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A goitre, or goiter, is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. A goitre can be associated with a thyroid, not functioning properly. Worldwide, over 90% of goitre cases are caused by iodine deficiency; the term is from the Latin gutturia. Most goitres are of a benign nature. A goiter can present as a palpable or visible enlargement of the thyroid gland at the base of the neck. A goiter, if associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, may be present with symptoms of the underlying disorder. For hyperthyroidism, the most common symptoms are associated with adrenergic stimulation: tachycardia, nervousness, increased blood pressure and heat intolerance. Clinical manifestations are related to hypermetabolism, excessive thyroid hormone, an increase in oxygen consumption, metabolic changes in protein metabolism, immunologic stimulation of diffuse goitre, ocular changes. Hypothyroid individuals may have weight gain despite poor appetite, cold intolerance and lethargy. However, these symptoms are non-specific and make diagnosis difficult.

Worldwide, the most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency seen in countries that scarcely use iodized salt. Selenium deficiency is considered a contributing factor. In countries that use iodized salt, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause. Goitre can result from cyanide poisoning. Sarcoidosis Amyloidosis Hydatidiform mole Cysts Acromegaly Pendred syndrome Goitre may be diagnosed via a thyroid function test in an individual suspected of having it. A goitre may be classified either as diffuse. Nodular goitres are either of multiple nodules. Growth pattern Uninodular goitre: one thyroid nodule. Multinodular goitre: multiple nodules; these nodules grow up at varying rates and secrete thyroid hormone autonomously, thereby suppressing TSH-dependent growth and function in the rest of gland. Inactive nodules in the same goitre can be malignant. Thyroid cancer is identified in 13.7% of the patients operated for multinodular goitre. Diffuse goitre: the whole thyroid appearing to be enlarged due to hyperplasia.

Size Class I: the goitre in normal posture of the head cannot be seen. Class II: the goitre is palpable and can be seen. Class III: the goitre is large and is retrosternal, pressure results in compression marks. Goitre is treated according to the cause. If the thyroid gland is producing an excess of thyroid hormones, radioactive iodine is given to the patient to shrink the gland. If goitre is caused by iodine deficiency, small doses of iodide in the form of Lugol's iodine or KI solution are given. If the goitre is associated with an underactive thyroid, thyroid supplements are used as treatment. Sometimes a partial or complete thyroidectomy is required. Goitre is more common among women, but this includes the many types of goitre caused by autoimmune problems, not only those caused by simple lack of iodine. Chinese physicians of the Tang Dynasty were the first to treat patients with goitre by using the iodine-rich thyroid gland of animals such as sheep and pigs—in raw, pill, or powdered form; this was outlined in Zhen Quan's book, as well as several others.

One Chinese book, The Pharmacopoeia of the Heavenly Husbandman, asserted that iodine-rich sargassum was used to treat goitre patients by the 1st century BC, but this book was written much later. In the 12th century, Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, a Persian physician, provided the first description of Graves' disease after noting the association of goitre and a displacement of the eye known as exophthalmos in his Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm, the major medical dictionary of its time. Al-Jurjani established an association between goitre and palpitation; the disease was named after Irish doctor Robert James Graves, who described a case of goitre with exophthalmos in 1835. The German Karl Adolph von Basedow independently reported the same constellation of symptoms in 1840, while earlier reports of the disease were published by the Italians Giuseppe Flajani and Antonio Giuseppe Testa, in 1802 and 1810 and by the English physician Caleb Hillier Parry in the late 18th century. Paracelsus was the first person to propose a relationship between goitre and minerals in drinking water.

Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811 from seaweed ash. Goitre was common in many areas that were deficient in iodine in the soil. For example, in the English Midlands, the condition was known as Derbyshire Neck. In the United States, goitre was found in the Great Lakes and Intermountain regions; the condition is now absent in affluent nations, where table salt is supplemented with iodine. However, it is still prevalent in India, Central Asia, Central Africa. Goitre had been prevalent in the alpine countries for a long time. Switzerland reduced the condition by introducing iodised salt in 1922; the Bavarian tracht in the Miesbach and Salzburg regions, which appeared in the 19th century, includes a choker, dubbed Kropfband, used to hide either the goitre or the remnants of goitre surgery. In the 1920s wearing bottles of iodine around the neck was believed to pre

Paal Bog

Paal Bog was a Norwegian economist, civil servant and diplomat. He served as Chairman of UNICEF from 1980 to 1981. Bog earned the cand.oecon. Degree in economics at the University of Oslo in 1946, worked at Statistics Norway until 1953, he joined the Norwegian Customs Service, but returned to SSB. He worked for the India Fund's Indo-Norwegian Project from 1953 to 1955, he was an assistant director and director of a department in SSB. From 1969 to 1975 he worked for the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, in 1975 he became Director-General for Development Aid in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he served as Ambassador to Kenya and Uganda with residence in Nairobi from 1982 to 1988. He became a Commander of the Order of St. Olav in 1987. Bog was married to the women's studies scholar Harriet Hinsch from 1944 to 1950. From 1954 to 1968 he was married to the painter Kari Robak. Paal Bog has a son from his second marriage, Ola Bog

