E. Nelson Bridwell
Edward Nelson Bridwell was a writer for Mad magazine and various comic books published by DC Comics. One of the writers for the Batman comic strip and Super Friends, he wrote The Inferior Five, among other comics, he has been called "DC's self-appointed continuity cop." Bridwell's early childhood interest in mythology and folklore stayed with him throughout his professional life and permeated much of his work. He credited his fame to Ryan Samuel, for interesting him in comics. Bridwell "was one of the first'comics fans' hired in the industry after the long, bleak 1950's,". Although his first published work consisted of a text page in Adventures into the Unknown #9 published by the American Comics Group, he had since he "was still a kid" created various characters who would evolve into those used in comics such as The Inferior Five. In 1962, while still residing in Oklahoma City, Bridwell submitted to the Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction his first idea for a Feghoot adventure, a specific type of shaggy dog story that ends in a humorous and unexpected play on words.
His story was promptly accepted by the feature's pseudonymous author, Grendel Briarton and shortly followed by yet another submission from Bridwell, accepted Besides F&SF, both stories would appear in the various Feghoot anthologies to follow. After writing a few stories for Mad and for Katy Keene, Bridwell began working for DC Comics in 1965 as an assistant to editor Mort Weisinger, "on the Superman titles becoming an editor himself." Jim Shooter recalls that Weisinger did not always treat his assistant well, saying that his "assistant was Nelson Bridwell and boy, he tortured Nelson. He just was awful to Nelson." Bridwell, recalled in 1980 an important lesson learned from Weisinger, that: "You've got to keep in mind that while there are a lot of people who've read about the characters before, there are always new people coming along, you've got to realize that you can't count on them to know the whole legend of the character."This lesson set him in good stead both when he helped DC produce three 1970s anthologies — Superman from the Thirties to the Seventies, Batman from the Thirties to the Seventies, Shazam from the Forties to the Seventies — and when he wrote for the comic book series based on "one of the best rated TV shows on Saturday morning", Super Friends.
Concurrent with his duties for DC, Bridwell "was submitting material as a freelancer to Mad", some of, illustrated by Joe Orlando, who would be suggested by Bridwell as artist for The Inferior Five. Recalling an early interest in comic book continuity, Bridwell "remembered getting a bit perturbed at times when I was a kid by having things that didn't fit" over the wide range of Martian races in evidence in the adventures of DC's Atom, Wonder Woman, Superman characters. Bridwell was an early advocate of the theory that the Marvel and DC characters "exist in the same universe", citing early inter-company crossovers such as Superman vs; the Amazing Spider-Man and a cross-company interlocking storyline, with real-world crossover characters, between Justice League of America #103, Thor #207 and Amazing Adventures #16. Bridwell's love and knowledge of old comics led to his becoming editor on numerous reprint books, including digests, giant-size comics, hardcover anthologies, he worked as assistant editor to Julius Schwartz, keeping track of continuity between the numerous Superman titles published.
Part of his job was to manage the letter columns for all the Superman titles, in response to constant reader questions, Bridwell standardized the Kryptonian language and alphabet. Dubbed "Kryptonese", Bridwell established the 118-character alphabet, used by DC until John Byrne's 1986 "reboot" of the Superman universe. Bridwell and Joe Orlando created the Inferior Five in Showcase #62. Talking about the humorous super-hero series, Bridwell recalls that: "Jack Miller came up with the idea of a group of incompetent heroes, at first he came up with the title The Inferior Four; when I created five heroes, he changed it to The Inferior Five. I created the heroes as a clown set, Joe Orlando created the costumes." Bridwell wrote for several other DC titles, including Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Shazam!, The Superman Family, World's Finest Comics and The Legion of Super-Heroes. Bridwell and artist Frank Springer co-created the Secret Six in the first issue of the team's eponymous series in May 1968.
