Under the Japanese ritsuryō system, station bells or post bells were bells of red copper issued by the central government or by local provincial government offices to travelling officials or messengers known as ekishi. Functioning as a proof of identity, they allowed them to procure horses and labour at post stations; these post stations were located every 30 ri each providing between five and twenty messenger horses depending on the grade of the road. Depending on the rank of the emissary, the bells were marked with a number of notches regulating the number of horses that could be requested. A prince of royal blood of first rank would receive ten horses. On urgent dispatches the ekishi would ride with the bells ringing in order to be able to change horses at any time of day or night without delay; these bells were known as post road bells or stable bells. The system was established in the Taihō Code from 701 and was in use until the end of the 12th century or the end of the Heian period when it fell in disuse together with the demise of the centralized state.
A set of two station bells located on Dōgo island in Okinoshima, Shimane Prefecture and known as Ekirei of Oki Province has been designated as Important Cultural Property of Japan. Attached to the nomination is a six-legged Chinese style chest bestowed by Emperor Kōkaku; the bells have been handed down in the Oki family whose members were associated with the Tamawakasu no Mikoto Shrine and the regional administrators of Oki Province. They are located in the Oki family treasure hall in Okinoshima; the two bells are of flat octagonal shape and made of cast copper. On one side of the trunk the character "驛" is carved, on the opposite side, the character "鈴". At the bottom of the bells three and four legs are attached respectively, they weigh in at 700 770 g respectively. Before World War II, the bells had been designated as National Treasure of Japan on April 30, 1935, but lost this status in the reorganisation of cultural property protection after the war when all designated National Treasures were demoted to Important Cultural Properties in 1950.
Sea of Japan
The Sea of Japan is the marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, the Korean Peninsula and Russia. The Japanese archipelago separates the sea from the Pacific Ocean, it is bordered by Japan and Russia. Like the Mediterranean Sea, it has no tides due to its nearly complete enclosure from the Pacific Ocean; this isolation reflects in the fauna species and in the water salinity, lower than in the ocean. The sea has bays or capes, its water balance is determined by the inflow and outflow through the straits connecting it to the neighboring seas and Pacific Ocean. Few rivers discharge into the sea and their total contribution to the water exchange is within 1%; the seawater has an elevated concentration of dissolved oxygen that results in high biological productivity. Therefore, fishing is the dominant economic activity in the region; the intensity of shipments across the sea has been moderate owing to political issues, but it is increasing as a result of the growth of East Asian economies. Sea of Japan is the dominant term used in English for the sea, the name in most European languages is equivalent, but it is sometimes called by different names in surrounding countries reflecting historical claims to hegemony over the sea.
The sea is called Rìběn hǎi or Jīng hǎi in China, Yaponskoye more in Russia, Chosŏn Tonghae in North Korea, Donghae in South Korea. A naming dispute exists about the sea name, with South Korea promoting the English translation of its native name as the East Sea; the use of the term "Sea of Japan" as the dominant name is a point of contention. South Korea wants the name "East Sea" to instead of or in addition to "Sea of Japan; the primary issue in the dispute revolves around a disagreement about when the name "Sea of Japan" became the international standard. Japan claims the term has been the international standard since at least the early 19th century, while the Koreas claim that the term "Sea of Japan" arose while Korea was under Japanese rule, before that occupation other names such as "Sea of Korea" or "East Sea" were used in English; the International Hydrographic Organization, the international governing body for the naming bodies of water around the world, in 2012 recognized the term "Sea of Japan" as the only title for the sea, stated they would will review the issue again in 2017.
For centuries, the sea had protected Japan from land invasions by the Mongols. It had long been navigated by Asian and, from the 18th century, by European ships. Russian expeditions of 1733–1743 mapped Sakhalin and the Japanese islands. In the 1780s, the Frenchman Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse, traveled northward across the sea through the strait named after him. In 1796, a British naval officer, William Robert Broughton explored the Strait of Tartary, the eastern coast of the Russian Far East and the Korean Peninsula. In 1803–1806, the Russian navigator Adam Johann von Krusenstern while sailing across the globe in the ship Nadezhda explored, in passing, the Sea of Japan and the eastern shores of Japanese islands. In 1849, another Russian explorer Gennady Nevelskoy discovered the strait between the continent and Sakhalin and mapped the northern part of the Strait of Tartary. Russian expeditions were made in 1853–1854 and 1886–1889 to measure the surface temperatures and record the tides.
They documented the cyclonal character of the sea currents. Other notable expeditions of the 19th century include the American North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition and British Challenger expedition; the aquatic life was described by V. K. Brazhnikov in P. Yu. Schmidt in 1903–1904; the Japanese scientific studies of the sea became systematic since the 1920s. American and French whaleships cruised for whales in the sea between 1848 and 1892. Most entered the sea via Korea Strait and left via La Pérouse Strait, but some entered and exited via Tsugaru Strait, they targeted right whales, but began catching humpbacks as right whale catches declined. They made attempts to catch blue and fin whales, but these species invariably sank after being killed. Right whales were caught from March with peak catches in May and June. During the peak years of 1848 and 1849 a total of nearly 160 vessels cruised in the Sea of Japan, with lesser numbers in following years; the Sea of Japan was a landlocked sea.