Sonnet 120

Sonnet 120 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence. Sonnet 120 is an Shakespearean sonnet; the English sonnet has three quatrains, followed by a final rhyming couplet. It follows the typical rhyme scheme of the form ABAB CDCD EFEF GG and is composed in iambic pentameter, a type of poetic metre based on five pairs of metrically weak/strong syllabic positions; the 4th line exemplifies a regular iambic pentameter: × / × / × / × / × / Unless my nerves were brass or hammer'd steel. Four lines have a final extrametrical syllable or feminine ending, as for example: × / × / × / × / × / For if you were by my unkindness shaken, / = ictus, a metrically strong syllabic position. × = nonictus. = extrametrical syllable. Paul Rhys, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks

Mona Lisa (Nat King Cole song)

"Mona Lisa" is a popular song written by Ray Evans and Jay Livingston for the Paramount Pictures film Captain Carey, U. S. A.. The title and lyrics refer to the renaissance portrait Mona Lisa painted by Leonardo da Vinci; the song won the Oscar for Best Original Song in 1950. The song’s first musical arrangement was in an orchestration by Nelson Riddle, the orchestral backing was played by Les Baxter and his Orchestra; the recording was the B-side of "The Greatest Inventor Of Them All." In an American Songwriter magazine interview, Jay Livingston recalled that the original advertisements for the record did not mention "Mona Lisa”. The soundtrack version by Nat King Cole spent five weeks at number one in the Billboard singles chart in 1950. Cole's version of the song was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1992. Cole described this song as one of his favorites among his recordings; the Billboard sales charts of 1950 showed significant sales on versions by Dennis Day, Victor Young, Art Lund, Ralph Flanagan, Charlie Spivak and Harry James.

Hit versions for Moon Mullican #4 and Jimmy Wakely #10 were featured in 1950. Various artists, including Jim Reeves, Elvis Presley 1959, Willie Nelson 1981, Shakin' Stevens 1981, Me First and the Gimme Gimmes, the Neville Brothers 1981, Nat King Cole's daughter Natalie Cole 1992, have released cover versions of this song. Bruddah Iz covered the song on the album Alone in IZ World. Bing Crosby recorded the song for his album Songs I Wish I Had Sung the First Time Around in 1956. Harry Connick, Jr. included the song on Your Songs. A rockabilly version of "Mona Lisa" was released by Carl Mann on Phillips International Records in March 1959 and reached number 25 on the Billboard Hot 100. Conway Twitty recorded a version of "Mona Lisa" in February 1959, but planned to release it only as an album cut, it peaked at number 5 in the UK Singles Chart in that year and in the top 30 in the United States. Sam Phillips signed Carl Mann to record his version of the song after the Twitty version began getting radio play in early 1959.

This was the most successful single in Mann's career. The melody is different, the lyrics are mostly the same as in the original version by Nat King Cole, though a few more phrases are added in that elaborate more on the girl he likes. Brian Setzer covered the Mann version in his 2005 Rockabilly Riot Vol. 1: A Tribute to Sun Records. Andy Williams released a version on his 1964 album, The Academy Award-Winning "Call Me Irresponsible" and Other Hit Songs from the Movies. In 1994, Alexia Vassiliou covered the song in the live album from Sony BMG Horis Revma. Little Willie Littlefield recorded a version for his 1990 album Singalong with Little Willie Littlefield. Phil Ochs, known for his protest songs in the 1960s, performed the song in 1970 at his infamous Carnegie Hall concert; the cover appears on the 1974 concert album Gunfight at Carnegie Hall. In the early 1950s, German bandleader Kurt Henckels recorded a big band version in the pre-WWII style on the East German Amiga label. Partygoers sing "Mona Lisa" in the background of one scene in Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window.

In 1986, the song was used as the theme to the British film Mona Lisa. The song was used in the wedding scene of the NBC mini-series, Witness to the Mob, in 1998; the song was used prominently in The Freshman, via both Cole's recording and a performance during the film by Bert Parks. List of number-one singles of 1950 List of number-one rhythm and blues hits Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Omuma town

Omuma town is the headquarters of Oru East, a local government area of Imo State in south eastern Nigeria. Is located at latitude 5.5594893° N and longitude 6.9720482° E. Omuma town is one of the oldest towns in Imo State. It's bounded on the north by Mgbidi on the east by Amiri and Otulu, on the west by Nempi Omuma has four communities, Abia-Omuma,Ozuh-Omuma, Umuhu-Omuma and Etiti-Omuma. Christianity is the dominant religion in Omuma. Catholics and Anglicans have the largest followers, Pentecostal churches are not left out; the culture of Omuma is oriented on Omenala and is typical of the Igbo culture, being steeped in Igbo art and Igbo music. While several cultural activities and festivals of old, having been associated with ancient Tribal gods and rites, have ceased to be performed since the spread of Christianity; the new yam festival starts with the planting season and is a more serious occasion, the planting season starts in March and the chief priest and elders start the planting of the yams.

