Katsuogi or Kasoegi are short, decorative logs found on Japanese and Shinto architecture. They are placed at a right angle along the ridge of roofs, are featured in religious or imperial architecture. Katsuogi predate Buddhist is an architectural element endemic to Japan, they are placed on the roof with chigi, a forked ornamentation used on Shinto shrines. Today and chigi are used on Shinto buildings and can be used to distinguish them from other religious structures, such as Buddhist temples in Japan; the original purpose of the katsuogi is uncertain. A theory is that the wooden logs were used to weigh down the thatch roofing seen in early Japanese structures; as construction techniques improved, the need for weights disappeared, the logs remained only for ornamental value. Their existence during the Jōmon period is in any case well documented by numerous artifacts. Like the chigi, the katsuogi was reserved only for the powerful nobility, it was first described in the Kojiki, a 7th-century Japanese text, where it seemed to be something accessible only to the emperor.
In the excerpt, Emperor Yūryaku sees an official's house laden with katsuogi on the roof. Angered by this, he pronounces the official a knave and a scoundrel for building a house in imitation of the imperial palace. In history, emperors granted families such as the Nakatomi clan and the Mononobe clan permission to use katsuogi on their houses; as these clans were fervent supporters and administrators of Shinto, the katsuogi would come to decorate Shinto shrines. By the 6th century, katsuogi were beginning to be used on the homes of powerful families, along with chigi. After the Meiji restoration their use in new shrines was limited to the honden; the katsuogi is a short, rounded log. Most are round, although square or diamond shapes have been used; some are carved with tapered ends. More ornate katsuogi will be covered in gold or bronze, decorated with the clan symbol or motif; the number of katsuogi used on any given roof varies, but in general there is always at least one on each end. Earlier buildings tend to employ more katsuogi.
Katsuogi are always used in buildings constructed in the shinmei-zukuri, kasuga-zukuri, sumiyoshi-zukuri, taisha-zukuri styles. They are always paired with the chigi. Chigi Shinto architecture Shinto shrine The Glossary of Shinto for terms concerning Shinto and Shinto architecture
The karahafu is a type of gable with a style peculiar to Japan. The characteristic shape is the undulating curve at the top; this gable is common in traditional architecture, including Japanese castles, Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines. Roofing materials such as tile and bark may be used as coverings; the face beneath the gable may be flush with the wall below. Although kara can be translated as meaning "China" or "Tang", this type of roof with undulating bargeboards is an invention of Japanese carpenters in the late Heian period, it was named thus because the word kara could mean "noble" or "elegant", was added to names of objects considered grand or intricate regardless of origin. The karahafu developed during the Heian period and is shown in picture scrolls to decorate gates and palanquins; the first known depiction of a karahafu appears on a miniature shrine in Shōryoin shrine at Hōryū-ji in Nara. The karahafu and its building style became popular during the Kamakura and Muromachi period, when Japan witnessed a new wave of influences from the Asian continent.
During the Kamakura period, Zen Buddhism spread to Japan and the karahafu was employed in many Zen temples. The karahafu was used only in temples and aristocratic gateways, but starting from the beginning of the Azuchi–Momoyama period, it became an important architectural element in the construction of a daimyō's mansions and castles; the daimyō's gateway with a karahafu roof was reserved for the shōgun during his onari visits to the retainer, or for the reception of the emperor at shogunate establishments. A structure associated with these social connections imparted special meaning. Gates with a karahafu roof, the karamon, became a means to proclaim the prestige of a building and functioned as a symbol of both religious and secular architecture. In the Tokugawa shogunate, the karamon gates were a powerful symbol of authority reflected in architecture. Karamon Japanese architecture Japanese castle
An Ōnusa or nusa is a wooden wand used in Shinto rituals. It is decorated with many shide; when the shide are attached to a hexagonal or octagonal staff, it can be called haraegushi. It is waved right during purification rituals. Ōnusa are not to be confused with hataki. Gohei Encyclopedia of Shinto, Ōnusa accessed on March 29, 2009
Mon is a generic Japanese term for gate used, either alone or as a suffix, in referring to the many gates used by Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines and traditional-style buildings and castles. Unlike gates of secular buildings, most temple and shrine gates are purely symbolic elements of liminality, as they cannot be closed and just mark the transition between the mundane and the sacred. In many cases, for example that of the sanmon, a temple gate has cleansing properties. Gate size is measured in ken, where a ken is the interval between two pillars of a traditional-style building. A temple's rōmon for example can have dimensions from a maximum of 5x2 ken to a more common 3x2 ken, down to one ken; the word is translated in English as "bay" and is better understood as an indication of proportions than as a unit of measurement. Like the temples they belong to, gates can be in the wayō, daibutsuyō, zen ` setchūyō style, they can be named after: Their location, of the omotemon or the karametemon. The deity they house, as the Niōmon, a gate enshrining two gods called Niō in its outer bays.
Their structure or shape, as the nijūmon and the rōmon. Their function, as the sanmon, the most important gate of a Zen or Jōdo temple. Not all such terms are mutually exclusive and the same gate may be called with different names according to the situation. For example, a Niōmon can be called a nijūmon if it has two stories. Different structurally from the others is the toriimon, a two-legged gate in stone or wood associated with Shinto, but common within Japanese Buddhist temples; as prominent a temple as Osaka's Shitennō-ji, founded in 593 by Shōtoku Taishi and the oldest state-built Buddhist temple in the country, has a torii straddling one of its entrances. The origins of the torii are unknown; because the use of symbolic gates is widespread in Asia—such structures can be found for example in India, Thailand and within Nicobarese and Shompen villages—historians believe it may be an imported tradition. It most symbolically marks the entrance of a Shinto shrine. For this reason, it is never closed.
Hakkyakumon or Yatsuashimon – so called because of its eight secondary pillars, which support four main pillars standing under the gate's ridge. It therefore has twelve pillars altogether. Heijūmon – A gate in a wall consisting in just two square posts. Kabukimon – A gate in a wall formed by two square posts and a horizontal beam. Karamon – A gate characterized by a karahafu, an undulating bargeboard peculiar to Japan. Karamon are used at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. Kōraimon – Used at castles and daimyō residences, it consists of a tiled, gabled roof on two pillars, plus two smaller roofs over the secondary pillars on the rear of the gate. Masugata. A defensive structure consisting in a courtyard along the wall of a castle with two gates set at a square angle, one giving access to the castle and one facing the outside; the external gate is a kōraimon, the internal one a yaguramon. The Sakuradamon at Tokyo's Imperial Palace is such a gate. Munamon – A gate formed by two pillars sustaining a gabled roof.
Similar to a kōraimon, but lacking the roofed secondary pillars. Nagayamon lit. nagaya gate – A nagaya a long house, was a row house where low status samurai used to live, the nagayamon was a gate that allowed traffic from one side of the structure to the other. Nijūmon – A two-storied gate with a pent roof between the two stories. Distinguishable from the similar rōmon for having a pent roof between stories. Niōmon – A gate enshrining in its two outer bays the statues of two warden gods, the Niō. Rōmon – A two-storied, single roofed gate where the second story is inaccessible and offers no usable room. Distinguishable from the similar nijūmon for not having a pent roof between stories. Sanmon – The most important gate of a Japanese Zen Buddhist temple. Used by other schools the Jōdo, its importance notwithstanding, the sanmon is not the first gate of the temple, in fact it stands between the sōmon and the butsuden. Sōmon – the gate at the entrance of a temple, it precedes the bigger and more important sanmon.
Torii – This distinctive symbolic gate is associated with Shinto shrines, however it is common at Buddhist temples too, as most have at least one. Uzumimon – Gates opened in a castle wall; because they were used to connect surfaces at different levels, they looked as if they were buried in the ground. Yaguramon – A gate with a yagura on top. Yakuimon – A gate having no pillars under the ridge of its gabled gate, supported by four pillars at its corners. Yakkyakumon or Yotsuashimon – so called because of its four secondary pillars which support two main pillars standing under the gate's ridge, it therefore has six pillars. Media related to Gates in Japan at Wikimedia Commons
Oxford, New York
Oxford is a town in Chenango County, New York, United States. The town contains a village named Oxford. Oxford is an interior town in the south-central part of the county, southwest of the city of Norwich. At the 2010 census the town population was 3,901; the name derives from that of the native town of an early landowner from New England The town is within the former realm of the Oneida and Tuscarora people. A tract of land in the town was purchased from Oxford, Massachusetts; the first settlers in Oxford arrived in the spring of 1789. Elijah Blackman, his son Jabez Blackman, eleven-year-old adopted daughter Polly Knapp built a primitive log cabin on an island in the Chenango River; the little island on which the Blackman family had squatted had been bought by Benjamin Hovey, who when he came on to take possession, gave them in consideration of the improvements made, a piece of land, a mile and a half up the river. Blackman resided there until his death, which occurred about the year 1825; the town of Oxford was established in 1793 from territory divided from the town of Bainbridge and the town of Union.
Oxford lost some of its territory when the town of Guilford was created in 1813, the town of Coventry was formed in 1843. The former Chenango Canal passed through the town. Railroad service began in 1870; the Loomis Family Farm was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. Barnum Brown, fossil hunter, buried in Oxford Theodore Burr, engineer Charles Benjamin Dudley, proponent of industrial standardization and president of ASTM International from 1902-1908 Camille Paglia and academic Thomas Ryan, born in Oxford, congressman from Kansas Uri Tracy, founder of Oxford Academy and congressman Solomon Bundy and Congressman, great-grandfather of McGeorge and William Bundy According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 60.4 square miles, of which 60.1 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.58%, is water. The Chenango River, a tributary of the Susquehanna River, flows southward through the town. New York State Route 12 is a northeast-southwest highway through the town.
