Aripert I was king of the Lombards in Italy. He was the son of Gundoald, Duke of Asti, who had crossed the Alps from Bavaria with his sister Theodelinda; as a relative of the Bavarian ducal house, his was called the Bavarian Dynasty. He was the first Chalcedonian Christian king of the Lombards, elected after the assassination of the Arian Rodoald. Not a warrior, he is renowned for his church foundings, he spread Catholicism over the whole Lombard realm and built the Church of the Saviour in Pavia, the capital. He left the kingdom in a state of peace, asking the nobles to elect jointly his two sons and Godepert, which they did
Liutprand, King of the Lombards
Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts successful, with most of Italy. He is regarded as the most successful Lombard monarch, notable for the Donation of Sutri, the first accolade of sovereign territory to the Papacy. Liutprand's life began inauspiciously, his father was driven to exile among the Bavarians, his older brother Sigipert was blinded by Aripert II, king of the Lombards and his mother Theodarada and sister Aurona were mutilated. Liutprand was spared, he was allowed to join his father. The reign of Liutprand, son of Ansprand, duke of Asti and king of the Lombards, began the day before his father's death when magnates called to Ansprand's deathbed consented to make Liutprand his colleague. Liutprand's reign endured for thirty-one years. Within the Lombard kingdom he was considered a lawgiver of irreproachable Catholicity. At the opening of his reign, Liutprand's chief ally among neighboring rulers was the Agilolfing Theodo I, the Frankish duke of Bavaria.
Theodo I's intervention on Ansprand's behalf helped him gain the throne. Theodo had taken him in, when he and his father were temporarily expelled by Aripert II in 702, the hospitality was cemented with a marriage connection: Liutprand took to wife the Agilolfing Guntrud; the core of Theodo's policy was resistance to the Merovingian mayors of the palaces in their encroachments north of the Alps, concerns that did not much occupy Liutprand, maintaining strategic control of the eastern Alpine passes in what is now the Italian Alps, which did. In the spring of 712, Theodo’s son Theodebert, with Ansprand and Liutprand, attacked Lombard strongholds, with the drowning of their fleeing rival Aripert, Ansprand's faction were back in power at Pavia. Theodo died in 717 or 718; until distracted by Byzantine politics in 726, Liutprand's chief warmaking energies were concentrated on taking Bavarian castles on the River Adige. In his early reign, Liutprand did not attack the Exarchate of the Papacy, but in 726, the Emperor Leo III made his first of many edicts outlawing icons.
The pope, Gregory II, ordered the people to resist and the Byzantine duke of Naples, was killed by a mob while trying to carry out the imperial command to destroy all the icons. Liutprand chose this time of division to strike the Byzantine possessions in Emilia. In 727, he crossed the Po and took Bologna, Osimo and Ancona, along with the other cities of Emilia and the Pentapolis, he could not take Ravenna itself from the exarch Paul. Paul was soon killed in a riot, however. Ravenna would capitulate to Liutprand with a fight; the first Moorish raids on Corsica began around 713–719 from the Balearic Islands to the west. Acting as the protector of the Catholic Church and its faithful, Liutprand subjected the island to Lombard government, though it was nominally under Byzantine authority. Corsica remained with the Lombard kingdom after the Frankish conquest, by which time Lombard landholders and churches had established a significant presence on the island; when the Saracens invaded Sardinia, Liutprand redeemed the body of Augustine about the year 720.
He brought it with great ceremony to Pavia, enshrined it in the Church of Saint Peter, the cathedral of Pavia. He rescued the relics stationed on the island with great haste as well as with great expense, according to Paul the Deacon. Having just overwhelmed the Byzantine forces, though it was left to his heirs to make the final vestige of the Exarchate of Ravenna Lombard at last, Liutprand advanced towards Rome along the Via Cassia. There the two reached an agreement, by which Sutri and some hill towns in Latium were given to the Papacy, "as a gift to the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul" according to the Liber Pontificalis, they were the first extension of Papal territory beyond the confines of the Duchy of Rome. This was the beginning of the Papal States. In the meantime, Leo sent Eutychius, as Exarch of Ravenna; when Eutychius arrived at Naples, he made an agreement whereby Liutprand would attack the Pope if the Greeks aided him in subjugating the contumacious and independent southern Lombard duchies, the Duchy of Spoleto and the Duchy of Benevento.
