The Outer Limits (1963 TV series)
The Outer Limits is an American television series, broadcast on ABC from 1963 to 1965 at 7:30 PM Eastern Time on Mondays. The series is compared to The Twilight Zone, but with a greater emphasis on science fiction stories; the Outer Limits is an anthology of self-contained episodes, sometimes with a plot twist at the end. The series was revived in 1995, airing on Showtime from 1995 to 2000 on Sci-Fi Channel from 2001 until its cancellation in 2002. In 1997, the episode "The Zanti Misfits" was ranked #98 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time. A new revival is in the works at a premium cable network; each show would begin with either a cold open or a preview clip, followed by a "Control Voice" narration, run over visuals of an oscilloscope. Using an Orwellian theme of taking over your television, the earliest version of the narration ran as follows: A similar but shorter monolog caps each episode: We now return control of your television set to you; until next week at the same time, when the control voice will take you to – The Outer Limits.
Episodes used one of two shortened versions of the introduction. The first few episodes began with the title screen followed by the narration and no cold open or preview clip; the Control Voice was performed by actor Vic Perrin. The Outer Limits was broadcast on the American television network ABC. In total, 49 episodes were produced, it was one of many series influenced by The Twilight Zone and Science Fiction Theatre, though it proved influential in its own right. In the un-aired pilot, the series was called Please Stand By. Series creator Leslie Stevens retitled it The Outer Limits. With a few changes, the pilot aired as the premiere episode, "The Galaxy Being". Writers for The Outer Limits included creator Stevens and Joseph Stefano, the Season 1 producer and creative guiding force. Stefano wrote more episodes of the show than any other writer. Future Oscar-winning screenwriter Robert Towne wrote "The Chameleon", the final episode filmed for Season 1. Two notable Season 2 episodes "Demon with a Glass Hand" and "Soldier" were written by Harlan Ellison, with the former episode winning a Writers' Guild Award.
The former was for several years the only episode of The Outer Limits available on LaserDisc. Season 1 combined science-fiction and horror, while Season 2 was more focused on'hard science fiction' stories, dropping the recurring "scary monster" motif of Season 1; each show in Season 1 was to have a creature as a critical part of the story line. Season 1 writer and producer Joseph Stefano believed that this element was necessary to provide fear, suspense, or at least a center for plot development; this kind of story element became known as "the bear". This device was, however dropped in Season 2 when Stefano left; the "bear" in "The Architects of Fear", the monstrously altered Allen Leighton, was judged by some of ABC's local affiliate stations to be so frightening that they broadcast a black screen during the "Thetan's" appearances censoring most of the show's last act. In other parts of the United States, the "Thetan" footage was tape-delayed until after the 11pm/10c news. In others, it was not shown at all.
Season 1 had music by Dominic Frontiere. Like The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits had an opening and closing narration in every episode. Both shows differed in style; the Twilight Zone stories were like parables, employing whimsy or irony, or extraordinary problem-solving situations. The Outer Limits was a straight action-and-suspense show which had the human spirit in confrontation with dark existential forces from within or without, such as in the alien abduction episode "A Feasibility Study" or the alien possession story "The Invisibles"; as well, The Outer Limits was known for its moody, textured look in many episodes whereas The Twilight Zone tended to be shot more conventionally. However, there is some common ground between certain episodes of the two shows; as Schow & Frentzen, the authors of The Outer Limits: The Official Companion, have noted, several Outer Limits episodes are misremembered by casual fans as having been Twilight Zone episodes, notably such "problem solving" episodes as "Fun and Games" or "The Premonition".
