Alvin Ailey was an African-American choreographer and activist who founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater and the Ailey School in New York City. He is credited with popularizing modern dance and revolutionizing African-American participation in 20th-century concert dance, his company gained the nickname "Cultural Ambassador to the World" because of its extensive international touring. Ailey's choreographic masterpiece Revelations is believed to be the best known and most seen modern dance performance. In 1977, Ailey was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP, he received the Kennedy Center Honors in 1988. In 2014, President Barack Obama selected Ailey to be a posthumous recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Ailey was born to Lula Elizabeth Ailey, in Rogers, Texas, his father named Alvin, abandoned the family when Alvin was only six months old. Like many African Americans living in Texas during the Great Depression and his mother moved and had a hard time finding work. Ailey grew up during a time of racial segregation and lynchings against African Americans.
Early experiences in the Southern Baptist Church and juke joints instilled in him a fierce sense of black pride that would figure prominently in Ailey's signature works. In the fall of 1942, Ailey's mother, in common with many African Americans during this period, migrated to Los Angeles, where she heard of lucrative work supporting the war effort. Ailey, aged 11, joined his mother by train, having stayed behind in Texas to finish out the school year. Ailey's first junior high school in California was located in a white school district; as one of the few black students, Ailey felt out of place because of his fear of whites, so the Aileys moved to a predominantly black school district. He matriculated at George Washington Carver Junior High School, attended the Thomas Jefferson High School, he sang spirituals in the glee club, wrote poetry, demonstrated a talent for languages. He attended shows at Lincoln Theater and the Orpheum Theater. Ailey did not become serious about dance until in 1949 his school friend Carmen De Lavallade introduced him to the Hollywood studio of Lester Horton.
Horton would prove to be Ailey's major influence, becoming a mentor and giving him both a technique and a foundation with which to grow artistically. Horton's school taught a wide range of dance styles and techniques, including classical ballet and Native American dance. Alvin fell in love with dance. Horton's school was the first multi-racial dance school in the United States. Ailey was, at first, ambivalent about becoming a professional dancer, he had studied Romance languages at various universities in California, but was restless and took courses as well in the writings of James Baldwin, Langston Hughes, Carson McCullers. He moved to San Francisco to continue his studies in 1951. There, he met Marguerite Johnson, who changed her name to Maya Angelou, they performed a nightclub act called "Al and Rita". Ailey earned a living dancing at the New Orleans Champagne Supper Club, he returned to study dance with Horton in southern California. He was introduced to the company through a lifelong friend.
At the age of 22 Ailey began full-time study at Horton's school. He joined Horton's company in 1953, it was during this period. Like all of Horton's students, Ailey studied other art forms, including painting, music, set design, costuming, as well as ballet and other forms of modern and ethnic dance; when Horton died in November 1953 the tragedy left the company without an artistic director. The company had outstanding contracts that desired new works; when no one else stepped forward, Ailey assumed the role of artistic director. Despite his youth and lack of experience he began choreographing, directing scene and costume designs, running rehearsal and he directed one of the shows for the company. In 1954, he and his friend Carmen De Lavallade were invited to New York to dance in the Broadway show, House of Flowers by Truman Capote, starring Pearl Bailey and Diahann Carroll, he appeared in Sing, Sing and in Jamaica with Lena Horne and Ricardo Montalbán. The New York modern dance scene in the fifties was not to Ailey's taste.
He observed the classes of modern dance contemporaries such as Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, José Limón. He felt Graham's dancing "finicky and strange" and disliked the techniques of both Humphrey and Limón. Ailey expressed disappointment at not being able to find a technique similar to Horton's. Not finding a mentor, he began creating works of his own. Ailey formed his own group, Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in 1958, inspired by the vision of his mentor, Lester Horton; the group presented its inaugural concert on March 30, 1958. Notable early work included a piece deriving from blues songs. Ailey's choreography was a dynamic and vibrant mix growing out of his previous training in ballet, modern dance and African dance techniques. Ailey insisted upon a complete theatrical experience, including costumes and make-up. A work of intense emotional appeal expressing the pain and anger of African Americans, Blues Suite was an instant success and defined Ailey's style. For his signature work, Ailey drew upon his "blood memories" of Texas, the blues and gospel.
These forces resulted in the creation of his critically acclaimed work. Ailey origin
Corps de ballet
In ballet, the corps de ballet is the group of dancers who are not soloists. They are a permanent part of the ballet company and work as a backdrop for the principal dancers. A corps de ballet works as one, with synchronized movements and corresponding positioning on the stage. Specific roles are sometimes made for the corps de ballet, such as the Snow Corps de Ballet and the Flower Corps in The Nutcracker. Ballet dancer Grant, Gail. Technical Manual and Dictionary of Classical Ballet. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-21843-0
A ballet dancer is a person who practices the art of classical ballet. Both females and males can practice ballet, they rely on years of extensive training and proper technique to become a part of professional companies. Ballet dancers are at a high risk of injury due to the demanding technique of ballet. Ballet dancers begin training between the ages of 2-4 or 5-7 if they desire to perform professionally. Training does not end, they must attend ballet class six days a week to keep themselves aware. Ballet is a strict form of art, the dancer must be athletic and flexible. Ballet dancers begin their classes at the barre, a wooden beam that runs along the walls of the ballet studio. Dancers use the barre to support themselves during exercises. Barre work is designed to warm up the body and stretch muscles to prepare for center work, where they execute exercises without the barre. Center work in the middle of the room starts out with slower exercises leading up to faster exercises and larger movements.
Ballet dancers finish center work practicing big leaps across the floor, called grande allegro. After center work, females present exercises on pointe, or on their toes, supported by special pointe shoes. Males practice turns, they may practice partner work together. Ballet dancers are susceptible to injury because they are putting strain and stress on their bodies and their feet. A ballet dancer's goal is to make physically demanding choreography appear effortless. Ballet dancers increase their risk of injury. However, many ballet dancers do start on the average age of 6 to 8 years old; the upper body of a ballet dancer is prone to injury because choreography and class exercises requires them to exert energy into contorting their backs and hips. Back bends cause the back to pinch, making the spine vulnerable to injuries such as spasms and pinched nerves. Extending the legs and holding them in the air while turned out causes damage to the hips; such damage includes strains, fatigue fractures, bone density loss.
Injuries are common in ballet dancers because ballet consists of putting the body in unnatural positions. One such position is first position, in which the heels are placed together as the toes point outward, rotating, or "turning out" the legs. If First Position is done incorrectly it can cause knee problems, when done it should increase flexibility and reduce pressure on the knees. Meniscal tears and dislocations can happen at the knees when positioned incorrectly because it is easy to let the knees slide forward while turned out in first position. Ballet dancer's feet are prone to other damage. Landing incorrectly from jumps and working in pointe shoes may increase risk of broken bones and weakened ankles where care and attention is not taken by a conscientious teacher and student. Tendonitis is common in female ballet dancers. Landing from jumps incorrectly may lead to shin splints, in which the muscle separates from the bone. Class time is used to correct any habits. If the ballet dancer is properly trained, the dancer will decrease their risk of injury.
Some ballet dancers turn to stretching or other methods of cross training, like Pilates, non impact cardio, swimming. This, outside cross training, attempts to minimize the risk of bodily damage by increasing strength, exercise diversity, stamina. Injuries are a common occurrence in performances. Most injuries do not show up until in a ballet dancer’s life, after years of continuous strain. Traditional, gender-specific titles are used for ballet dancers. In French, a male ballet dancer is referred to a female as a danseuse. In Italian, a ballerina is a female who holds a principal title within a ballet company. In Italian, the common term for a male dancer is danzatore and a female dancer is a danzatrice; these terms are used in English. Since ballerino is not used in English, it does not enjoy the same connotation as ballerina. A regular male dancer in Italy is called a danzatore, while ballerino denotes a principal male ballet dancer in Italy. In the English speaking world, boys or men who dance classical ballet are referred to as ballet dancers.
"ballerino" is used in English-based countries as slang. As late as the 1950s a ballerina was the principal female dancer of a ballet company, very accomplished in the international world of ballet beyond her own company. Ballerina was a critical accolade bestowed on few female dancers, somewhat similar to the title diva in opera; the male version of this term is danseur noble. Since the 1960s, the term has lost this honorific aspect and is applied to women who are ballet dancers. In the original Italian, the terms ballerino and ballerina do not imply the accomplished and critically acclaimed dancers once meant by the terms ballerina and danseur noble when used in English. Rather, they mean one who dances ballet. Italian terms that do convey an accomplished female ballet dancer are prima ballerina and prima ballerina assoluta (the French word étoile is used in this sense at the Scala ballet company in Milan but h
Royal Ballet School
The Royal Ballet School is one of the world's greatest centres of classical ballet training. Founded by the Anglo-Irish ballerina and choreographer Ninette de Valois, the school's aim is to train and educate outstanding classical ballet dancers for the Royal Ballet and Birmingham Royal Ballet. Admission to the School is based purely on talent and potential, regardless of academic ability or personal circumstances, 90% of current students rely on financial support to attend the school; the school is based over two sites, White Lodge, Richmond Park and Covent Garden based in purpose-built studios on Floral Street, adjacent to the Royal Opera House. The Royal Ballet School has, since 1926, produced dancers and choreographers of international renown, including Dame Margot Fonteyn, Dame Beryl Grey, Sir Kenneth MacMillan, Dame Darcey Bussell, Alessandra Ferri and Viviana Durante, as well as current Director of The Royal Ballet Kevin O'Hare. Graduates of the school have achieved employment in musical theatre and jazz dance and film.
In 1926, the Irish-born dancer Ninette de Valois founded the Academy of Choreographic Art, a dance school for girls and the predecessor of today's Royal Ballet School. Her intention was to form a repertory ballet company and school, leading her to collaborate with theatrical producer and theatre owner Lilian Baylis. Baylis owned the Old Vic theatre and acquired Sadler's Wells theatre in 1925. In 1928, she engaged de Valois to stage dance performances at both theatres and she re-opened Sadler's Wells theatre in 1931, with de Valois' school moving into studios on the site as the Sadler's Wells Ballet School, teaching both boys and girls. At the same time, the Vic-Wells Ballet Company was formed using students of the school and other notable dancers of the era. Both the school and the ballet company developed and after ballet performances ceased at the Old Vic, the ballet company was renamed the Sadler's Wells Ballet. In 1946, the company moved to become the resident ballet company at the newly re-opened Royal Opera House in Covent Garden and as a result, in 1947 the school moved from Sadler's Wells to premises in Barons Court, with academic education being introduced for younger students.
Following rapid expansion, in 1955 the school secured the premises at White Lodge in Richmond Park, London. This was established at the time as the Royal Ballet'Lower School', a residential boarding school for children aged 11–16, combining general education and vocational ballet training; the Royal Ballet School'Upper School' was established at the school's existing premises in Barons Court with students studying ballet on a full-time basis between the ages of 16–19. In October 1956, a Royal Charter was granted linking the ballet company and school and they became The Royal Ballet School and Royal Ballet Company. A second smaller company still performed at Sadler's Wells and toured around the UK and this became the Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet. De Valois retired as Director in 1970. In 1990, the Sadler's Wells company moved to become the resident ballet company at the Birmingham Hippodrome, in Birmingham, where it was renamed Birmingham Royal Ballet, forming a new association with the Elmhurst School for Dance in 2002.
In January 2003, The Royal Ballet School's older students moved to a newly constructed studio complex in Floral Street, adjacent to the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, where The Royal Ballet remains the resident ballet company. A bridge was constructed between the school and the Opera House, linking the school with the theatre and The Royal Ballet Company's own studios; the designer of the bridge received an architectural award and it is known as the Bridge of Aspiration. The Royal Ballet School's younger students moved to White Lodge, Richmond Park in Richmond, London in 1955 when the school was split for the first time; the Georgian building is a former royal residence and hunting lodge built during the reign of King George II. It is the School's permanent premises and there has been extensive redevelopment of the site to provide dance and academic facilities and accommodation for students. Children attend the school between entry to the school is by audition only; the school receives over twenty thousand applications every year and holds auditions in major UK cities.
Having an international reputation, the school receives applications from other countries. As a boarding school, the majority of students live on site, although there are a small number of day-students. In dance, students study classical ballet, character dance, gymnastics, Irish and Scottish dancing. In their training, students study ballet repertoire and pas de deux and boys undertake upper body conditioning; the school offers academic study at the level of a typical secondary school, both at Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4, with all students sitting GCSE examinations. The Royal Ballet School's Covent Garden base was established in 1955, when the younger students were moved to White Lodge; the school remained at existing studios in Barons Court, with academic studies introduced for the first time. In 2003, the school relocated to new premises, the former Baron's Court site now houses the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art; the school relocated to new, purpose-built premises in Covent Garden in January 2003.
The complex is a four-storey building with six dance studios, including a studio theatre with retractable raked seating for an audience of 200. The building houses changing rooms and showers for male and female students, a gym and fitness room, a pilates studio, physiotherapy suite and students common room. Facilities for academic educa
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev was a Russian Soviet composer and conductor. As the creator of acknowledged masterpieces across numerous musical genres, he is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century, his works include such heard pieces as the March from The Love for Three Oranges, the suite Lieutenant Kijé, the ballet Romeo and Juliet—from which "Dance of the Knights" is taken—and Peter and the Wolf. Of the established forms and genres in which he worked, he created – excluding juvenilia – seven completed operas, seven symphonies, eight ballets, five piano concertos, two violin concertos, a cello concerto, a symphony-concerto for cello and orchestra, nine completed piano sonatas. A graduate of the St Petersburg Conservatory, Prokofiev made his name as an iconoclastic composer-pianist, achieving notoriety with a series of ferociously dissonant and virtuosic works for his instrument, including his first two piano concertos. In 1915, Prokofiev made a decisive break from the standard composer-pianist category with his orchestral Scythian Suite, compiled from music composed for a ballet commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev of the Ballets Russes.
Diaghilev commissioned three further ballets from Prokofiev—Chout, Le pas d'acier and The Prodigal Son—which at the time of their original production all caused a sensation among both critics and colleagues. Prokofiev's greatest interest, was opera, he composed several works in that genre, including The Gambler and The Fiery Angel. Prokofiev's one operatic success during his lifetime was The Love for Three Oranges, composed for the Chicago Opera and subsequently performed over the following decade in Europe and Russia. After the Revolution of 1917, Prokofiev left Russia with the official blessing of the Soviet minister Anatoly Lunacharsky, resided in the United States Germany Paris, making his living as a composer and conductor. During that time, he married Carolina Codina, with whom he had two sons. In the early 1930s, the Great Depression diminished opportunities for Prokofiev's ballets and operas to be staged in America and western Europe. Prokofiev, who regarded himself as composer foremost, resented the time taken by touring as a pianist, turned to the Soviet Union for commissions of new music.
He enjoyed some success there – notably with Lieutenant Kijé, Peter and the Wolf and Juliet, above all with Alexander Nevsky. The Nazi invasion of the USSR spurred him to compose his most ambitious work, an operatic version of Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace. In 1948, Prokofiev was attacked for producing "anti-democratic formalism." He enjoyed personal and artistic support from a new generation of Russian performers, notably Sviatoslav Richter and Mstislav Rostropovich: he wrote his ninth piano sonata for the former and his Symphony-Concerto for the latter. Prokofiev was born in 1891 in Sontsovka, a remote rural estate in the Yekaterinoslav Governorate of the Russian Empire, his father, Sergei Alexeyevich Prokofiev, was an agronomist. Prokofiev's mother, came from a family of former serfs, owned by the Sheremetev family, under whose patronage serf-children were taught theatre and arts from an early age, she was described by Reinhold Glière as "a tall woman with beautiful, clever eyes … who knew how to create an atmosphere of warmth and simplicity about her."
After their wedding in the summer of 1877, the Prokofievs moved to a small estate in the Smolensk governorate. Sergei Alexeyevich found employment as a soil engineer, employed by one of his former fellow-students, Dmitri Sontsov, to whose estate in the Ukrainian steppes the Prokofievs moved. By the time of Prokofiev's birth, Maria—having lost two daughters—had devoted her life to music. Sergei Prokofiev was inspired by hearing his mother practising the piano in the evenings works by Chopin and Beethoven, wrote his first piano composition at the age of five, an "Indian Gallop", written down by his mother: it was in the F Lydian mode, as the young Prokofiev felt "reluctance to tackle the black notes". By seven, he had learned to play chess. Chess would remain a passion of his, he became acquainted with world chess champions José Raúl Capablanca, whom he beat in a simultaneous exhibition match in 1914, Mikhail Botvinnik, with whom he played several matches in the 1930s. At the age of nine, he was composing his first opera, The Giant, as well as an overture and various other pieces.
In 1902, Prokofiev's mother met Sergei Taneyev, director of the Moscow Conservatory, who suggested that Prokofiev should start lessons in piano and composition with Alexander Goldenweiser. Unable to arrange that, Taneyev instead arranged for composer and pianist Reinhold Glière to spend the summer of 1902 in Sontsovka teaching Prokofiev; the first series of lessons culminated, at the 11-year-old Prokofiev's insistence, with the budding composer making his first attempt to write a symphony. The following summer, Glière revisited Sontsovka to give further tuition. When, decades Prokofiev wrote about his lessons with Glière, he gave due credit to his teacher's sympathetic method but complained that Glière had introduced him to "square" phrase structure and conventional modulations, which he subsequently had to unlearn. Nonetheless, equipped with the n
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around