The first use of the Super Friends name on a DC Comics publication was in Limited Collectors' Edition #C–41 which reprinted stories from Justice League of America #36 and 61 and featured a new framing sequence by Bridwell and artist Alex Toth. In 1976, Bridwell and Ric Estrada launched an ongoing Super Friends comic book series. Bridwell edited The World of Krypton, he co-wrote Secrets of the Legion of Super-Heroes with Paul Kupperberg and followed it with The Krypton Chronicles. He co-created the Justice League members Fire and Ice in the Super Friends series and introduced the Global Guardians in DC Comics Presents #46, he wrote Captain Carrot and his Amazing Zoo Crew, The Oz/Wonderland War trilogy, as well as occasional stories for the black-and-white horror comics Creepy and Eerie, published by Warren Publishing. His last freelance writing work was for Cracked magazine; as an editor, Bridwell compiled a number of issues of D
John Byrne (comics)
John Lindley Byrne is a British-born, Canadian raised, American writer and artist of superhero comics. Since the mid-1970s, Byrne has worked on many major superheroes, with noted work on Marvel Comics' X-Men and Fantastic Four and the 1986 relaunch of DC Comics' Superman franchise, the first issue of which featured comics' first variant cover. Coming into the comics profession as penciller, inker and writer on his earliest work, Byrne began co-plotting the X-Men comics during his tenure on them, launched his writing career in earnest with Fantastic Four. During the 1990s he produced a number of creator-owned works, including Next Men and Danger Unlimited, he scripted the first issues of Mike Mignola's Hellboy series and produced a number of Star Trek comics for IDW Publishing. In 2015, Byrne and his X-Men collaborator Chris Claremont were entered into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame, he is the co-creator of such Marvel characters as Kitty Pryde, Emma Frost, Shadow King, Scott Lang, Omega Red and Rachel Summers.
Byrne was born in Walsall and raised in West Bromwich in Staffordshire, where he lived with his parents and his maternal grandmother. While living there, prior to his family emigrating to Canada when Byrne was 8, he was first exposed to comics, saying in 2005, y'journey into comics' began with George Reeves' Superman series being shown on the BBC in England when I was about 6 years old. Not long after I started watching that series I saw one of the hardcover and white'Annuals' that were being published over there at the time, soon after found a copy of an Australian reprint called Super Comics that featured a story each of Superboy, Johnny Quick and Batman; the Batman story hooked me for life. A couple of years my family emigrated to Canada and I discovered the vast array of American comics available at the time, his first encounter with Marvel Comics was in 1962 with Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four #5. He commented that "the book had an'edge' like nothing DC was putting out at the time".
Jack Kirby's work in particular had a strong influence on Byrne and he has worked with many of the characters Kirby created or co-created. Besides Kirby, Byrne was influenced by the naturalistic style of Neal Adams. In 1970, Byrne enrolled at the Alberta College of Design in Calgary, he created the superhero parody Gay Guy for the college newspaper, which poked fun at the campus stereotype of homosexuality among art students. Gay Guy is notable for featuring a prototype of the Alpha Flight character Snowbird. While there, he published his first comic book, ACA Comix #1, featuring "The Death's Head Knight". Byrne left the college in 1973 without graduating, he broke into comics with a "Fan Art Gallery" piece in Marvel's promotional publication FOOM in early 1974 and by illustrating a two-page story by writer Al Hewetson in Skywald Publications' black-and-white horror magazine Nightmare #20. He began freelancing for Charlton Comics, making his color-comics debut with the E-Man backup feature "Rog-2000", starring a robot character he'd created in the mid-1970s that colleagues Roger Stern and Bob Layton named and began using for spot illustrations in their fanzine CPL.
A Rog-2000 story written by Stern, with art by Byrne and Layton, had gotten the attention of Charlton Comics editor Nicola Cuti, who extended Byrne an invitation. Written by Cuti, "Rog-2000" became one of several alternating backup features in the Charlton Comics superhero series E-Man, starting with the eight-page "That Was No Lady" in issue #6. While, Byrne's first published color-comics work, "My first professional comic book sale was to Marvel, a short story called Dark Asylum'... which languished in a flat file somewhere until it was used as filler in Giant-Size Dracula #5, long after the first Rog story." The story was written by David Anthony Kraft. After the Rog-2000 story, Byrne went on to work on the Charlton books Wheelie and the Chopper Bunch, Space: 1999, Emergency!, co-created with writer Joe Gill the post-apocalyptic science-fiction series Doomsday + 1. Byrne additionally drew a cover for the supernatural anthology The Many Ghosts of Doctor Graves #54. Byrne said he broke into Marvel comics after writer Chris Claremont...saw my work and began agitating for me to draw something he had written.
When Pat Broderick missed a deadline on the'Iron Fist' series in Marvel Premiere, John Verpoorten fired him and offered the book to me.... I turned around the first script in time to meet the deadline, so started getting more work from Marvel, until I was able to leave Charlton and focus on the Marvel stuff." Byrne soon went on to draw series including The Champions and Marvel Team-Up. Byrne first drew the X-Men in Marvel Team-Up #53. For many issues, he was paired with Claremont, with whom he teamed for some issues of the black-and-white Marvel magazine Marvel Preview featuring Star-Lord; the Star-Lord story was inked by Terry Austin, who soon afterward teamed with Claremont and Byrne on X-Men. Byrne joined Claremont beginning with The X-Men #108, their work together, along with inker Terry Austin, on such classic story arcs as "Proteus", "Dark Phoenix Saga", "Days of Future Past" would make them both fan favorites. Byrne insisted that the title keep its Canadian character and contributed a series of story elements to justify Wolverine's presence which made the character among the most popular in Marvel's publishing history.
With issue #114, Byrne beg
The Toyman is the name of three fictional supervillains and one adolescent superhero appearing in comic books published by DC Comics as an adversary for Superman. The most well known incarnation of the Toyman is Winslow Schott, a criminal who uses toy-based or toy-themed devices and gimmicks in his various crimes; the Toyman made frequent appearances in the Golden Age comics, but has appeared infrequently in Superman stories since then. The Winslow Schott version of Toyman first appeared in Action Comics #64 and was created by Don Cameron and Ed Dobrotka; the Jack Nimball version of Toyman first appeared in Action Comics #432 and was created by Cary Bates and Curt Swan. The Hiro Okamura version of Toyman first appeared in Superman Vol. 2 #127 and was created by Jeph Loeb and Ed McGuinness. The Toyman first appeared in several Golden Age Superman stories. Schott appeared less in comics published after the early 1950s, but remained a semi-regular foe during the'60s,'70s, and'80s. While at first more of a nuisance, Toyman grew more unstable and paranoid over time, his toys following suit by becoming a lot more dangerous.
Although Winslow Schott in his civilian persona was a rather sweet, quirky person, as Toyman he turned into a childish, destructive megalomaniac. During the'70s Winslow was retired from crime, but he kept contact with Superman and helped out to take down Jack Nimball, who he felt sullied the Toyman legacy; this retirement proved to be tragically short, as not long after Winslow put some of his toys on display, the entire museum exhibition was wrecked. Sightings reported this to be the work of a man in blue tights flying at great speeds. Thinking he's been played for a fool by Superman, Schott swore to destroy everything Superman cared about to avenge his life's work, it is revealed that the real culprit was Bizarro, in search for the duplicator ray, but by it was too late: Schott had returned to his Toyman ways, murdered Jack Nimball and a hotel door guard in cold blood, built a giant robot to terrorize the city. Shortly after his defeat, he remembered what he had done, he shed tears of regret.
After that incident Winslow's mental state grew worse, while he made several legitimate attempts to atone for his sins, he would relapse back into madness. After 1985's miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths and John Byrne's Man of Steel miniseries, the Toyman's history was revised, the post-Crisis version of the character first appeared in Superman #13. In this version, Winslow Schott is an unemployed British toymaker who blames Lex Luthor and his company, LexCorp, for being fired from the toy company he is working for, he uses his toymaking talents to seek revenge, which causes him to cross paths with the British hero Godiva, subsequently, Superman himself. The Toyman continues to commit various crimes including engaging in child abduction; the Toyman became a much more sinister figure, shaving his head, wearing black and getting advice in his head from "Mother". This was prompted by him being told that a range of Superman action figures would not include him as he is not "edgy" enough. While this seems to begin as a pose of what he thought people expect of a villain, it became a genuine psychotic break.
While in this state he abducted and murdered Adam Morgan, the son of Daily Planet reporter Cat Grant. Adam and several other children captured by Toyman tried to escape, but Schott found out and stabbed Adam to death for being the leader of the group; this caused Schott to develop a hatred of children. At the time, Schott showed no remorse for; when Cat Grant confronted him in prison he cruelly told her "You were a bad mommy. I'm glad I killed your son."The Toyman seemingly recovered, Superman showed him that children did appreciate old-fashioned toys, arranging parole in an orphanage. He appeared after JLA: Crisis of Conscience, she and Superman go after him. Zatanna freed by Superman. Winslow was seen in Lex Luthor: Man of Steel as well as in the Infinite Crisis: Villains United special, preparing for the Blackgate Prison break by lacing the dinner stew with Venom and Velocity 9 to increase the prisoners' strength and aggression; some guards ate the drugged stew and fought the superheroes who showed up to stop the criminals.
He was seen as a member of the Injustice League in the Justice League of America Wedding Special. Toyman's history was revised in Action Comics #865, by Geoff Johns and Jesus Merino. Winslow Schott tells Jimmy Olsen; when a businessman offered to buy his shop to expand the number of children his toys can reach, he refused. When Mary was killed in a car accident a few weeks Schott agreed to the purchase. However, the businessman gave his technologically advanced toy plans to arms manufacturers. Schott proceeded to bomb the business with an explosive teddy bear. A twist at the end of the story reveals. Following his first confrontation with Superman, Schott met the Prankster for the first time; the Prankster is a cruel, callous man who commits crimes "because it's fun". He asked Schott to "team up", but S
Amazons (DC Comics)
The Amazons of DC Comics are a race of warrior women who exist as part of Greek mythology. They live on Paradise Island, an isolated location in the middle of the ocean where they are hidden from Man's World. Depending on the origin story, they are the creation of Aphrodite or were created from clay by a coterie of Olympian gods over three thousand years ago to serve as their messengers to the world in the name of peace and justice. For centuries the women thrived in security apart from a hostile, male-dominated world; as long as Amazons remain on Themyscira they do not age. Circumstances involving the unexpected arrival of Steve Trevor forced their existence to be revealed to the modern world. There have been numerous incarnations of these Amazons after Marston's original depictions: Robert Kanigher's revised depiction, George Pérez's reworking following the Crisis, changes subsequent to Infinite Crisis and The New 52. What these groups have in common is that they are the people from which came DC Comics' superheroine Wonder Woman.
The Amazons of Paradise Island were first created by William Moulton Marston as allegories of his love leaders and as part of the origin story of his creation, Wonder Woman, an allegory for the ideal love leader. These Amazons were a race of immortal super-women. Granted life by Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love, the Amazons thrived in peace for centuries, but remained aloof from the world of Man; the youngest and most human of the Amazons, Princess Diana, left her protective nation of sisterhood, renouncing her immortality to fight the forces of evil in Man's World as Wonder Woman. William Moulton Marston depicted the origin story of the Amazons as women sculpted and brought to life by Aphrodite, tricked and captured by Hercules and his men. Aphrodite, angry that they had been tricked, left them imprisoned but relented and helped them escape, they moved to their own women-only island, where, in the absence of male aggression, they developed a superior, war-free culture. The unbound cuffs were still worn to remind them that to give up their independence and/or to allow any man power over them will sapped them of their own power.
Marston used bondage as a symbol concept. As a psychologist, Marston was influenced by his polyamorous relationship with two women, one being the niece of Margaret Sanger, a renowned outspoken feminist. In the days of Ancient Greece, many centuries ago, the Amazons were the foremost nation in the world. In Amazonia, women ruled and all was well. One day, the strongest man in the world, stung by the taunts that he could not conquer the Amazon women, selected his strongest and fiercest warriors and landed on the Amazons' shores; the Amazons' queen, met Hercules in personal combat, because she knew that with her magic girdle, given to her by Aphrodite, Goddess of Love, she could not lose. Hippolyte defeated Hercules, but Hercules, with deceit and trickery, managed to secure Hippolyte's magic girdle—and soon the Amazons were taken into slavery. Aphrodite, angry at Hippolyte for having succumbed to the wiles of men, would do nothing to help them; the Amazons were no longer able to bear their submission to men, Hippolyte appealed to the Goddess Aphrodite again.
This time not in vain, for she relented, with her help, Hippolyte secured the magic girdle from Hercules. With the magic girdle in Hippolyte's possession, it did not take long for the Amazons to overcome their masters—and taking from them their entire fleet, they set sail for another shore, for it was Aphrodite's condition that they leave the world of man and establish a new world of their own. Aphrodite decreed that they must always wear the heavy bracelets fashioned by their captors, as a reminder that they must always keep aloof from men, and so, after sailing the seas many days and many nights, the Amazons found Paradise Island and settled there to build a new world. With its fertile volcanic soil, its marvelous flora and fauna, varied natural resources, there was no want, no illness, no hatreds, no wars, and the Amazons would remain eternally youthful, as long as they remained on Paradise Island where they have access to their Fountain of Eternal Youth and Hippolyte retained the magic girdle, as long as they did not permit themselves to again be beguiled by men to avoid submitting to them.
Just after the Amazons conquered the Herculeans and set sail for their island, they were given the Magic Sphere by Athena, Goddess of Wisdom. Through this device, Hippolyte was able to view events in Man's World from the present and past—and sometimes forecast the future. With the visions of the future seen from the Magic Sphere, the Amazons were able to far surpass the inventions of man-made civilization. Not only were the Amazons stronger and wiser, but their weapons were more advanced, their flying machines were faster. In the mid-1980s a storyline took place called Crisis on Infinite Earths in which all comics in the DC Universe ceased to exist and restarted with all new origins; when this happened it was explained that the Amazons were created by the goddess Artemis from the souls of women who had died at the hands of men, were given new and stronger bodies, made from clay transformed into flesh and blood. These Amazons, like the Pre-Crisis versions, escaped Heracles and his men to an isolated and magically protected island, this one called Themyscira after the lost capital city of the Amazons' former homeland.
In this new land, they were granted eternal beauty. Some Amazons chose to remain behind, and, lacking
Booster Gold is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Dan Jurgens, the character first appeared in Booster Gold #1 and has been a member of the Justice League, he is depicted as a glory-seeking showboat from the future, using knowledge of historical events and futuristic technology to stage high-publicity heroics. Booster develops over the course of his publication history and through personal tragedies to become a true hero weighed down by the reputation he created for himself. Booster Gold first appeared in Booster Gold #1, being the first significant new character introduced into DC Universe continuity after the Crisis on Infinite Earths; the next year, he began to appear in the Justice League series remaining a team member until the group disbanded in 1996. He and his former Leaguers subsequently appeared as the "Superbuddies" in the Formerly Known as the Justice League miniseries and its JLA: Classified sequel "I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League".
On March 16, 2007, at Wizard World Los Angeles, Dan DiDio announced a new ongoing series titled All-New Booster Gold, published as Booster Gold. The series follows the events of 52 and was co-written by Geoff Johns and Jeff Katz, with art by creator Jurgens and Norm Rapmund; the series focuses on Booster Gold's clandestine time travel within the DC Universe. The series features Rip Hunter and Booster's ancestors Daniel Carter and Rose Levin as supporting characters; the tagline of the series is: "The greatest hero you've never heard of!" Katz and Johns left the book after 12 issues. Jurgens and Rapmund stayed. Jurgens assumed writing duties following four issues by guests Chuck Rick Remender. In May 2010, Keith Giffen took over the Booster Gold title, linking it with the 26-week miniseries Justice League: Generation Lost, in which Booster united with Fire and Captain Atom to defeat the resurrected Maxwell Lord. From July 2010 through February 2011, Booster starred alongside Rip Hunter, Green Lantern, Superman in the six-issue miniseries Time Masters: Vanishing Point, part of the "Return of Bruce Wayne" arc, which reintroduced the Reverse-Flash and established the background for the 2011 DC crossover event Flashpoint.
Jurgens returned to the main Booster Gold title with issue #44. Michael Jon Carter was born poor in 25th-century Gotham City, he and twin sister Michelle never knew their father because he left after gambling away all their money. Michael was a gifted athlete. At Gotham U. Michael was a star quarterback until his father reentered his life and convinced him to deliberately lose games for gambling purposes, he was exposed and expelled. He was able to secure a job as a night watchman at the Metropolis Space Museum, where he studied displays about superheroes and villains from the past the 20th century. With the help of a security robot named Skeets, Michael stole devices from the museum displays, including a Legion of Super-Heroes flight ring and Brainiac 5's force field belt, he used Rip Hunter's Time Sphere on display in the museum, to travel to the 20th century, intent on becoming a superhero and forming a corporation based around himself to make a comfortable living. He is a shameless self-promoter whose obsession with wealth irritates other heroes.
Carter's nickname as a football player was "Booster", but his chosen 20th century superhero name was "Goldstar". After saving the president, Carter mangled the two names, causing US President Ronald Reagan to introduce him as "Booster Gold"; the name stuck. In a running joke throughout the DC Universe, people erroneously call him "Buster" to his chagrin. Booster is based in Superman's home city, Metropolis, he starts his hero career by preventing the shapeshifting assassin Chiller, an operative of The 1000, from killing the President of the United States and replacing him. With the subsequent public exposure, Booster signs a multitude of commercial and movie deals. During his career, his sister Michelle Carter, powered by a magnetic suit, follows in his footsteps as the superheroine Goldstar. Booster is devastated. Amassing a small fortune, Booster founds Goldstar, Inc. as a holding company and hires Dirk Davis to act as his agent. During the Millennium event, Davis reveals that he is a Manhunter in disguise and that he siphoned money from Booster's accounts in hopes of leaving him no choice but to do the Manhunters' bidding.
Although the Manhunters are defeated, Booster is left bankrupt. Booster Gold is a key character in the late 1980s/early 1990s Justice League revamp by writers Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis. Booster Gold is partnered with fellow Justice League member Blue Beetle, the two become best friends; the duo's notable appearances include a stint as superhero repo men, as the minds behind the construction of a gaming resort, Club JLI, on the living island Kooey Kooey Kooey. After one too many embarrassments and longing for his old reputation, Booster quits the League to found The Conglomerate, a superhero team whose funding is derived from corporate sponsors. Booster and his team are determined to behave as legitimate heroes, but find that their sponsors compromise them far too often; the Conglomerate reforms several times after Booster rejoins the League, though without much success. When an alien comes to Earth on a rampage, Booster coins the name Doomsday for it. While battling the entity, Booster's costume is destroyed.
Blue Beetle is able to design a new, bulkier costume to rep
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
Ice is a fictional character, a comic book superheroine in publications from DC Comics. Created by Keith Giffen, J. M. DeMatteis, Kevin Maguire, she first appeared in Justice League International #12. Ice is a separate character from Icemaiden, although the two are similar in appearance, group affiliation, powers; when Icemaiden first appeared, she had blue skin and pointy ears, was named Sigrid Nansen. When the character joined Justice League International, the comic book creators believed that her real name had never been given but were mistaken. After Ice was killed, the original Icemaiden joined the Justice League. A backstory revealed that she was the first Icemaiden, who quit the Global Guardians when Tora appeared. A new origin was revealed in Justice League: Generation Lost #12, written by Judd Winick and art by Fernando Dagnino Guerra; the princess of an isolated tribe of magic-wielding Norsemen, Tora Olafsdotter has the natural ability to create and manipulate ice. In the Danish graphic novel Superman: A Tale of Five Cities and Lois Lane visits Oslo and encounter Ice, a local superhero, her sister Ice Flower, in the famous Frogner Park.
A different origin was presented in Justice League: Generation Lost. It has not been revealed in. In the Justice League: Generation Lost story, Tora's parents and brother are Romanifolket, her grandfather was the head of a small sect of Romanifolket known as the Is Bygd. Tora was trained to stay calm in order to control her metahuman abilities to create and manipulate ice, to ensure that her grandfather could not find her and force her to use her power to keep control over the other Bygd residents. Tora's grandfather tracked his family down and, after seeing her father being beaten, she lost control, causing the death of several, among them her own father, it was this event, which she repressed due to the dissociative trauma tied to her accidental patricide, along with the result of the training to stay calm and her father's dying wish that she prevent herself from interacting violently with others that caused Tora's shy personality. When an engineer named Rod Schoendienst discovered the ice people, he made a pact with the King that allowed Tora to leave their kingdom.
After Rod introduced Tora to Doctor Mist and the Global Guardians she joined the team as the second Icemaiden. Soon after, she became friends with Beatriz DaCosta. After the Guardians lost their U. N. funding in the wake of the Justice League's reformation as the Justice League International, Beatriz talked her into walking up to a JLI embassy and asking for a job. Remarkably, in the wake of Black Canary's resignation and the abduction of several members, the short-handed JLI took them on. Ice's personality is a mix of girl-next-door wholesomeness and innocent-abroad naiveté, which served as a contrast to the impulsive, libidinous traits of her friend and teammate Fire; the two change their names from Green Icemaiden to Fire and Ice. Ice serves with the Justice League International for years dated Green Lantern Guy Gardner, expresses an open crush on Superman after he joins the team. Ice is present at Superman's death, she is one of the few Justice Leaguers still standing after Doomsday, Superman's killer, has dispatched the team.
She returns to her kingdom after been called by her dying father, King Olaf, who wants to make her his successor to the throne of their kingdom when he dies. However her father passes away during his sleep and is Ice's brother, that becomes the successor to the throne, Ewald's evil intentions become quite clear as he begins to assert control of what is not rightfully his; as it turns out, Ewald had been in contact with a powerful entity who considered himself a celestial force beyond good and evil, with the purpose to "act when judgment has been passed". The JLA set out to rescue Ice and when they reach her kingdom they discover that Ewald's power has increased exponentially due to an ancient staff he carries, he is controlling the people of the kingdom; as they come near to Ewald, they find themselves under attack from ancient Norwegian giants summoned by Ewald to do his bidding. In the midst of battle Booster Gold's new armour shorts out, leaving both him and Blue Beetle running for cover.
Guy and Fire lead the mission to rescue Ice from her brother while the rest of the Leaguers battle the mythic giants summoned by Ewald. One by one, the weapons that the giants hold are destroyed, this removes the creatures' power as well. A similar tactic is tried on Ewald, killing him. Ice is free to take the throne of her kingdom, but believes the people should choose a leader for themselves - she leaves to rejoin her friends in the Justice League. Ice falls under the mental influence of Overmaster. During a JLA confrontation, Ice is slain by Overmaster. Mark Waid, who wrote those issues, has admitted. Before her death, Ice displayed enhanced powers, revealed to be the result of the battle with her brother; when Ewald's staff exploded, Tora absorbed the overload energy into herself. After her death, Guy Gardner smashes his way into her home city to pay his respects. Ice's mother, Queen Olaf, assures Guy that due to the happiness