Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes and these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. The initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price and this is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials, for example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime.
It is said that, if it must be done, it must be done well, pollution costs can be macro and micro. An example of the aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution. Red List building materials are found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint, the set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste, two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development. Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce, the long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal. The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of building material manufacturing. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth, an extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung, usually cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques, many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames
The krone is the official currency of Denmark and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875. Both the ISO code DKK and currency sign kr. are in use, the former precedes the value. The currency is referred to as the Danish crown in English. Historically, krone coins have been minted in Denmark since the 17th century, one krone is subdivided into 100 øre, the name øre possibly deriving from Latin aureus meaning gold coin. Altogether there are eleven denominations of the krone, with the smallest being the 50 øre coin, formerly there were more øre coins, but those were discontinued due to inflation. The krone is pegged to the euro via the ERM II, the oldest known Danish coin is a penny struck AD 825–840, but the earliest systematic minting produced the so-called korsmønter or cross coins minted by Harald Bluetooth in the late 10th century. Organised minting in Denmark was introduced on a larger scale by Canute the Great in the 1020s, for almost 1,000 years, Danish kings – with a few exceptions – have issued coins with their name, monogram and/or portrait.
Taxes were sometimes imposed via the coinage, e. g. by the substitution of coins handed in by new coins handed out with a lower silver content. Danish coinage was based on the Carolingian silver standard. Periodically, the value of the minted coins was reduced. This was mainly done to generate income for the monarch and/or the state, as a result of the debasement, the public started to lose trust in the respective coins. Danish currency was overhauled several times in attempts to restore public trust in the coins, in 1619 a new currency was introduced in Denmark, the krone. One krone had the value of 1 1/2 Danish Rigsdaler Species accounting for 96 Kroneskillinger, for 144 common Skillings, until the late 18th century, the krone was a denomination equal to 8 mark, a subunit of the Danish rigsdaler. A new krone was introduced as the currency of Denmark in January 1875 and it replaced the rigsdaler at a rate of 2 kroner =1 rigsdaler. This placed the krone on the standard at a rate of 2480 kroner =1 kilogram fine gold.
The latter part of the 18th century and much of the 19th century saw expanding economic activity, banknotes were increasingly used instead of coins. The introduction of the new krone was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the parties to the union were the three Scandinavian countries, where the name was krone in Denmark and Norway and krona in Sweden, a word which in all three languages literally means crown. The three currencies were on the standard, with the krone/krona defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
White Houses, Frederiksberg
The White Houses in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, are a building society development originally built for workers at Frederiksberg Gasworks. It is located at Peter Bangs Vej, near Frederiksberg Gardens, the first gasworks in Frederiksberg opened in 1860 and was located at H. C. When the installation of gas in homes became common in the 1890s, it was decided to build a new plant at Flintholm. Frederiksberg Gasworks Workers Building Society was founded in 1898 after an act adopted earlier that year provided for loans for the construction of workers housing. The building society acquired a 4.5 hectare site at Peter Bangs Vej, the architects Gotfred Tvede and Olaf Schmidth were charged with the design of the houses which were built in 1788 and 1900. The development contained 194 dwellings as well as a building with retail space, Frederiksberg Workers Building Society was dissolved in 1922 when the apartments were converted into private ownership. The development consists of 45 semi-detached houses and seven detached houses, the design is based on a cubic volume where the length and height of roof ridge all measure 8.46 m.
The semi-detached houses consist of two cubes put together, Gotfred Tvede and Olaf Schmidth created seven different designs for variation. The buildings are designed in a Neo-Baroque style locally known as palæstil, inspired by 18th-century Rococo mansions, common features are white-dressed facades, Mansard roofs with red tiles, gable dormers and small paned windows. The house owners are now organized in Vejlauget FAB, the houses are located on Peter Bangs Vej, Kronprinsensvej, Folkets Allé, Frihedsvej and Broderskabsvej. Ida Auken, politician Eberts Villaby Lyset Official website Interactive map of the development Original renderings
Frederiksberg Runddel is a space in front of the main entrance to Frederiksberg Gardens, at the end of Frederiksberg Allé, in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Nicolai Eigtved converted the south wing to an orangerie in 1744, after the main wing burnt down in 1753, it was not rebuilt, but instead the main entrance to Frederiksberg Have was established in 1755 between the two surviving wings. The entrance gate to Frederiksberg Gardens was built in 1755 after the two years earlier. It was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtveds death, the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The Storm P. Museum, located on the corner of Pile Allé, is dedicated to the Danish humorist, cartoonist and actor, Robert Storm Petersen, who is popularly known as Storm P. Originally the local station, this building from 1886 served as the office of the local burials administration before it was converted into a museum.