New York State Route 220 intersects NY-12 in Oxford village. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,992 people, 1,440 households, 1,035 families residing in the town; the population density was 66.4 people per square mile. There were 1,800 housing units at an average density of 30.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.72% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 1,440 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.99. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,024, the median income for a family was $37,639. Males had a median income of $28,169 versus $21,380 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,149. About 9.4% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Brackett Lake – A small lake in the southeast part of the town. Cheshireville – A former community in the south part of the town. Coventry Station – A location southwest of Oxford village and northwest of South Oxford. Ingraham Corners – A location northwest of Oxford village at the north town line. Northrups Corners – A location south of Oxford village. Oxford – A village in the north part of the town. Oxford Station – A location southeast of Oxford village, located on County Road 35. Puckerville Corners – A location near the east town line.
South Oxford – A hamlet southwest of Oxford village, located on County Road 32. The Sannick Family Farm was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007. Walker Corners – A location east of South Oxford hamlet. Town of Oxford official website Oxford commercial website Early history of the Town of Oxford, NY
In Shinto, a miko is a shrine maiden or a supplementary priestess. Miko were once seen as a shaman but are understood in modern Japanese culture to be an institutionalized role in daily shrine life, trained to perform tasks, ranging from sacred cleansing to performing the sacred Kagura dance; the traditional attire of a miko would be a pair of red hakama or a long, red pleated skirt tied with a bow, a white haori, some white or red hair ribbons. In Shintoism, the color white symbolizes purity. Traditional Miko tools include azusayumi the gehōbako; the miko use bells, drums and bowls of rice in ceremonies. The Japanese words miko and fujo are written 巫女 as a compound of the kanji 巫, 女. Miko was archaically written 神子 and 巫子. Miko once performed spirit possession and takusen as vocational functions in their service to shrines; as time passed, they began working independently in secular society. Miko at shrines today do no more than perform kagura dance. In addition to a medium or a miko, the site of a takusen may also be attended by a sayaniwa who interprets the words of the possessed person to make them comprehensible to other people present.
Kamigakari and takusen may be passive, when a person speaks after becoming involuntarily possessed or has a dream revelation. Miko are known by many names. Other names are ichiko meaning "female medium. In English, the word is translated as "shrine maiden", though freer renderings simply use the phrase "female shaman" or, as Lafcadio Hearn translated it, "Divineress"; some scholars prefer the transliteration, contrasting the Japanese Mikoism with other Asian terms for female shamans. As Fairchild explains: Women played an important role in a region stretching from Manchuria, China and Japan to the Ryukyu Islands. In Japan these women were priests, magicians and shamans in the folk religion, they were the chief performers in organized Shintoism; these women were called Miko, the author calls the complex "Mikoism" for lack of a suitable English word. Miko traditions date back to the prehistoric Jōmon period of Japan, when female shamans would go into “trances and convey the words of the gods”, an act comparable with "the pythia or sibyl in Ancient Greece."The earliest record of anything resembling the term "miko", is of the Chinese reference to Himiko, Japan's earliest substantiated historical reference, however it is unknown whether Himiko was a miko, or if miko existed in those days.
The early Miko was an important social figure, "associated with the ruling class". "In addition to her ritual performances of ecstatic trance", writes Kuly, " performed a variety of religious and political functions". One traditional school of Miko, Kuly adds, "claimed to descend from the Goddess Uzume". During the Nara period and Heian period, government officials tried to control Miko practices; as Fairchild notes: In 780 A. D. and in 807 A. D. official bulls against the practice of ecstasy outside of the authority of the shrines were published. These bulls were not only aimed at ecstasy, but were aimed at magicians, sorcerers, etc, it was an attempt to gain complete control, while at the same time it aimed at eradicating abuses which were occurring. During the feudal Kamakura period when Japan was controlled by warring shōgun states: The Miko was forced into a state of mendicancy as the shrines and temples that provided her with a livelihood fell into bankruptcy. Disassociated from a religious context, her performance moved further away from a religious milieu and more toward one of a non-ecclesiastical nature.
The travelling Miko, known as the aruki Miko, became associated with prostitution. During in the Edo period, writes Groemer, "the organizational structures and arts practiced by female shamans in eastern Japan underwent significant transformations". Though in the Meiji period, many shamanistic practices were outlawed: After 1867 the Meiji government's desire to create a form of state Shinto headed by the emperor—the shaman-in-chief of the nation—meant that Shinto needed to be segregated from both Buddhism and folk-religious beliefs; as a result, official discourse repeated negative views of Miko and their institutions. There was an edict called Miko Kindanrei enforced by security forces loyal to Imperial forces, forbidding all spiritual practices by miko, issued in 1873, by the Religious Affairs Department; the Shinto kagura dance ceremony, which originated with "ritual dancing to convey divine oracles", has been transformed in the 20th century into a popular ceremonial dance called Miko-mai or Miko-kagura.
The position of a shaman passed from generation to generation, but sometimes someone not directly descended from a shaman went voluntary into training or was appointed by the village chieftains. To achieve this, such a person had to have some potential. Seve
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea