall is used for Women's Artistic Gymnastics, the leisure centre has been the main training venue for Orpington Gymnastic Club since the opening of the centre.
The Walnuts has been home to the Orpington Ojays swimming club for nearly 40 years. The club caters for those learning to swim right through to elite swimmers who wish to swim competitively at county and national level. There are other leisure centres such as one situated at Harris Academy Orpingt
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
St Olave's Grammar School
St Olave's and St Saviour's Grammar School is a boys selective secondary school in Orpington, Greater London, England. The school is known as St Olave's Grammar School, or St Olave's, it has admitted girls to its sixth form since 1998. The school in its current state was formed from an agreement in 1896 between two schools, St Olave's Grammar School, St Saviour's Grammar School. St Olave's Grammar School was founded for the parish of St Olave in Southwark, named after Saint Olaf; the school occupied several sites in Southwark establishing a more permanent location on Tooley Street in 1893. The school moved to suburban Orpington in 1968; the Tooley Street building is now a hotel. The school is one of the top achieving state schools in the UK, it was the Sunday Times State School of the Year in 2008 and in 2011 was ranked as the fourth best performing state school in the country at A-level by the Financial Times. The school is selective at both initial entry and for entry to the sixth form, but it has been criticised for policies that led to students being excluded from the sixth form for not achieving high grades.
In 2017, parents threatened legal action against the policies applied by headteacher Aydin Önaç, the London Borough of Bromley instituted an inquiry whose critical report was published in July 2018. The school is a beneficiary of St Saviour's Schools Foundation, its historic sister school is St Olave's Church of England School in New Kent Road. Established in 1903, as a girls grammar school, this is now a non-selective girls' school. St Olave's now has a strong relationship with Newstead Wood School, a selective girls' school situated about 1.5 miles away. It has strong links with other schools through the Woodard Foundation; until the scheme was discontinued in 2010, St Olave's was designated as a science and computing specialist school. The school applied for academy status. Members of the school are known as Olavians, alumni as Old Olavians. There are four houses: Bingham, Cure and Leeke; these exist for the purposes of the classes and house competitions in the Lower School and for games competition in Year 10.
Chess players from the school have represented the UK in international tournaments, have twice won the Millfield International Chess Tournament. The school is oversubscribed. Entry had for some years been determined by a pair of competitive papers in English and Mathematics. Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning now forms part of Stage 1, a single multiple-choice paper which will include English and Maths; those who pass this first paper will take Stage 2, the traditional pair of English and Maths papers. Marks for the two stages are standardised and aggregated. Competition for sixth form places is high. Pupils are selected for the sixth form on the basis of their excellent GCSE results, some pupils have been expelled for under-achievement. In 2017 parents claimed this practice was illegal, petitioned for judicial review, it has been suggested that this is a common practice across the country for schools attempting top placement in exam league tables. St Olave's provides Choristers for the Choir of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, the Chapel of the Royal Victorian Order and of the Duchy of Lancaster.
Until the school relocated to Orpington, it used to provide the choir for Southwark Cathedral from its connection to the St Saviour's foundation. However, the Charity Commissioners required that activities and intended beneficiaries related to Southwark had to be continued to be provided for by the Foundation, which supports the Cathedral choir today. A new lease for the parish church of St Saviour’s dated 16 June 1559 included a pledge to start a school within two years. Within a few weeks a school for boys was functioning in temporary accommodation. On 24 November 1560 the four first wardens of the school were elected, on 4 March 1561 a lease was handed over to the wardens for a new schoolhouse: a building in the Green Dragon Cobham’s Inn. A licence/charter for St Saviour’s Grammar School was obtained in 1562. In 1676 the building in the Green Dragon was destroyed in the Great Fire of Southwark—the City of London fire was in 1666—and a new building was built on the same site. In 1839 the school site was required for the enlargement of the Borough Market and a third building was built in Sumner Street in 1839.
It was smaller than the previous one due to a decline in numbers. St Saviour’s Grammar School agreed to amalgamation with St Olave’s in 1896. At the same time the creation of a new school for girls was envisaged, this came into being in 1903 and was named St Saviour’s and St Olave’s Grammar School for Girls. Henry Leeke, a Southwark brewer, left a will which gave £8 a year towards the founding and maintenance of a new free school. If the parish of St Olave’s failed to create such a school within two years, St Saviour’s parish was to have the money. In November 1560, notice to quit was given to tenants of the rooms which were to be used for the school, in July 1561 the church wardens of St Olave’s were ordered to
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi