School of Mathematics, University of Manchester
The School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester is one of the largest mathematics departments in the United Kingdom, with around 80 academic staff and an undergraduate intake of 400 a year and another 200 postgraduate students. The school was formed in 2004 by the merger of the mathematics departments of University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. In July 2007 the school moved from the Mathematics Tower into a purpose-designed building – the first three floors of the Alan Turing Building – on Upper Brook Street; the current head of the school is Oliver Jensen. The school is divided for the purposes of teaching administration, into three groups: Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Probability and Statistics; the Manchester Institute for Mathematical Sciences is a unit of the school focusing on the organising of mathematical colloquia and conferences, research visitors. MIMS is headed by Nick Higham FRS, Director of Research.
Other high-profile mathematicians at Manchester include Sir Martin Taylor FRS and Jeff Paris Since its formation, the school has made some influential appointments including the topologist Viktor Buchstaber and model theorist Alex Wilkie FRS. Numerical analyst Jack Dongarra, famous as one of the authors of LINPACK, was appointed in 2007 as Turing Fellow. In the autumn of 2007 another corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Albert Shiryaev was appointed to a 20% chair. Shiryaev is famous for his work on financial mathematics; as might be expected from its size, the school has a wide range of research interests, including the traditionally pure areas of Algebra, Noncommutative geometry, Ergodic theory, Mathematical logic, Number theory and Topology. The school has a strong tradition in Numerical analysis and well established groups in Probability theory, Mathematical statistics. Manchester mathematicians have a long tradition of applying mathematics to industrial problems. Nowadays this involves not only the traditional applications in engineering and the physical sciences, but in the life sciences and the financial sector.
Some of the recent industrial partners include Qinetiq, Hewlett Packard, NAg, MathWorks, Philips Labs, Thales Underwater Systems, Rapiscan Systems and Schlumberger. The School of Mathematics entered research into three units of assessment. In Pure Mathematics 20% of submissions from 27 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 40% 3*. In Applied Mathematics 25% of submissions from 28.8 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, 3*. And in Statistics and Operational Research, 20% of submissions from 10.9 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, 3*. At the time of merger the two departments that came together to form the school were of equal sizes and academic strengths, had a substantial record of collaboration including shared research seminar programmes and fourth year undergraduate and MSc programmes. Many famous mathematicians have worked at the precursor departments to the school. In 1885 Horace Lamb, famous for his contribution to fluid dynamics accepted a chair at the VUM and under his leadership the department grew rapidly.
Newman wrote:'His lecture courses were numerous, his books provide a record of his methods. Many of his students were engineers, they found in him a sympathetic guide, one who understood their difficulties and shared their interest in applications of mathematics to mechanics.'In 1907 famous analyst and number theorist John Edensor Littlewood was appointed to the Richardson Lectureship which he held for three years. During 1912–1913 the pioneer of weather forecasting and numerical analysis Lewis Fry Richardson worked at Manchester College of Science and Technology. Number theorist Louis J. Mordell joined the College in 1920. During this time he discovered the result for which he is best known, namely the finite basis theorem, which proved a conjecture of Henri Poincaré. Mordell went on to become Fielden Reader in Pure Mathematics at VUM in 1922 and held the Fielden Chair in 1923. Mordell built up the department, offering posts to a number of outstanding mathematicians, forced from posts on the continent of Europe.
He brought in Reinhold Baer, G. Billing, Paul Erdős, Chao Ko, Kurt Mahler, Beniamino Segre, he recruited J. A. Todd, Patrick du Val, Harold Davenport, L. C. Young, invited distinguished visitors. Although Manchester was to be known as the birthplace of the electronic computer, Douglas Hartree made an earlier contribution building a differential analyser in 1933; the machine was used for ballistics calculations as well calculating railway timetables. Mordell was succeeded by the famous topologist and cryptanalyst Max Newman in 1945 who, as head of department, transformed it into a centre of international renown. Undergraduate numbers increased from eight per year to 40 and 60. In 1948 Newman recruited Alan Turing as Reader in the department, he worked there until his death in 1954, completing some of his profound work on the foundations of computer science including Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Newman retired in 1964. From 1949 to 1960 M. S. Bartlett held the first chair in mathematical statistics at VUM, he is known for his contribution to the analysis of data with spatial and temporal
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester
The School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester is one of the largest and most active Physics departments in the UK, taking around 250 new undergraduates and 50 postgraduates each year, employing more than 80 members of academic staff and over 100 research fellows and associates. The school is based on two sites: the Schuster Laboratory on Brunswick Street and the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics in Cheshire, international headquarters of the Square Kilometre Array. According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the school is the 9th best Physics department in the world and best in Europe, it is ranked equal 7th place in the UK by GPA according to the Research Excellence Framework in 2014. The University has a long history of physics dating back to 1874, which includes 12 Nobel laureates, most Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 for their discovery of graphene; the school has origins dating back to 1874 when Balfour Stewart was appointed the first Langworthy Professor of Physics at Owens College, Manchester.
Stewart was the first to identify an electrified atmospheric layer which could distort the Earth's magnetic field. The theory of the ionosphere was postulated by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839, Stewart published the first experimental confirmation of the theory in 1878. Since the school has hosted many award-winning scientists including: Hans Bethe, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1948 Niels Bohr, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922 Sir William Lawrence Bragg, discovered Bragg's law and awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915 Sir James Chadwick, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1935 Sir John Cockcroft, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 Rod Davies, Professor of Radio Astronomy Richard Davis, Professor of Astrophysics Samuel Devons, FRS Brian Flowers, Baron Flowers, FRS Sir Francis Graham-Smith, Astronomer Royal from 1982 to 1990 Henry Hall, FRS who built the first dilution refrigerator Sir Bernard Lovell, creator of the Lovell Telescope at the Jodrell Bank Observatory Henry Moseley, creator of Moseley's law Nevill Francis Mott, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1977 Ernest Rutherford, awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 for splitting the atom Sir Arthur Schuster, FRS Balfour Stewart, first Langworthy Professor of Physics Sir Joseph John "J. J." Thomson, studied Physics at Owens College, Manchester aged 14, went on to run the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge and was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics.
In 2004, the two separate departments of Physics at the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology were merged to form the current School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester. See physicists associated with the University of Manchester for a complete list of physicists in Manchester and their achievements; the School of Physics and Astronomy comprises eight research groups: Astronomy and Astrophysics Biological Physics Condensed Matter Physics Nonlinear Dynamics and Liquid Crystal Physics Photon Physics Particle Physics Nuclear Physics Theoretical PhysicsResearch in the department of Physics has been funded by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Royal Society. As of 2015 the School employs 53 Professors, including Emeritus Professors. Sarah Bridle, Professor of Astrophysics Philippa Browning Professor Astrophysics Brian Cox, Professor of Particle Physics, working on the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider Philip Diamond, Professor of Photon Physics and Director General of the Square Kilometre Array Wendy Flavell, Vice Dean for Research and a Professor of Surface Physics Jeffrey Forshaw, Professor of Particle Physics and co-author of The Quantum Universe Sir Andre Geim, Regius Professor & Royal Society Research Professor Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Langworthy Professor of Physics Tim O'Brien, Professor of Astrophysics Terry Wyatt Professor of Particle Physics The department is home to a number of Emeritus Scientists, pursuing their research interests after their formal retirement including: Alexander Donnachie, Research Professor Andrew Lyne Emeritus Professor & co-discoverer of the binary pulsar Robin Marshall, FRS, Professor of Physics & Biology Michael Moore, FRS, Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics
University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
The University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology was a university based in the centre of the city of Manchester in England. It was a major centre for research. On 1 October 2004, it amalgamated with the Victoria University of Manchester to form a new entity called The University of Manchester. UMIST gained its Royal Charter in 1956 and became a autonomous university in 1993, its degrees were awarded by the Victoria University of Manchester. The UMIST motto was Scientia et Labore; the foundation of UMIST can be traced to 1824 during the Industrial Revolution when a group of Manchester businessmen and industrialists met in a public house, the Bridgewater Arms, to establish the Mechanics' Institute in Manchester, where artisans could learn basic science mechanics and chemistry. Hundreds of such institutions were founded in towns and cities throughout the country and while many of the fine Victorian buildings built to house them remain, Manchester's alone survived as an independent institution serving some of its original educational aims throughout the 20th century.
The meeting, convened by George William Wood on 7 April 1824, was attended by prominent members of the science and engineering community, including: John Dalton, who became known as the father of atomic theory and became the Vice-President of the Institute 1839–41 Robert Hyde Greg, a cotton mill owner, soon to be elected a member of parliament Peter Ewart, a millwright and engineer Richard Roberts a machine tools inventor. David Bellhouse, a builder William Henry, a pioneer in the scientific chemical industry, discovered Henry's Law of solubility of gas in water William Fairbairn, a Scottish engineer associated with water wheels and the Britannia tubular bridge but above all with a scientific approach to engineering, he was elected first Secretary of the Mechanics' Institute Sir Benjamin Heywood, a prosperous banker, acted as President of the Mechanics' Institute for the period 1824–1841. A committee was elected to realise the planned institution, including Wood, Heywood and John Davies and the Institute opened in 1825 with Heywood as chairman.
However, the Institute's intentions were paternal and no democratic control by its students was intended. In 1829, radical Rowland Detrosier led a breakaway group to form the New Mechanics' Institution in Poole Street, a move that had a serious effect on the recruitment and finances of the original institute. Subscriptions and memberships in 1830–31 were an all-time low and only the gradual opening of the board up to election by the members rectified the situation. Detrosier's break-away rejoined the Institute. By 1840, the Institute was established with a library of some 5,500 books. However, the increased popularity had been somewhat at the cost of science education and more lectures on non-scientific subjects were occupying its programmes; the Institute occupied a building on Cooper Street and moved to its present site on David Street. This still is a Grade II * listed building. In 1883 secretary of the Institution John Henry Reynolds reorganised the Institution as a Technical School using the schemes and examinations of the City and Guilds of London Institute.
A new building was begun in 1895 and opened by the Prime Minister Arthur Balfour in October 1902. On the site had been cheap crowded inner-city housing occupied by Irish immigrants; this is the western end of the Sackville Street Building until 2005 known as the UMIST Main Building, pictured above, a grade II listed building by Spalding and Cross with Renaissance motifs of Burmantofts terracotta. By this time the institution was called the Manchester Municipal School of Technology or fondly known as The Tech; as a project of the Manchester City Council it includes in the decoration many portrayals of the city's coat of arms. As befits its roots in the early chemical industry of the region the Tech had pioneered Chemical Engineering as an academic subject in Britain, indeed the lectures by George E. Davis in 1888 were influential in defining the discipline. In the 1920s it pioneered academic training in Management, with the formation of a Department of Industrial Administration funded by an endowment from asbestos magnate Sir Samuel Turner.
In 1905, the Tech become the Faculty of Technology of the Victoria University of Manchester, allowing the award of BSc and MSc degrees. The Principal of the School of Technology was now Dean of the Faculty and an ex officio member of the University's Senate. After the recent merger with Victoria University of Manchester the UMIST Main Building was renamed as the "Sackville St. Building". In 1918, the institution changed name again to Manchester Municipal College of Technology. By 1949 over 8500 students were enrolled, however most still studying non-degree courses; the appointment of B. V. Bowden in 1953 marked the beginning of a phase of expansion. On 29 July 1955 the institute received its own Royal Charter incorporating it as a university college under the name Manchester College of Science and Technology, became separately funded by the University Grants Committee; the process of independence from the city was completed on 1 August 1956 when the Manchester Corporation transferred the assets of the Manchester Municipal College of Technology to the new college, with the Principal of the municipal college becoming the first Principal of the university college on the same day.
By 1966 all non-degree courses were moved to the Manchester School of Design, now know
The Renold Building is a university building in Manchester. It was opened on 23 November 1962 for the Manchester College of Science and Technology as part of a major expansion of its campus in the 1960s; the architect was W. A. Gibbon of the firm of Cruikshank and Seward; the foundation stone was laid on 24 June 1960 by Sir Charles Renold J. P. LL. D, Vice President of the college, chairman of the planning and development committee, after whom it was named; the main contractor was J. Gerrard & Sons Ltd of Swinton; the building, made of concrete, consists of a two-storey base supporting a six-storey tower. There is a large glass-sided stair tower on the side. Inside is an entrance hall on two levels with a large mural titled Metamorphosis, by Victor Pasmore; the Renold Building contains a number of lecture halls of differing sizes, including a 500-seat theatre, two 300-seat theatres, five 140-seat theatres. According to Pevsner's Architectural Guide, "The idea was to provide a central facility for rooms that would otherwise have been dispersed amongst separate departmental buildings.
This was a new initiative in British academic planning at that time." The building contains seminar rooms and exhibition spaces. It overlooks a green space in the centre of what was the UMIST Campus, a bowling green. For this reason a bar in the Renold Building was named the Bowling Green Tavern; the building instead has a cafe named Enigma. Although the building has attracted some criticism, in January 2008 it narrowly missed out on being awarded listed status. Pevsner Architectural Guides — Manchester, Clare Hartwell, ISBN 0-14-071131-7
Sir Howard Grubb, Parsons and Co. Ltd. was a telescope manufacturer, more known as Grubb Parsons. It was based in Newcastle upon Tyne; the company was founded in Dublin by Thomas Grubb as the Grubb Telescope Company in 1833. Thomas Grubb was joined in 1864 by his son Howard who built on the company's reputation for quality optical instruments. Grubb was known for building accurate electrically driven clock drives for equatorial mounted telescopes; some of the telescopes produced in the 19th century include the Great Melbourne Telescope, a 48-inch-diameter reflecting telescope with speculum primary mirror, the 27-inch refractor for the Vienna Observatory, the 10-inch refractor at Armagh Observatory, the 28-inch refractor at the Royal Observatory, the UK's largest refractor, the 10-inch refractor at Coats Observatory, Paisley. In 1887 Grubb's firm built seven normal astrographs for the Carte du Ciel international photographic star catalogue project, 13 inch refracting telescopes all designed to produce uniform photographic plates.
In 1925 the company was renamed. The company traded until 1985, designing and building the optical components for telescopes such as the Anglo-Australian Telescope, UK Infrared Telescope, Isaac Newton Telescope and the William Herschel Telescope, all of which are important astronomical instruments in use. A partial history of the company was written by George M. Sisson. Durham University Grubb Parson Lectures Former Grubb Parsons large mirror polishing machine Grubb and Parsons: Optical and engineering giants Grubb Parsons telescope construction photos List of telescopes made by Grubb Parsons with some references, compiled by I. S. Glass The 36-inch telescope at Cambridge University Tyne & Wear Archives: Location of surviving records of Grubb Parsons
Barnes Wallis Building
The Barnes Wallis Building/Wright Robinson Hall is a university building in central Manchester. It forms part of the campus of the former University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, which merged in 2004 with the nearby Victoria University of Manchester, it is unusual in that the two parts of the building have different names and different uses, though the building is a single structure, purpose-built by a single architect. It was built in 1963–66 and the architect was W. A. Gibbon of Cruikshank & Seward; the building faces across a green space at the centre of campus towards the Renold Building, designed by the same architect and constructed the previous year. According to the Pevsner Architectural Guides: "Its scale and form was designed to relate to the earlier building, it is all white concrete. The vertical stabbing funnel on the roof is designed to light the stairs." The low-rise structure facing onto the green space at the centre of the campus is the Barnes Wallis Building, named after the pioneering aircraft designer Sir Barnes Wallis who opened the building in 1967.
This once housed the main campus refectory, until 2004 it was home to UMIST Students' Association. For a number of years it was used by the merged University of Manchester Students' Union with a print shop and shop; the building was for decades a central part of student social life. It is now given over to computer clusters and student workspaces used by the students of the engineering schools still resident in the former UMIST campus. Famous from the late 1960s to late'80s amongst not just students, but youngsters from across Manchester, for its Saturday Night Dances and Wednesday Technites. Many major rock bands played there, including The Who, The Yardbirds, Chuck Berry, Jimi Hendrix, Def Leppard, Dr Feelgood and Nazareth, its bar today is named Harry's Bar after the manager. The naming of internal parts of the building was for many years a good indicator of the current political balance of the UMIST Student Union; the Large Assembly Hall was at times called the Lenin Assembly Hall. Conversely, the Small Assembly Hall was at other times named the Sharansky Assembly Hall, after Soviet dissident Natan Sharansky.
The 15-storey high-rise part of the structure is called Wright Robinson Hall, is a student hall of residence. Pevsner Architectural Guides — Manchester, Clare Hartwell, ISBN 0-14-071131-7 Wright Robinson Hall entry on Skyscraperpage website
Grove House, Manchester
Grove House, in Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester, is an early Victorian building three houses, of 1838–40. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 18 December 1963. Pevsner described it as "a large detached house set back from the street." The house is of "scored stucco on brick with a hipped slate roof. It has a round-headed central doorway with keystone and a fanlight with slender radiating tracery." It was first occupied by the university ca. 1952. and has had various uses since including as a student health centre. Hartwell, Clare. Lancashire: Manchester and the South East; the Buildings of England. New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-10583-5