The program sometimes made use of techniques associated with film noir or German Expressionism (see for exa
Kenneth Keeler is an American television producer and writer. He has written for numerous television series, most notably Futurama. According to an interview with David X. Cohen, he proved a theorem which appears in the Futurama episode "The Prisoner of Benda". Keeler studied applied mathematics at Harvard University, graduating summa cum laude in 1983, he gained a master's degree from Stanford in electrical engineering before returning to Harvard. He earned a PhD in applied mathematics from Harvard in 1990, his doctoral thesis was "Map Representations and Optimal Encoding for Image Segmentation". After earning his doctorate, Keeler joined the Performance Analysis Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories, he soon left Bell Labs to write for David Letterman and subsequently for various sitcoms, including several episodes of Wings, The Simpsons and The Critic, as well as the short-lived Fox claymation show The PJs. For The Simpsons, Keeler has written such episodes as "A Star Is Burns" and "The Principal and the Pauper".
Keeler was instrumental in the creation of Futurama, served as a co-executive producer in its first three years, as an executive producer in its fourth year. He was one of the show's most prolific writers, with nine episodes to his name. Keeler wrote many of the original songs on both The Simpsons and Futurama during his time with the shows, he wrote the direct-to-DVD Futurama movies Bender's Big Score and Into the Wild Green Yonder. "A Star Is Burns" "Two Bad Neighbors" "Treehouse of Horror VII" "El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer" "Brother from Another Series" "The Simpsons Spin-Off Showcase" "The Principal and the Pauper" "The Series Has Landed" "When Aliens Attack" "Put Your Head on My Shoulders" "Anthology of Interest I" "The Honking" "Time Keeps on Slippin'" "Godfellas" "The Devil's Hands Are Idle Playthings" Futurama: Bender's Big Score Futurama: Into the Wild Green Yonder "The Prisoner of Benda" "The Tip of the Zoidberg" "Overclockwise" "The Six Million Dollar Mon" "Forty Percent Leadbelly" "Meanwhile" "A Day at the Races and a Night at the Opera" "Dukerella" "Fay There, Georgy Girl" Keeler is a fan of Harry Stephen Keeler and won the fifth and twelfth annual Imitate Keeler Competitions.
His Futurama episode "Time Keeps on Slippin'" was inspired by the Harry Stephen Keeler story "Strange Romance" from the novel Y. Cheung, Business Detective. Bibliography Ken Keeler on IMDb
Religion in Futurama
The animated science fiction television program Futurama makes a number of satirical and humorous references to religion, including inventing several fictional religions which are explored in certain episodes of the series. The episode "Hell Is Other Robots" centers around Bender's becoming addicted to high-voltage electricity discovering the religion of Robotology to help him break the habit. Sermons are conducted at the Temple of Robotology by the Reverend Preacherbot, a character whose mannerisms draw on black church preacher stereotypes. Robotology is a play on the name Scientology, series creator Matt Groening has said that he received a call from the Church of Scientology concerned about the use of a similar name. Robotology has a holy text, The Good Book 3.0, stored on a 3.5" floppy disk. Two symbols of the religion are shown in the episode; the first is a zig-zag line with a circle at either end, based on the electronic symbol used for resistors on circuit diagrams. Robots who accept Robotology are expected to abstain from behavior such as smoking, stealing, abusing electricity, drinking alcohol.
Consuming alcohol is necessary to power a robot's fuel cells, but this episode establishes that mineral oil is an acceptable substitute. Sinners are punished by condemnation to Robot Hell, located under an abandoned amusement park in Atlantic City, New Jersey; the punishments in Robot Hell are similar to the levels and rationale portrayed in Dante's Divine Comedy the Inferno. Robot Hell is controlled by the Robot Devil, he is bound by the Fairness in Hell Act of 2275, allowing anyone to win their freedom by defeating him in a fiddle contest with a solid gold fiddle, a reference to the song "The Devil Went Down to Georgia". Should the individual lose the fiddle contest, they will only receive a smaller, silver fiddle and the Robot Devil may kill them at his discretion. In "Ghost in the Machines", Bender's ghost is sent to an equivalent robot Heaven monitored by a Robot God whose streamlined design is reminiscent of EVE in the Pixar animated film WALL-E; this God appears to be distinct from the more ambiguous, universal'God' character that appeared in "Godfellas" and "Bender's Big Score", who may or may not have been representative of the Gods of all religions, and/or a machine.
Notably, the Robot God treats Bender's ghost as his subject. The episode "Future Stock" introduces Robot Judaism in a scene where Fry and Dr. Zoidberg, seeking free food, sneak into a "Bot Mitzvah" celebration; as a joke about Jewish dietary laws' proscriptions against shellfish, Zoidberg was not allowed in inasmuch as he was an anthropomorphic lobster. At the Bot Mitzvah, Fry asks a Jewish robot if they don't believe in Robot Jesus, to which the robot replies, "We believe he was built, that he was a well-programmed robot, but he wasn't our Messiah". A banner written in Hebrew reads "Today you are a robot", referencing the traditional Jewish belief that a boy becomes a man on his Bar Mitzvah. In the episode "The Bots and the Bees" Bender's son, has a Bot Mitzvah celebration of his own where he becomes a man after being born only a few days prior; this scene reinforces the quick rate at which robots mature in the Futurama world as well as alludes to the practice of robot circumcision. References to a holiday called'Robanukah' appear in several episodes, as well, though it is implied that Bender makes up this holiday to avoid work.
In the Futurama Holiday Spectacular, the Robanukah story involves a pair of fembots who must wrestle in petroleum oil for six and a half weeks. When the oil, predicted to last only four and a half weeks, lasts for 500 million years, Bender declares it a Robanukah miracle; the First Amalgamated Church is a syncretic denomination of several mainstream religions extant in the 21st-century, is referenced in several episodes. The church and one of its priests, Father Changstein el-Gamal, are introduced in the episode "Godfellas". Father Changstein el-Gamal reappears in "The Sting" at Fry's funeral service, in Bender's Big Score at Lars' and Leela's wedding; the religion appears to be a mix of Buddhism, Judaism, Hinduism and agnosticism. Other religions are mentioned in passing in other episodes. In the episode "Hell Is Other Robots", Professor Farnsworth complains about Bender's devotion to Robotology, saying, "If only he had joined a mainstream religion, like Oprahism or Voodoo". In the season 2 episode "I Second That Emotion", Fry and Bender are shown around the sewer mutants' village.
Fry notices a large gold-plated ICBM on the altar of the cathedral and exclaims "Wow! You guys worship an unexploded nuclear bomb?" to which one of the mutants responds "Yeah, but nobody is that observant. It's a Christmas and Easter thing." The altar and the bomb are a reference to the film Beneath the Planet of the Apes, in which the religion worship of the subterranean is focused on a nuclear bomb. The season 4 episode "Where No Fan Has Gone Before", presents the situation of a television show becoming elevated to the status of a religion in the form of the "Church of Trek", where devotees of Star Trek worship the characters and attend services dressed as officers and aliens from the show. In the second Futurama straight-to-DVD film, The Beast with a Billion Backs, Fry becomes the pope of a new religion which worships the interdimensional planet-sized tentacle monster named Yivo, who brainwashed the inhabitants of Earth by attaching shkler tentacles to their brains, before taking them onto shklim, which resembled heaven.
In the third film Bender's Game, Professor Farnsworth invokes the n
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky. Radio telescopes are the main observing instrument used in radio astronomy, which studies the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by astronomical objects, just as optical telescopes are the main observing instrument used in traditional optical astronomy which studies the light wave portion of the spectrum coming from astronomical objects. Radio telescopes are large parabolic antennas similar to those employed in tracking and communicating with satellites and space probes, they may be linked together electronically in an array. Unlike optical telescopes, radio telescopes can be used in the daytime as well as at night. Since astronomical radio sources such as planets, stars and galaxies are far away, the radio waves coming from them are weak, so radio telescopes require large antennas to collect enough radio energy to study them, sensitive receiving equipment.
Radio observatories are preferentially located far from major centers of population to avoid electromagnetic interference from radio, radar, motor vehicles, other man-made electronic devices. Radio waves from space were first detected by engineer Karl Guthe Jansky in 1932 at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey using an antenna built to study noise in radio receivers; the first purpose-built radio telescope was a 9-meter parabolic dish constructed by radio amateur Grote Reber in his back yard in Wheaton, Illinois in 1937. The sky survey he did with it is considered the beginning of the field of radio astronomy; the first radio antenna used to identify an astronomical radio source was one built by Karl Guthe Jansky, an engineer with Bell Telephone Laboratories, in 1932. Jansky was assigned the job of identifying sources of static that might interfere with radio telephone service. Jansky's antenna was an array of dipoles and reflectors designed to receive short wave radio signals at a frequency of 20.5 MHz.
It was mounted on a turntable that allowed it to rotate in any direction, earning it the name "Jansky's merry-go-round". It had a diameter of 100 ft and stood 20 ft tall. By rotating the antenna, the direction of the received interfering radio source could be pinpointed. A small shed to the side of the antenna housed an analog pen-and-paper recording system. After recording signals from all directions for several months, Jansky categorized them into three types of static: nearby thunderstorms, distant thunderstorms, a faint steady hiss of unknown origin. Jansky determined that the "faint hiss" repeated on a cycle of 23 hours and 56 minutes; this period is the length of an astronomical sidereal day, the time it takes any "fixed" object located on the celestial sphere to come back to the same location in the sky. Thus Jansky suspected that the hiss originated outside of the Solar System, by comparing his observations with optical astronomical maps, Jansky concluded that the radiation was coming from the Milky Way Galaxy and was strongest in the direction of the center of the galaxy, in the constellation of Sagittarius.
An amateur radio operator, Grote Reber, was one of the pioneers of what became known as radio astronomy. He built the first parabolic "dish" radio telescope, 9 metres in diameter, in his back yard in Wheaton, Illinois in 1937, he repeated Jansky's pioneering work, identifying the Milky Way as the first off-world radio source, he went on to conduct the first sky survey at high radio frequencies, discovering other radio sources. The rapid development of radar during World War II created technology, applied to radio astronomy after the war, radio astronomy became a branch of astronomy, with universities and research institutes constructing large radio telescopes; the range of frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that makes up the radio spectrum is large. This means that the types of antennas that are used as radio telescopes vary in design and configuration. At wavelengths of 30 meters to 3 meters, they are either directional antenna arrays similar to "TV antennas" or large stationary reflectors with moveable focal points.
Since the wavelengths being observed with these types of antennas are so long, the "reflector" surfaces can be constructed from coarse wire mesh such as chicken wire. At shorter wavelengths parabolic "dish" antennas predominate; the angular resolution of a dish antenna is determined by the ratio of the diameter of the dish to the wavelength of the radio waves being observed. This dictates the dish size. Radio telescopes that operate at wavelengths of 3 meters to 30 cm are well over 100 meters in diameter. Telescopes working at wavelengths shorter than 30 cm range in size from 3 to 90 meters in diameter; the increasing use of radio frequencies for communication makes astronomical observations more and more difficult. Negotiations to defend the frequency allocation for parts of the spectrum most useful for observing the universe are coordinated in the Scientific Committee on Frequency Allocations for Radio Astronomy and Space Science; some of the more notable frequency bands used by radio telescopes include: Every frequency in the United States National Radio Quiet Zone Channel 37: 608 to 614 MHz The "Hydrogen line" known as the "21 centimeter line": 1420.40575177 MHz, used by many radio telescopes including The Big Ear in its discovery of the Wow!
Signal 1406 MHz and 430 MHz The Waterhole: 1,420 to 1,666 MHz The Arecibo Observatory
Pickpocketing is a form of larceny that involves the stealing of money or other valuables from the person or a victim without them noticing the theft at the time. It may involve a knack for misdirection. A thief who works in this manner is known as a pickpocket. Pickpockets and other thieves those working in teams, sometimes apply distraction, such as asking a question or bumping into the victim; these distractions sometimes require sleight of hand, speed and other types of skills. Pickpockets may be found in any crowded place around the world; however and Rome were singled out as being dangerous pickpocket havens. Thieves have been known to operate in high traffic areas such as mass transit stations boarding subway trains so they can use the distractions of crowds and sudden stop-and-go movements from the train to steal from others; as soon as the thieves have what they want, they get off at the next stop leaving the victim unable to figure out who robbed them and when. Pickpocketing skills are employed by some magicians as a form of entertainment, either by taking an item from a spectator or by returning it without them knowing they had lost it.