The dukes, Thrasimund II and Godescalc, surrendered — though control of the duchies from Pavia was not to endure for long — and the new exarch marched on Rome. At Rome, Liutprand camped on the far bank of the Tiber in the "Field of Nero" and arbitrated, returning to the exarch the city of Ravenna alone among the Byzantine territories and prevailing on the pope to restore his allegiance to the emperor. Following the death of Theodo, Liutprand turned from his former Agilolfing allies to bind himself to Charles Martel, duke of the Franks, whose son, Pepin the Short, he adopted and girded with arms at his coming of manhood. In 733 Liutprand promulgated the Notitia de actoribus regis, a series of six laws, presaging the Frankish capitulary in structure, they sought to curb the usurpation by local administrators of public lands. In 735–736, a serious illness encouraged Liutprand to raise his nephew Hildeprand to co-kingship. In 736–737, Liutprand crossed the Alps with an army to help Charles expel the Moors from Aix-en-Provence and Arles.
In 738, a long peace was broken
Lothair I or Lothar I was the Holy Roman Emperor, the governor of Bavaria, King of Italy and Middle Francia. Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman the duke of Hesbaye. On several occasions, Lothair led his full-brothers Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father to protest against attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains. Upon the father's death and Louis joined forces against Lothair in a three-year civil war; the struggles between the brothers led directly to the breakup of the Frankish Empire assembled by their grandfather Charlemagne, laid the foundation for the development of modern France and Germany. Lothair was born in 795, his father was the son of Charlemagne. Little is known of Lothair's early life, passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne. In 814, the elderly Charlemagne died, left his son Louis the Pious his vast empire.
The next year, now an adult, was sent to govern Bavaria in 815 for his father the new Emperor Louis the Pious. In 817, Louis the Pious drew up his Ordinatio Imperii. In this, Louis designated Lothair as his principal heir and ordered that Lothair would be the overlord of Louis' younger sons Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his nephew Bernard of Italy. Lothair would inherit their lands if they were to die childless. Lothair, aged 22, was crowned joint emperor by his father at Aachen. At the same time and Bavaria were granted to his brothers Pippin and Louis as subsidiary kingdoms. Following the death of Bernard by Louis the Pious, Lothair received the Kingdom of Italy. In 821, Lothair married daughter of Hugh the Count of Tours. In 822, he assumed the government of Italy, at Easter, 5 April 823, he was crowned emperor again by Pope Paschal I, this time at Rome. In November 824, Lothair promulgated a statute, the Constitutio Romana, concerning the relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme power to the secular potentate, he afterwards issued various ordinances for the good government of Italy.
On Lothair's return to his father's court, his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles, a scheme, carried out in 829, when the young prince was given Alemannia as king. Lothair, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father, he was alternately master of the Empire, banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced. The first rebellion began in 830. All three brothers fought their father. In 831, their father was reinstated and he deprived Lothair of his imperial title and gave Italy to Charles; the second rebellion was instigated by Angilbert II, Archbishop of Milan, in 833, again Louis was deposed in 834. Lothair, through the loyalty of the Lombards and reconciliations, retained Italy and the imperial position through all remaining divisions of the Empire by his father.
When Louis the Pious was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia to Lothair, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the whole of the Empire. He was 45 years old. Negotiations with his brother Louis the German and his half-brother Charles, both of whom resisted this claim, were followed by an alliance of the younger brothers against Lothair. A decisive battle was fought at Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841, when, in spite of his and his allied nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine's personal gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to Aachen. With fresh troops he began a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too strong, taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he abandoned his capital to them, he met with the leaders of the Stellinga in Speyer and promised them his support in return for theirs, but Louis and the native Saxon nobility put down the Stellinga in the next years. Peace negotiations began, in June 842 the brothers met on an island in the Saône, they agreed to an arrangement which developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843.
By this, Lothair received the imperial title as well as northern Italy and a long stretch of territory from the North Sea to the Mediterranean along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhône. He soon ceded Italy to his eldest son and remained in his new kingdom, engaging in alternate quarrels and reconciliations with his brothers and in futile efforts to defend his lands from the attacks of the Northmen and the Saracens. In 845 the count of Arles, led a rebellion in Provence; the emperor put it down and the count joined him in an expedition against the Saracens in Italy in 846. In 855 he became ill, despairing of recovery renounced the throne, divided his lands between his three sons, on 23 September entered the monastery of Prüm, where he died six days later, he was buried at Prüm, where his remains were found in 1860. It was at Prüm that Lothair was
Desiderius was a king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774. He is chiefly known for his connection to Charlemagne, who married his daughter and conquered his realm. Born in Brescia, Desiderius was a royal officer, the dux Langobardorum et comes stabuli, "constable and duke of the Lombards," an office similar to the contemporaneous Frankish office of dux Francorum. King Aistulf made him duke of Istria and Tuscany and he became king after the death of Aistulf in 756. At that time, Aistulf's predecessor, left his monastic retreat of Montecassino and tried to seize the kingdom, but Desiderius put his revolt down with the support of Pope Stephen II. At his coronation, Desiderius promised to restore many lost papal towns to the Holy See, in return for the papacy's endorsement of his claim. Conflict with the Holy See under Pope Stephen III arose, for Stephen opposed Charlemagne's marriage to Desiderius' daughter. Desiderius ceased delivery of the towns after only a few. Seeking, like his predecessors, to extend the Lombard power in Italy, he came into collision with the papacy and the southern duchies.
In the same year Desiderius associated to his kingdom his son Adelchis. Alboin, the duchy of Benevento and Liutprand, that of Spoleto were coaxed by Pope Stephen to commend themselves to the Franks and thus separate themselves again from monarchy, they placed themselves under the protection of Pippin, the king of Franks. In 758, Duke Liutprand of Benevento rebelled. Desiderius defeated him and granted his duchy to one Arechis, tying the duchy more to Pavia than it had been since Grimoald's time. In that same year, Desiderius deposed Alboin of Spoleto and exercised himself the ducal powers there. Intervening in the crisis that ensued after the death of Pope Paul I in 767, Desiderius seized a priest named Philip from the Monastery of St. Vitus on the Esquiline Hill in Rome on Sunday, July 31, 768, summarily appointed him pope. Antipope Philip was never recognized nor gained a significant following, so he left the same day and returned to his monastery where he was never heard from or seen again.
Stephen III opposed Charlemagne's marriage to Desiderius' daughter, Desiderata, in 768, but by Stephen III death in 772, he had made peace with the Lombards. The new pope, Adrian I, implored the aid of Charlemagne against him, for the marriage of dynasties was dissolved by Charlemagne's repudiation of Desiderata in 771. Charles sent her back to her father. Moreover, the widow of Charlemagne's brother Carloman, sought the protection of the Lombard king after her husband's death in 771; the embassies of Adrian and Desiderius met at Thionville and Charlemagne favored the pope's case. Such was the position when Charlemagne and his uncle Bernard led troops across the Alps in 773; the Lombards were defeated at Mortara and soon besieged in their capital of Ticinum, the modern Pavia. Desiderius' son Adelchis was raising an army at Verona, but the young prince was chased to the Adriatic littoral and fled to Constantinople when Charlemagne approached; the siege lasted until June 774, when, in return for the lives of his soldiers and subjects, Desiderius surrendered and opened the gates.
Desiderius was exiled to Corbie Abbey, where he died, his son Adelchis spent his entire life in futile attempts to recover his father's kingdom. Some sources state that his family were banished to a monastery at Liège, Belgium. Desiderius died sometime around 786; the name Desiderius appears in the romances of the Carolingian period. Charlemagne took the title rex Langobardorum, the first time a Germanic king adopted the title of a kingdom he had conquered; as stated by Paul the Deacon in the Historia Langobardorum, Charlemagne's father Pepin the Short was formally adopted by Lombard king Liutprand, thanks to the alliance, personal friendship, between the latter and Pepin's father Charles Martel. This fact would have legitimized both the ascent of Pepin to the throne of the Franks, as he was the son of a king, the claim of his son Charlemagne to be the King of the Lombards, he married Ansa and, as well as a son, had four daughters: Anselperga, abbess of San Salvatore monastery of Brescia Adelperga, married Arechis II of Benevento Liutperga, married Tassilo III of Bavaria Desiderata, married Charlemagne in 770, was repudiated in 771 Adelchis, patrician in Constantinople Davis, Jennifer R..