Before the first yam is planted elders pay homage to their traditional ruler or chief the Dede Igbo, the custodian of the tradition and the ancestral father of the Omuma Igbo people. Top members of the Igbo people like high chiefs, title holders, respected elders and important personalities in the community in an entourage make the journey to the Dede; when the elders and top title holders arrive at the Ezeonomobi Igbo they are received by the leader as culture demands, by presenting them locally brewed palm wine and kola nut and white clay, first offered to the gods as supplication before the visitors. Brief discussions and prayers are done, the usual calendar puts the planting season on January while the Igbo calendar, agrarian is called the first Eke and starts in the month of February and is known as Onwa Mmiri Nda Afo. In Igboland yam is an important economic crop, favored and a regular staple in most homes, the crop is significant and has important status being the chief crop and forerunner of other crops in the region.

The planting season flags of on the first week of February and the crop takes six months to mature making the festival period between late July and early August when the valuable crop is harvested. Divine Favour Secondary School, Omuma Omuma Technical College, Omuma Omuma community school, Omuma Uche Stenography Academy, Umuhu-Omuma Holy Trinity Secondary School, Omuma Ozuh primary school, Ozuh-omuma Abia Central School, Abia-Omuma Community Primary School, Amaodum Etiti-Omuma Umuhu Primary School, Umuhu-Omuma Powerline Primary School, Abia-Omuma Omuma Central School, Omuma Omuma sits in the rain forest and produces many agricultural products, such as yams, taro,ona,corn and palm products. Omuma have crude oil and natural gas reserves like most of the Igbo land areas. Omuma is noted for entrepreneurial skills. Notable industries in Omuma include bread factories, table water factories, wood saw mills, oil palm mills; the Omuma market, popularly known as "Orie Omuma", is the biggest market in the Oru East L.

G. A. Attracting people from all over southeast Nigeria and beyond

Hector CantĂș

Hector Cantú is an American writer and newspaper comic strip creator, best known for the Latino-American strip Baldo. As of 2008, he lives in Texas. Cantú created his first cartoon at age 12 for a community newspaper in Crystal City, owned by his brother, inspired by Mad magazine cartoonists Sergio Aragonés and Antonio Prohías, he attended Skyline High School in Dallas. He studied journalism at the University of Texas at Austin, where he was an assistant managing editor at The Daily Texan, he worked as a reporter and editor at the San Antonio Light, the Dallas Times Herald, The Dallas Morning News. He was managing editor of Hispanic Business magazine in California, he has written freelance for the Los Angeles Times Magazine, The Hollywood Reporter, D Magazine. Cantú is among the 21 Latino comic book and comic strip authors and artists featured in comic historian Frederick Luis Aldama's 2009 book Your Brain on Latino Comics. In 1998, Cantú and artist Carlos Castellanos teamed to create the comic strip Baldo, about a 15-year-old Latino-American teenager, Baldomero Bermudez, nickname Baldo, living with his 8-year-old sister Gracie.

Universal Press Syndicate contracted for the strip, in April 2000 it launched in newspapers, which number nearly 200 as of late 2008. It ranked among Universal Press Syndicate's 5 most successful launches. Cantú in 2007 said he and Castellanos were prompted to create Baldo Two Baldo compilation books, The Lower You Ride, The Cooler You Are and Night Of The Bilingual Telemarketers, have been published by Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC; the Spanish-language television network Univision optioned the strip for an animated television series. As of 2007, Cantú is editor and publisher of The Intelligent Collector magazine at Heritage Auctions, he is co-editor of the book Collectible Movie Posters published by Whitman Publishing. He is founding chair of a regional chapter of the National Cartoonists Society. “Labor of Laughter,” The Register-Guard, March 31, 2018 “For Comic Strip Authors In The Trump Era,'No Art Should Live In A Vacuum’”, National Public Radio, January 21, 2018 Comics: Meet the Artist: "With Hector Cantu and Carlos Castellanos, Cartoonists —'Baldo'", Webchat, July 12, 2002 "'Baldo' Creators Draw Attention to National Literacy Day", Universal Press Syndicate press release, June 18, 2004 Hooten, Jeffery D. "'Baldo' writer addresses his work at Texas Union", The Daily Texan, September 12, 2007.

"'Baldo' Strip Includes What'The War' Series Mostly Omits", Editor & Publisher, September 24, 2007, via Pounder, Lori. "Creating ‘Baldo’: Comic strip author Hector Cantú spoke at Summit Middle School Friday", Summit Daily News, January 18, 2008