Borra, arguably the most famous stage pickpocket of all time, became the highest-paid European performer in circuses during the 1950s. For 60 years he was billed as "the King of Pickpockets" and encouraged his son, Charly, to follow in his cunning trade, his offspring being billed as "the Prince of Pickpockets". Kassagi, a French-Tunisian illusionist, acted as technical advisor on Robert Bresson's 1959 film Pickpocket and appeared as instructor and accomplice to the main character. George Barrington is referenced in the film. James Freedman known as "The Man of Steal", created the pickpocket sequences for the 2005 film Oliver Twist directed by Roman Polanski. Professional illusionist David Avadon featured pickpocketing as his trademark act for more than 30 years and promoted himself as "a daring pickpocket with dashing finesse" and "the country's premier exhibition pickpocket, one of the few masters in the world of this underground art.". Smith Journal of Australia has described America's Thomas Blacke as one of the top pickpockets in the world.
Famous fictional pickpockets include The Artful Dodger and Fagin, characters from the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. Famous true-life historical pickpockets include the Irish prostitute Chicago May, profiled in books. George Barrington's escapades and trials, were chronicled in the late 18th century London press; the 17th and 18th centuries saw a important number of men and women pickpockets, operating in public and/or private places and stealing different types of items. Some of those pickpockets were caught and prosecuted for their theft, however, in most cases, they managed to avoid punishment. Although we refer to them as "pickpockets" today, this is not how they were called in the 17th century: they were sometimes referred to as "cut-purses", as can be seen in some 17th century ballads. Indeed, at the time, pockets were not yet sewn to clothes; this means. This was true for women, since men's pockets were sewn "into the linings of their coats". Women's pockets were worn beneath a piece of clothing, not "as opposed to pouches or bags hanging outside their clothes".
These external pockets were still in fashion until the mid 19th century. Pickpocketing in the 18th century was committed by both men and many women. Alongside with shoplifting, pickpocketing was the only type of crime committed by more women than men, it seems that in the 18th century, most pickpockets stole out of economic needs: they were poor and did not have any economic support, unemployment was "the single most important cause of poverty", leading the most needy ones to pick pockets. In most cases, pickpockets operated depending on the opportunities they got: if they saw someone wearing a silver watch or with a handkerchief bulging out of their pocket, the pickpockets took the item; this means. However, some pickpockets did work as a gang, in which cases they planned thefts though they could not be sure of what they would get; the prosecutions against pickpockets at the Old Bailey between 1780 and 1808 show that male pickpockets were somewhat younger than female ones: 72% of men pickpockets convicted at the time were aged from under 20 to 30, while 72% of women convicted of picking pockets were aged between 20 and 40.
One reason that may explain why women pickpockets were older is that most of women pickpockets were prostitutes. Indeed, at the end of the 18th century, 76% of women defendants were prostitutes, as a result, the victims of pickpockets were more men than women. In most cases, these prostitutes would lay with men, take advantage of the situation to steal from these clients. Men who were robbed by prostitutes chose not to prosecute the pickpockets, since they would have had to acknowledge their "immoral behaviour"; the few men who decided to prosecute prostitutes for picking the
Futurama (season 2)
The second season of Futurama began airing on November 21, 1999 and concluded after 19 episodes on December 3, 2000. The full nineteen episodes of the season have been released on a box set called Futurama: Volume Two, on DVD and VHS, it was first released in the United Kingdom on November 11, 2002, with releases in other regions in 2003. The season was re-released as Futurama: Volume 2, with different packaging to match the newer season released on July 17, 2012. IGN gave the season a positive review of 9.0/10, "Amazing". The season tied for 97th in the seasonal ratings with 8.9 % share. It tied with King of the Hill
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul. Explanations of predestination seek to address the "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems incompatible with human free will. In this usage, predestination can be regarded as a form of religious determinism. There is some disagreement among scholars regarding the views on predestination of first-century AD Judaism, out of which Christianity came. Josephus wrote during the first century, he argued that the Essenes and Pharisees argued that God's providence orders all human events, but the Pharisees still maintained that people are able to choose between right and wrong. He wrote; the biblical scholar N. T. Wright argues that Josephus's portrayal of these groups is incorrect, that the Jewish debates referenced by Josephus should be seen as having to do with God's work to liberate Israel rather than philosophical questions about predestination.