Charlemagne's Practice of Empire. Cambridge University Press
Theodahad known as Thiudahad was king of the Ostrogoths from 534 to 536 and a nephew of Theodoric the Great through his mother Amalafrida. He is the son of Amalafrida's first husband because her second marriage was about 500 AD, his sister was Amalaberga. He was an elderly man at the time of his succession. Massimiliano Vitiello states the name "Theodahad" is a compound of'people' and'conflict', he arrested his first cousin Amalaswintha, former regent of the Ostrogoths from 526 to October 534, while they co-ruled as queen and king of the Ostrogoths, imprisoned her in the spring of 535 on an island in Lake Bolsena. When Amalaswintha was assassinated while in the custody of those Theodahad entrusted to guard her, his enemies claimed he acquiesced to her murder, yet her assassination would isolate him from her power base, thus was unlikely to have been planned by him. Political instability within the Ostrogothic kingdom served as a pretext to Byzantine general Belisarius to intervene in Sicily and Italy, at the service of the Emperor Justinian, causing the Gothic Wars.
Witiges ordered him killed, succeeded him as king. He was notable for his dedicated adoration for Neoplatonic philosophy and poetry over martial prowess, his focus on erudition instead of bellicosity, in a time when Italy was consumed by turmoil both foreign and domestic, is claimed to be a reason for his downfall. For a more positive view of his defence of Italy against Belisarius, see Lillington-Martin. Thiudahad appears by L. Sprague de Camp. Theodahad in Medieval Lands
Aistulf was the Duke of Friuli from 744, King of Lombards from 749, Duke of Spoleto from 751. His father was the Duke Pemmo. After his brother Ratchis became king, Aistulf succeeded him in Friuli, he succeeded him as king when Ratchis abdicated to a monastery. Aistulf continued the policy of expansion and raids against the papacy and the Eastern Roman exarchate of Ravenna. In 751, he captured Ravenna itself and threatened Rome, claiming a capitation tax, he conquered the Istria region from Eastern Roman occupation in the same year. The popes irritated and alarmed, despairing of aid from the Roman Emperor, turned to the Carolingian mayors of the palace of Austrasia, the effective rulers of the Frankish kingdom. In 741, Pope Gregory III asked Charles Martel to intervene, but he was too busy elsewhere and declined. In 753, Pope Stephen II visited Charles Martel's son Pepin the Short, proclaimed king of the Franks in 751 with the consent of Pope Zachary. In gratitude for the papal consent to his coronation, Pepin crossed the Alps, defeated Aistulf, gave to the pope the lands which Aistulf had torn from the ducatus Romanus and the exarchate.
Aistulf died hunting in 756. He was succeeded by Desiderius by Alboin as duke of Spoleto, he had given Friuli to his brother-in-law Anselm, abbot of Nonantula, whose sister Gisaltruda he had married, when he succeeded to the kingship in 749. Macpherson, Ewan. "Aistulph". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. "Astolphus". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Cunincpert was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700. He succeeded his father Perctarit, though he was associated with the throne from 680. Soon after his assumption of the sole kingship, Cunincpert was ousted by duke of Brescia. Alahis had rebelled during the reign of Perctarit, but it was Cunincpert who, according to Paul the Deacon in the Historia Langobardorum, had persuaded his father to show mercy. Perctarit is reported to have warned his son of the consequences, it was thus soon after Perctarit's death that Alahis forced Cunincpert to flee to Isola Comacina, an island in the middle of Lake Como. The only extant record of the rule of Alahis is contained in Book V of Paul the Deacon's Historia Langobardorum, his rule is portrayed as burdensome and tyrannical, antagonistic to the Catholic Church. Having lost the support of the Church and, crucially, of the'people', Cunincpert was able to return to Pavia and resume control. Alahis, however was able to acquire sufficient support to bring the matter to battle.
Cunincpert, with the men of Piedmont, defeated Alahis and the men of Venetia at the Battle of Coronate, on the Horn of the Adda, near Lodi, in 689. Alahis was slain in battle. Cunincpert suppressed other insurrections during his reign, including that of the usurper Duke Ansfrid of Friuli, he successfully settled the schism in the Italian church between Aquileia and Grado. He died in 700 and was succeeded by his young son Liutpert, the regent Ansprand, many rebels. Many wars took place during his reign, he is notably the first Lombard monarch to strike coins in his image