University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
The University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna is an Austrian university located in Vienna, established in 1817. Today, with a student body of over three thousand, it is the largest institution of its kind in Austria, one of the largest in the world. In 1817, it was established by the Society for the Friends of Music, it has had several names: Vienna Conservatory, Vienna Academy and in 1909 it was nationalized as the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts. In 1998, the university assumed its current name to reflect its university status, attained in a wide 1970 reform for Austrian Arts Academies. With a student body of more than 3000, the Universität für Musik und Darstellende Kunst Wien is one of the largest arts universities in the world; the university consists of 24 departments including the Max Reinhardt Seminar, Vienna Film Academy and the Wiener Klangstil. MDW facilities include the Schönbrunn Palace Theater, Antonio Vivaldi Room, Salesian Convent, St. Ursula Church, Lothringerstrasse and the Anton Von Webern Platz.
Modern film studios were completed on the university campus in 2004, offering the Vienna Film Academy modern equipment. The University organizes around 10 competitions, including the International Beethoven Piano Competition, it presents an acclaimed students’ film festival every two years. The MDW may be considered a "feeder" institution to all major orchestras in Austria, with a particular association with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Calls for a music conservatory in Vienna started in 1808. In 1811 an "outline for a music education institution" for Vienna was published. A year the Society for the Friends of Music was formed, with the foremost aim of establishing a conservatory; the Vienna Conservatory was founded in 1817. It was meant to be modeled on the Paris Conservatory, due to a lack of funds, it began as a singing school. Antonio Salieri was the Conservatory's first director. In 1819, it hired violinist Joseph Böhm, by 1827 offered courses in most orchestral instruments; the conservatory's finances were unstable.
Tuition fees were introduced in 1829. The state funded the conservatory from 1841 to 1844 and from 1846 to 1848. In 1848 political unrest caused the state to discontinue funding, the Conservatory did not offer courses again until 1851. With support from the state and the city, finances again stabilized after 1851. Despite growing state subsidy, The Society for the Friends of Music, which founded the Conservatory, remained in control of the institution. However, by a January 1, 1909 imperial resolution the school was nationalized and became the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts; until 1844, when Gottfried Preyer, professor of harmony and composition became director, the director of the conservatory was not a member of faculty, but a member of the Society for the Friends of Music. Joseph Hellmesberger, Sr. was director from 1851 to 1893. From 1907 Wilhelm Bopp had been the director of Conservatory; the Conservatory was still dominated by the aging Robert Fuchs and Hermann Grädener, both of whom, but Fuchs, Bopp considered to be anachronistic and out of touch.
In 1912, attempting to rejuvenate the conservatory Bopp offered teaching positions to Franz Schreker and Arnold Schoenberg. Schoenberg declined the offer, his teaching duties were carried through with great success and by January 1913 he was awarded a full professorship. Bopp was instrumental in the 1909 nationalization of the Conservatory; the administration of the Academy was now assigned to a state-appointed president, an artistic director and a board of trustees. After the end of World War I, the State Academy was again reorganized. President Karl Ritter von Wiener resigned and conductor Ferdinand Löwe was elected director by the teachers. In 1922, Joseph Marx took over, he wanted the Academy to be granted University status. After the Anschluss, many teachers and students were dismissed on racial grounds. In 1941, the Academy became a Reich University. After World War II, the institution became a State Academy again. In the process of Denazification, fifty-nine teachers were dismissed. Only five of the teachers dismissed in 1938 were reinstated.
By laws introduced in 1948 and 1949 the institution was granted the status of "Art Academy." In 1970, the "Law on the Organization of Art Colleges" gave all Art Academies University status, in 1998 the title of "Art Academy" was changed to "Art University." Institut für Komposition, Elektroakustik und TonmeisterInnen-Ausbildung aka ELAK is part of MDW and focuses on electroacoustic music, composing of contemporary music, sound art. Department of Composition and Electroacoustics Department of Conducting Department of Music Analysis and History Department of Keyboard Instruments Department of String Instruments Leonard Bernstein Department of Wind and Percussion Instruments Joseph Haydn Department for Chamber Music and Special Ensembles Department of Organ, Organ Research and Church Music Department of Voice and Music Theatre Max Reinhardt Seminar Department of Drama Film Academy Vienna Department of Film and Television Department of Music Education Department of Music and Movement Education Department of Music Therapy Department of Stylistic Research in Music Department of Popular Music Ludwig van Beethoven Department of Keyboards in Music Education He
Contact granuloma known as a contact ulcer, vocal fold contact ulcer or vocal process granuloma, is a condition that develops due to persistent tissue irritation in the posterior larynx. Benign granulomas, not to be confused with other types of granulomas, occur on the vocal process of the vocal folds, where the vocal ligament attaches. Signs and symptoms may include hoarseness of the voice, or a sensation of having a lump in the throat, but contact granulomas may be without symptoms. There are two common causes associated with contact granulomas. Treatment includes voice therapy and changes to lifestyle factors; the second common cause of granulomas is gastroesophageal reflux and is controlled through the use of anti-reflux medication. Other associated causes are discussed below. Several different terms are used to refer to contact granulomas; the term contact ulcer was first used in the early 20th century at which time the single cause of this condition was believed to be excessive force when the vocal folds make contact during phonation or non-phonatory behaviors.