Wright asserts that Essenes were content to wait for God to liberate Israel while Pharisees believed Jews needed to act in cooperation with God. John Barclay responded that Josephus's description was an over-simplification and there were to be complex differences between these groups which may have been similar to those described by Josephus. Francis Watson has argued on the basis of 4 Ezra, a document dated to the first century AD, that Jewish beliefs in predestination are concerned with God's choice to save some individual Jews. In the New Testament, Romans 8–11 presents a statement on predestination. In Romans 8:28–30, Paul writes, We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him, who are called according to his purpose. For those whom he foreknew he predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren, and those whom he predestined he called. Biblical scholars have interpreted this passage in several ways. Many say this only has to do with service, is not about salvation.
The Catholic biblical commentator Brendan Byrne wrote that the predestination mentioned in this passage should be interpreted as applied to the Christian community corporately rather than individuals. Another Catholic commentator, Joseph Fitzmyer, wrote that this passage teaches that God has predestined the salvation of all humans. Douglas Moo, a Protestant biblical interpreter, reads the passage as teaching that God has predestined a certain set of people to salvation. Wright's interpretation is that in this passage Paul teaches that God will save those whom he has chosen, but Wright emphasizes that Paul does not intend to suggest that God has eliminated human free will or responsibility. Instead, Wright asserts, Paul is saying that God's will works through that of humans to accomplish salvation. Origen, writing in the third century, taught, he believed God's predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of every individual's merits, whether in their current life or a previous life. In the fourth and fifth centuries, Augustine of Hippo taught that God orders all things while preserving human freedom.
Prior to 396, Augustine believed that predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of whether individuals would believe, that God's grace was "a reward for human assent". In response to Pelagius, Augustine said that the sin of pride consists in assuming that "we are the ones who choose God or that God chooses us because of something worthy in us", argued that it is God's grace that causes the individual act of faith. Scholars are divided over whether Augustine's teaching implies double predestination, or the belief that God chooses some people for damnation as well as some for salvation. Catholic scholars tend to deny that he held such a view while some Protestants and secular scholars affirm that Augustine did believe in double predestination. Augustine's position raised objections. Julian of Eclanum expressed the view. For Vincent of Lérins, this was a disturbing innovation; this new tension became obvious with the confrontation between Augustine and Pelagius culminating in condemnation of Pelagianism at the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Pelagius denied Augustine's view of predestination in order to affirm that salvation is achieved by an act of free will. The Council of Arles in the late fifth century condemned the position "that some have been condemned to death, others have been predestined to life", though this may seem to follow from Augustine's teaching; the Second Council of Orange in 529 condemned the position that "some have been predestined to evil by divine power". In the eighth century, John of Damascus emphasized the freedom of the human will in his doctrine of predestination, argued that acts arising from peoples' wills are not part of God's providence at all. Damascene teaches that people's good actions are done in cooperation with God, but are not caused by him. Gottschalk of Orbais, a ninth-century Saxon monk, argued that God predestines some people to hell as well as predestining some to heaven, a view known as double predestination, he was condemned by several synods. Irish theologian John Scottus Eriugena wrote a refutation of Gottschalk.
Eriugena abandoned Augustine's teaching on predestination. He wrote that God's predestination should be equated with his foreknowledge