The Horticultural Societys Garden was originally located further down Frederiksberg Allé, before that, the site was part of the palace gardens nursery and vegetable gardens. Due to its peaceful and picturesque setting, the space is used for various events or fairs. In winter, it features an open-air ice-skating rink, sankt Thomas Plads Historic pictures of Frederiksberg Runddel
Gammel Kongevej is the principal shopping street of Frederiksberg in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the opposite end, Jernbanegade connects it to Copenhagen City Hall Square, Gammel Kongevej is one of the oldest road sections in Frederiksberg, originally providing a direct connection between Copenhagens Western City Gate and the village of Solbjerg. From there the it continued past the Damhus Lake towards Roskilde, giving rise to the name Roskildegaden, the road was improved by Christian IV in the 1620s. The name Kongevejen emerged about a generation when it became the road to Ny Amager, as Frederiksberg was called. The name of the changed to Gammel Kongevej after a new Route de Roie, Frederiksberg Allé. A number of new houses were built along the rad. P. Andersen opened the Svanholm Brewery at No.64 in 1853 and it was merged with several other breweries to form The United Breweries in 1891 and most of its buildings were replaced by a machine factory and iron factory. Part of the site was cleared in 1904–05 to make way for the new street Prinsesse Maries Allé, the rest of the industrial plant was replaced by the cinema complex Kinopalæet in 1918.
Gammel Kongevej mainly catered to the upper middle classes. The area next to the foundry was home to a small working-class neighbourhood with an infamous reputation. In the 1950s, Jørn Utzon, architect of the Sydney Opera House and it consisted of tower blocks in a green space inspired by Japanese gardens. Dating from the 1850s, No.78 is one of the oldest apartment buildings along the street and it has a small front garden and a fence towards the street. The Catholic school Ansgarstiftelsen at No.15 is decorated with a mural byNiels Macholm mural, Just off Gammel Kongevej, Ørsteds Vej and Bülowsvej, is a small enclave which has been described as Denmarks first urban neighbourhood of single-family detached homes. It consists of the side streets Uraniavej and Lindevej, the area around Sankt Jørgens Sø is home to a cluster of modern buildings which include the Tycho Brahe Planetarium and two highrises, Copenhagen Scandic Hotel and the 18-storey Codan Building
St. Luke's Church, Copenhagen
St. Lukes Church is a Church of Denmark church located in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Completed in 1897 to the design of Valdemar Koch, who built several other churches in Copenhagen around that time. By the late 19th century, the population of Frederiksberg parish had grown to about 60,000 inhabitants, at the same time it was decided to divide Frederiksberg into four parishes with St. Luke’s Church as the first of the three new churches to be built. The architect Valdemar Koch was charged with the commission and he had already designed two churches in Copenhagen, Kapernaum Church in Nørrebro and Zions Church in Østerbro. Ground was broken on 26 April 1896 and the new church was consecrated on 29 May 1897 with Ostenfeld as pastor, the construction costs amounted to DKK 75–80,000. The church was expanded with a porch in 1964 which was replaced in 1995 by one designed by the firm Per Gents, St. Lukes is built in Neo-Romanesque style. It stands on a plinth, and is built in red brick with ornamental bands.
The reliefs and sculptures by Thomas Bærentzen are in light-coloured stone, there is a flèche at the west end of the building. The barrel vaulted interior opens into an arcade leading to the sacristy at the eastern end, the rich interior decorations are partly made to Kochs own design and include paradise flowers which can be found in all of Koch’s churches in Copenhagen. On the walls above the windows there are fluttering angels and citations from the Gospel of Luke painted by Carl Budtz Møller in 1910, on the walls over the windows there are fluttering angels and citations from St Lukes gospel, painted by Carl Budtz Møller in 1910. The altarpiece is painted by Frans Schwartz and entitled Christ who reveals himself to his disciples, the altar table is a reconstruction from 1984 based on old oil paintings and photographs. The crucifix to the right of the altarpiece is executed in bog oak by Johannes Kragh and is a donation from 1929, the baptismal font is carved in granite from drawings by Valdemar Koch.
The church is a church within the Church of Denmark. Church of Christ, Copenhagen Official website
Søndre Fasanvej begins at Valby Langgade and continues along the western margin of Søndermarken and Frederiksberg Gardens to Smallegade, passing Roskildevej on the way. It continues as Nordre Fasanvej, passing several major arteries, including Nylandsvej, Godthåbsvej, Borups Allé and Hillerødgade, the oldest part of Søndre Fasanvej, north of Roskildevej, was established in 1682 as an access road to the royal pheasantry behind Frederiksberg Gardens. The road was extended northwards to Smallegade. The southern part of present day Søndre Fasanvej, between Valby Langgade and Roskildevej, was created in about 1870 as a driveway to a cluster of nuerseries. It was first known as Bag Søndermarken but was incorporated in Søndre Fasanvej in about 1900, Nordre Fasanvej was established between 1883 and 1908 as a direct extension of Søndre Fasanvej as the old part of the street was now called. A new Frederiksberg Hospital was built at the street in 1903, the west side of Søndre Fasanvej, opposite the big parks, is dominated by areas of Single-family detached home, apartment buildings from the 1880s.
Diakonissestiftelsens development, located on the corner with Peter Bangs Vej, the main entrance to Frederiksberg Hospital is located at No.57. Its gatehouse is built in the Neo-Baroque style, Nordre Fasanvej is home to some early examples of Functionalist architecture. The Green Funkis Building at No.78 was built in 1932 to designs by Hans Dahlerup-Berthelsen, the company Novozymes has a factory at the Nørrebro end of Nordre Fasanvej. The oldest part of the complex is an old dairy where the production started. It was expanded by Arne Jacobsen in 1934 and again in 1962, the underground Fasanvej Station is located at the southern end of Nordre Fasanvej. It serves the M1 and M2 lines of the Copenhagen Metro, Nørrebro station is located at Frederikssundsvej at the northern end of the street. It serves the Ring Line of the S-train network