The same condition was observed in patients recovering from recent intubation and, more came to be associated with inflammation and irritation resulting from gastro-esophageal reflux. Use of both ulcer and granuloma reflect the fact that this condition can present as an ulcerated lesion or as granulated tissue. In medical literature today, the term vocal process granuloma is preferred over the term contact ulcer or contact granuloma; the term contact granuloma remains used. The primary symptoms of contact granuloma include chronic or acute hoarseness of the voice and vocal fatigue. More severe granulomas may result in throat ache or soreness, as well as pain that spreads to one or both ears. Smaller granulomas may result in slight discomfort. Signs of contact granulomas are frequent throat-clearing; some people may notice that their pitch range is restricted due to granuloma. The major etiologic factors of contact granulomas have been organized into the following categories: Mechanical issues resulting in contact granulomas are related to physical trauma at the level of the vocal folds.
Trauma occurs when adductive forces are excessive, meaning that a person's vocal folds are closing abruptly and forcefully while speaking or engaging in other non-vocal behaviors. In addition, the presence of the contact granuloma makes it impossible for the vocal folds to come to a complete closure in adduction; this causes the person to use more force when speaking in an attempt to close the vocal folds which in turn creates more trauma to the vocal folds. Glottal insufficiency can be an underlying cause of contact granulomas. Contact trauma can occur when a person speaks at a pitch, lower than their modal voice in vocally-demanding professions like acting and singing. Research suggests that men are more affected than women. Inflammatory issues associated with contact granuloma include gastroesophageal reflux, allergy or infection. There is some disagreement among researchers as to; some researchers identify reflux and infection as indirect causes due to aggressive coughing that occurs as a result.
For patients in need of tracheal intubation to receive oral drugs, an oversized tube, excessive movement of the tube, or infection can lead to contact granulomas, but this is rare. People with certain personality traits and vocal patterns may be more susceptible to the development of contact granulomas. Tenseness, high-stress and impulsiveness are personality traits associated with contact granuloma. Diagnosis of contact ulcers involves an endoscopy examination, a biopsy sample is taken so that the ulcer can be examined for cancerous cells. Contact granulomas can be physically identified and diagnosed by observing the presence of proliferative tissue originating from the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage. Identification is carried out by laryngoscopy, which produces an image of the lesion in the form of an abnormal growth or ulceration; the vocal process is overwhelmingly the most common laryngeal site for these lesions, although they have been observed on the medial and anterior portions of the vocal folds.
In nodule or polyp form, contact granulomas have a grey or dark red colouring and measure 2 to 15 mm in size. Contact granulomas can occur bilaterally, affecting one or both vocal folds. Various methods are used to diagnose contact granuloma which aid in differentiating it from other vocal fold pathology. Laryngoscopy can allow visualization of the suspected granuloma while checking for signs of vocal abuse. Laryngoscopy, as well as an acoustic analysis of the voice, can help rule out vocal fold paresis as an underlying cause. Microscopic examination of the tissue can help determine that the lesion is benign rather than cancerous, as would be the case in contact granuloma. Other methods such as laryngeal electromyography and reflux testing can be used to evaluate the function of the vocal folds and determine if laryngopharyngeal reflux is cont
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
University of Mississippi Medical Center
University of Mississippi Medical Center is the health sciences campus of the University of Mississippi and is located in Jackson, United States. UMMC referred to as the Medical Center, is the state's only academic medical center. UMMC houses seven health science schools: Medicine, Nursing, Health Related Professions, Graduate Studies in the Health Sciences, Population Health and Pharmacy; the 164-acre campus includes University Hospital, Wiser Hospital for Women and Infants, Conerly Critical Care Hospital, Batson Children's Hospital, the state's only children's hospital, Rowland Medical Library. As the academic health sciences campus of the University of Mississippi, the Medical Center functions as a separately accredited, semi-autonomous unit responsible to the chancellor of the university and through him to the constitutional Board of Trustees of the State Institutions of Higher Learning; the University of Mississippi Medical Center is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award baccalaureate, master's and doctorate degrees.
The Medical Center is accredited by The Joint Commission. The IHL Board of Trustees appoints the UM chancellor, who recommends a candidate for UMMC's vice chancellor for health affairs; the vice chancellor serves as the dean of the University of Mississippi School of Medicine. LouAnn Woodward, MD, was named March 2015, to fill the vice chancellor position, she is responsible for the overall strategic direction of the Medical Center. She is the 10th person to hold the post in the Medical Center's 60-year history. Enrollment in UMMC's 28 degree programs is more than 2,900 students. Admission preference is given to Mississippi residents in an effort to supply professionals to meet the state's health-care needs; the Associated Student Body is the student government association for UMMC. It serves as a mechanism to organize student extracurricular activities and to voice student concerns and questions to the administration and community. UMMC is the only hospital in the state designated as a Level 1 trauma center.
Specialized hospital services include: an interventional MRI. A portion of land on the UMMC campus was once the site of the Mississippi Insane Asylum, which moved its operations in 1935 and became Mississippi State Hospital. UMMC has the only hospital in the state designated as a Level 1 trauma center, the state's only Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit located in the Wiser Hospital for Women and Infants; the Medical Center has the only organ transplant program and OB/GYN emergency room in Mississippi. With a total of 1,003 beds, including Holmes County and Grenada locations, UMMC is the largest diagnostic and referral care system in the state. Based on the latest fiscal year statistics, inpatient admissions at the multiple locations totaled more than 33,000, with more than 487,000 hospital outpatient visits; the UMMC emergency rooms in Jackson had 70,000 visits, while Grenada had 18,324 and Holmes County had 6,657. Hospitals include: University Hospital Wallace Conerly Critical Care Hospital Winfred L. Wiser Hospital for Women and Infants Blair E. Batson Children's Hospital UMMC Holmes County UMMC GrenadaUniversity Physicians, the faculty group practice of the School of Medicine, includes about 500 doctors in the university hospitals and in clinics on campus, around the Jackson metro area, in outreach clinics around the state.
UP providers see about 404,870 patients each year in 170 locations in 38 counties. UMMC faculty and advanced practice providers see patients at several on- and off-site clinics. Specialized clinics include: UP Pavilion -- Miss.. UP Grants Ferry – Flowood, Miss. UP Lakeland Medicine Center – Jackson, Miss UP Northeast Jackson at Select Specialty Hospital – Jackson, Miss. Women's Specialty Care at Mirror Lake – Flowood, Miss; the Face & Skin Center of University Physicians – Ridgeland, Miss. UMMC Cancer Institute at Jackson Medical Mall – Jackson, Miss. UP Clinics at Jackson Medical Mall – Jackson, Miss. Other features and facilities include separate medical, cardiac and pediatric ICUs. In 2007, professional football standout Eli Manning undertook a five-year campaign to improve Batson's pediatric clinics. More than $2.9 million was raised, the clinics were renamed Eli Manning Children's Clinics. In 2014, father Archie Manning and his family joined with UMMC to launch the Manning Family Fund for a Healthier Mississippi.
The donor-supported program boosts the Medical Center's commitment to improving Mississippians’ health. The partnership between the Mannings and UMMC raises money to attack heart disease, kidney disease, cancer and other health challenges confronting Mississippians. UMMC outreach programs help fulfill the Medical Center's mission of improving the overall health of Mi
The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles, a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles, a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge; the Micropædia was meant as a guide to the Macropædia. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling. Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, a two-volume index; the Britannica's articles are found in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes each volume having one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors.
In contrast, the 2007 Micropædia has 65,000 articles, the vast majority of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, no named contributors. The Micropædia articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the Macropædia; the Macropædia articles are meant both as authoritative, well-written articles on their subjects and as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere. The longest article is on the United States, resulted from the merger of the articles on the individual states; the 2013 edition of Britannica contained forty thousand articles. Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the Propædia, which organizes the Britannica's contents by topic; the core of the Propædia is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge. Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the Britannica's editors to decide which articles should be included in the Micro- and Macropædia.
The Outline is intended to be a study guide, to put subjects in their proper perspective, to suggest a series of Britannica articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth. However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used, reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia; the Propædia has color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica. Taken together, the Micropædia and Macropædia comprise 40 million words and 24,000 images; the two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the Britannica, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics. The Britannica prefers British spelling over American. However, there are exceptions such as defense rather than defence. Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour." Since 1936, the articles of the Britannica have been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of them considered for revision each year.