The onset of formation of the Japan Arc was in the Early Miocene. The Early Miocene period corresponds to the Japan Sea starting to open, the northern and southern parts of the Japanese archipelago separating from each other. During the Miocene, there was expansion of Sea of Japan; the north part of the Japanese archipelago was further fragmented until orogenesis of the northeastern Japanese archipelago began in the Late Miocene. The south part of the Japanese archipelago remained as a large landmass; the land area had expanded northward in the Late Miocene. The orogenesis of high mountain ranges in northeastern Japan started in Late Miocene and lasted in Pliocene also. Nowadays the Sea of Japan is bounded by the Russian mainland and Sakhalin island to the north, the Korean Peninsula to the west, the Japanese islands of Hokkaidō, Honshū and Kyūshū to the east and south, it is connected to other seas by five straits: the Strait of Tartary between the Asia
Google Books is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, stored in its digital database. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives; the Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004; the Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge and promoting the democratization of knowledge. However, it has been criticized for potential copyright violations, lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.
As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries. Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, stated that it intended to scan all of them. Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search and in the dedicated Google Books search website. In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight; the four access levels used on Google Books are: Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. The publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview. Snippet view: A'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview; this could be because Google can not identify the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of snippets can harm the market for the work.
Google maintains. No preview: Google displays search results for books that have not been digitized; as these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata such as the title, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog. In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, Google would respect the request. Google stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work: It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries.
It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries. It can opt out of the Library Project. If the book has been scanned, Google will reset its access level as'No preview'. Most scanned works are commercially available. In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, made available on Google Books for preview; the publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can choose to make the book viewable, allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can be made available for sale on Google Play. Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher; the publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.
For many books, Google Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Pa
The Hokuriku region was located in the northwestern part of Honshu, the main island of Japan. It lay along the Sea of Japan within the Chūbu region, which it is a part of, it is equivalent to Koshi Province and Hokurikudō area in pre-modern Japan. Due to its elongated shape, the Noto Peninsula jutting out, the region is known as a'rising dragon' 昇龍道. Since the Heian period until the Edo period the region was a core recipient of population, the population grew to be much larger proportionately than it is today, despite the rural character. With the growth of urban centers in the 20th century Tokyo and Chūkyō, the Hokuriku has declined in importance to become relative backwaters; the region is known for traditional culture that originated from elsewhere, long lost along the Taiheiyō Belt. The Hokuriku region includes the four prefectures of Ishikawa, Fukui and Toyama, although Niigata is sometimes included in one of the following regions: Shin'etsu: includes Niigata and Nagano prefectures Kōshin'etsu: includes Niigata and Yamanashi prefectures Hokushin'etsu: includes both the Hokuriku and Shin'etsu regions The major population centers of Hokuriku are: Niigata Kanazawa, Toyama Fukui, Jōetsu, Nagaoka Of these, Niigata is the largest with a population of over 800,000.
The main industries in the Hokuriku area include chemicals, tourism and textile machinery, heavy machinery and fishing. Koshihikari, a popular variety of rice is a special product of Hokuriku region; the Hokuriku region has the highest volume of snowfall of any inhabited and arable region in the world. This is because dry Siberian air masses, which develop high humidity over the Sea of Japan, are forced upwards when they encounter the mountains of Honshū, causing the humidity to condense as snow; the long winters and deep snow of this region are depicted in Hokuetsu Seppu, an encyclopedic work of the late Edo period which describes life in the Uonuma district of Niigata Prefecture. The Hokuriku region is the setting for Yasunari Kawabata's novel Snow Country. Hokuriku is listed as No. 4 in Lonely Planet's Best in Travel 2014 – Top 10 Regions. Http://www.lonelyplanet.com/travel-tips-and-articles/lonely-planets-best-in-travel-2014-top-10-regions Kōshin'etsu region Shin'etsu region Tōkai region Tōhoku Kitamaebune Hokuriku Shinkansen Hokuriku Main Line Hokuriku Expressway Hokuriku dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.
Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. OCLC 58053128. ISBN 0-674-01753-6, ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5
The Japanese Alps is a series of mountain ranges in Japan which bisect the main island of Honshū. The name was coined by English archaeologist William Gowland, popularized by Reverend Walter Weston, an English missionary for whom a memorial plaque is located at Kamikōchi, a tourist destination known for its alpine climate; when Gowland coined the phrase, however, he was only referring to the Hida Mountains. Today, the Japanese Alps encompass the Kiso Mountains and the Akaishi Mountains; these towering ranges include several peaks exceeding 3,000 m in height, the tallest after Mount Fuji. The highest are Mount Hotaka at Mount Kita at 3,193 m in south area. Mount Ontake is well known as an active volcano, having erupted most in 2014; the Northern Alps known as the Hida Mountains, stretch through Nagano and Gifu prefectures. A small portion of the mountains reach into Niigata Prefecture, it includes the mountains Mount Ontake, Mount Norikura, Mount Yake, Mount Hotakadake, Mount Yari, Mount Jōnen, Suishodake, Mount Tate, Kashima Yarigatake, Goryū dake, Mount Shirouma.
The Central Alps known as the Kiso Mountains, are located in the Nagano prefecture. It includes the mountains Mount Ena, Anpaiji mountain, Mount Kusumoyama, Mount Minamikoma, Mount Utsugi, Mount Hōken, Mount Kisokoma, Kyogatake; the Southern Alps known as the Akaishi Mountains, span Nagano and Shizuoka prefectures. It includes the mountains Mount Hōō, Mount Nōtori, Mount Aino, Mount Kita, Mount Kaikoma, Mount Senjō, Mount Nokogiri. Tourism in Japan Weston, Walter. Mountaineering and Exploration in the Japanese Alps. London: John Murray. McCarry, Charles. "The Japan Alps". National Geographic. Vol. 166 no. 2. Pp. 238–259. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. Official website Media related to Japanese Alps at Wikimedia Commons
Kawachi Province was a province of Japan in the eastern part of modern Osaka Prefecture. It held the southwestern area, split off into Izumi Province, it was known as Kashū. The area was radically different in the past, with Kawachi Bay and lake dominating the area over what is now land. Kawachi was divided into three counties: northern and southern; the northern county comprised the modern Hirakata, Kadoma, Shijōnawate, Daitō, Katano, Osaka areas. The central county comprised the modern Higashiōsaka and Kashiwara, Osaka areas; the southern county comprised the modern Sakai's eastern part, Habikino, Tondabayashi, Kawachinagano, Ōsakasayama, Minamikawachi District areas. Kawachi province was established in the 7th century. On 11 May 716, the Ōtori and Hine districts were split off to form Izumi Province. In December 720, the Katashimo and Katakami districts were combined to become Ōagata. On 15 September 740, Izumi Province was merged back in. On 30 May 757, that area was again separated to form Izumi Province.
Under Dōkyō's administration, Yuge-no-Miya was established. With the downfall of Dōkyō, the prior system was restored the following year; the provincial capital was in Shiki District, believed to have been at Kouiseki in Fujiidera, but this is not known for certain. It may have been moved during the Nara period. However, in the Shūgaishō, the capital was in Ōagata District. In the Setsuyōshū, Tanboku District was mentioned as the seat, it seems. It is unknown where the original shugo's residence was, but afterwards, it transferred to the Tannan, Furuichi and Takaya areas. A provincial temple for monks was constructed in the Tenpyō era. One for nuns was near the same place, but it seems that it was in ruin by the Heian period. Hiraoka Shrine was designated as the chief Shinto shrine of Kawachi Province; the shrine is located in Higashiōsaka. In addition, Katano Shrine in Hirakata, is labelled the "Primary Shrine of Kashū", but this may be a mixup where what was once the primary shrine for the Katano township was confused for the primary shrine of Kawachi.
The secondary shrine is said to have been Onji Shrine. However, just having the second most influence in Kawachi Province does not mean it was a secondary shrine in the shrine system; that it is called the secondary shrine is a recent innovation. There were no lower-level shrines; the sōja was Shiki-Agatanushi Shrine. The province of Kawachi was once the power of the Mononobe clan. Tsuboi in Habikino became a stronghold of the warrior family, the Minamoto clan; the likes of Hachimantarō Yoshiie who made vassals out of the samurai of the eastern provinces, his father Minamoto no Yoriyoshi, Yoshiyori's father Minamoto no Yorinobu's tomb of three generations is now close to the Tsūhō-ji remains, the Kawachi Genji's family temple. Minamoto no Yoritomo was a descendant of these Kawachi Genji. Near the end of the Kamakura period, Kusunoki Masashige and his household, being a powerful clan of southern Kawachi, rose up in defiance of the shogunate. With the direct imperial rule of Kenmu, Kusunoki was appointed as both shugo.
The Nanboku-chō period arrived as Ashikaga Takauji opposed Emperor Go-Daigo, Kawachi became a hotspot for battles. "After the death of Chikafusa the Southern Court moved from Anau to Amano in the province of Kawachi, making the Kongoji its headquarters."With the advent of the Muromachi period, the post of Kawachi shugo fell to one of the three kanrei, of the Hatakeyama clan. Masanaga was attacked at Shōgaku-ji by Hosokawa Masamoto and Hatakeyama Yoshitoyo, but his son Hisayoshi was in Kishū attempting to recoup for another attack. However, through all this, Kawachi had been the battleground, had been reduced to scorched earth. By the Sengoku period, the consolidated Kawachi was the asset of Hatakeyama Tanenaga, but the real power was imbued in the shugodai, a title that passed into the h