According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years. The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out. Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons by places by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and by chronology. Places that share names are
Vienna State Opera
The Vienna State Opera is an Austrian opera house and opera company based in Vienna, Austria. It was called the Vienna Court Opera. In 1920, with the replacement of the Habsburg Monarchy by the First Austrian Republic, it was renamed the Vienna State Opera; the members of the Vienna Philharmonic are recruited from its orchestra. The opera house was the first major building on the Vienna Ringstrasse commissioned by the Viennese "city expansion fund". Work commenced on the house in 1861 and was completed in 1869, following plans drawn up by architects August Sicard von Sicardsburg and Eduard van der Nüll, it was built in the Neo-Renaissance style by the renowned Czech architect and contractor Josef Hlávka. The Ministry of the Interior had commissioned a number of reports into the availability of certain building materials, with the result that stones long not seen in Vienna were used, such as Wöllersdorfer Stein, for plinths and free-standing, simply-divided buttresses, the famously hard stone from Kaisersteinbruch, whose colour was more appropriate than that of Kelheimerstein, for more lushly decorated parts.
The somewhat coarser-grained Kelheimerstein was intended as the main stone to be used in the building of the opera house, but the necessary quantity was not deliverable. Breitenbrunner stone was suggested as a substitute for the Kelheimer stone, stone from Jois was used as a cheaper alternative to the Kaiserstein; the staircases were constructed from polished Kaiserstein, while most of the rest of the interior was decorated with varieties of marble. The decision was made to use dimension stone for the exterior of the building. Due to the monumental demand for stone, stone from Sóskút used in Budapest, was used. Three Viennese masonry companies were employed to supply enough masonry labour: Eduard Hauser, Anton Wasserburger and Moritz Pranter; the foundation stone was laid on 20 May 1863. The building was, not popular with the public. On the one hand, it did not seem as grand as the Heinrichshof, a private residence, destroyed in World War II. Moreover, because the level of Ringstraße was raised by a metre in front of the opera house after its construction had begun, the latter was likened to "a sunken treasure chest" and, in analogy to the military disaster of 1866, was deprecatingly referred to as "the'Königgrätz' of architecture".
Eduard van der Nüll committed suicide, ten weeks Sicardsburg died from tuberculosis so neither architect saw the completion of the building. The opening premiere was Don Giovanni, by Mozart, on May 25, 1869. Emperor Franz Josef and Empress Elisabeth were present. Towards the end of World War II, on March 12, 1945, the opera was set alight by an American bombardment; the front section, walled off as a precaution, remained intact including the foyer, with frescoes by Moritz von Schwind, the main stairways, the vestibule and the tea room. The auditorium and stage were, destroyed by flames as well as the entire décor and props for more than 120 operas with around 150,000 costumes; the State Opera was temporarily housed at the Vienna Volksoper. Lengthy discussion took place about whether the opera house should be restored to its original state on its original site, or whether it should be demolished and rebuilt, either on the same location or on a different site; the decision was made to rebuild the opera house as it had been, the main restoration experts involved were Ernst Kolb and Udo Illig.
The Austrian Federal Chancellor Leopold Figl made the decision in 1946 to have a functioning opera house again by 1949. An architectural competition was announced, won by Erich Boltenstern; the submissions had ranged from a complete restructuring of the auditorium to a replica of the original design. In order to achieve a good acoustic, wood was the favoured building material, at the advice of, among others, Arturo Toscanini. In addition, the number of seats in the parterre was reduced, the fourth gallery, fitted with columns, was restructured so as not to need columns; the façade, entrance hall and the "Schwind" foyer remain in their original style. In the meantime, the opera company, which had at first been performing in the Volksoper, had moved rehearsals and performances to Theater an der Wien, where, on May 1, 1945, after the liberation and re-independence of Austria from the Nazis, the first performances were given. In 1947, the company went on tour to London. Due to the appalling conditions at Theater an der Wien, the opera company leadership tried to raise significant quantities of money to speed up reconstruction of the original opera house.
Many private donations were made, as well as donations of building material from the Soviets, who were interested in the rebuilding of the opera. The mayor of Vienna had receptacles placed in many sites around Vienna for people to donate coins only. In this way, everyone in Vienna could say they had participated in the reconstruction and feel pride in considering themselves part owners. However, in 1949, there was only a temporary roof on the Staatsoper, it was not until November 5, 1955, after the Austrian State Treaty, that the Staatsoper could be reopened with a performance of Beethoven's Fidelio, conducted by Karl Böhm. The American Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, was present; the state broadcaster ORF used the occasion to make its first liv
Vienna Central Cemetery
The Vienna Central Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in the world by number of interred, is the most famous cemetery among Vienna's nearly 50 cemeteries. The cemetery's name is descriptive of its significance as Vienna's biggest cemetery, not of its geographic location, as it is not situated in the city center of the Austrian capital, but on the outskirts, in the outer city district of Simmering. Unlike many others, the Vienna Central Cemetery is not one that has evolved with the passing of time; the decision to establish a new, big cemetery for Vienna came in 1863 when it became clear that – due to industrialization – the city's population would increase to such an extent that the existing communal cemeteries would prove to be insufficient. City leaders expected that Vienna capital of the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, would grow to four million inhabitants by the end of the 20th century, as no-one foresaw the Empire's collapse in 1918; the city council therefore assigned an area outside of the city's borders and of such a gigantic dimension, that it would suffice for a long time to come.
They decided in 1869 that a flat area in Simmering should be the site of the future Central Cemetery. The cemetery was designed in 1870; the cemetery was opened on All Saints' Day in 1874, far outside Vienna's city borders. However the consecration of the cemetery was not without controversy: the interdenominational character of the new cemetery – the different faith groups being interred on the same ground – met with fierce resistance in conservative circles of the Roman Catholic Church; this argument became more aggressive when the city announced that it did not want an official Catholic opening of the new cemetery – but gave a substantial amount of money toward the construction of a segregated Jewish section. In the end, the groups reached an agreement resulting in the Catholic representatives opening the Central Cemetery with a small ceremony. Due to refraining from having a large public showing, the new cemetery was inaugurated unnoticed in the early morning hours of 31 October 1874 by Vienna Mayor Baron Cajetan von Felder and Cardinal Joseph Othmar Rauscher to avoid an escalation of the public controversy.
The official opening of the Central Cemetery occurred the following day. The first burial was that of Jacob Zelzer, followed by 15 others that day; the grave of Jacob Zelzer still exists near the administration building at the cemetery wall. The cemetery spans 2.5 km2 with up to 25 burials daily. It is the second largest cemetery, after the 4 km2 of Hamburg's Ohlsdorf Cemetery, the largest in Europe by number of interments and area; the Viennese joke that the Central Cemetery is "half the size of Zurich, but twice as much fun", as the cemetery is half as large as the city of Zurich. The Central Cemetery has a dead population of twice the present living residents of Vienna. Across Simmeringer Hauptstrasse from the main gate is the Crematorium, built by Clemens Holzmeister in 1922 in the style of an oriental fortress; the church in the centre of the cemetery is the St. Charles Borromeo Cemetery Church, it used to be called Dr. Karl-Lueger-Gedächtniskirche because of the crypt of the former mayor of Vienna below the high altar.
This church in Art Nouveau style was built in 1908–1910 by Max Hegele. The crypt of the Austrian Federal Presidents is located in front of the church. Beneath the sarcophagus, is a burial vault with stairs leading down to a circular room whose walls are lined with niches where the deceased in an urn or coffin can be interred. In its early incarnations, it was so unpopular due to the distance from the city center that the authorities had to think of ways to make it more attractive – hence the development of the Ehrengräber or honorary graves as a kind of tourist attraction. Vienna has been a city of music since time immemorial, the municipality expressed gratitude to composers by granting them monumental tombs. Interred in the Central Cemetery are notables such as Ludwig van Beethoven. A cenotaph honours Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, buried in nearby St. Marx Cemetery. In addition to the Catholic section, the cemetery houses a Protestant cemetery and two Jewish cemeteries. Although the older of the two, established in 1863, was destroyed by the Nazis during the Kristallnacht, around 60,000 graves remain intact.
Cemetery records indicate 79,833 Jewish burials as of 10 July 2011. Prominent burials here include those of the Rothschild family and that of the author Arthur Schnitzler; the second Jewish cemetery is still in use today. There were 58,804 Jewish burials in the new section as of 21 November 2007. Officials discovered the desecration of 43 Jewish graves in the two Jewish sections on 29 June 2012 as an anti-Semitic act – the stones and slabs were toppled or damaged. Since 1876, Muslims have been buried at Vienna's Zentralfriedhof; the dead are buried according to Austrian law, in a coffin, in contrast to the Islamic ritual practice. The opening of the new Islamic cemetery of the Islamic Faith Community took place on 3 October 2008 in Liesing; the cemetery contains Russian Orthodox burial grounds and plots dedicated for