Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry and marketing topics. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and law, its headquarters is located in New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek; the magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool", its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, its CEO is Mike Federle. It was sold to Integrated Whale Media Investments. B. C. Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15, 1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise; the original name of the magazine was Forbes: Devoted to Doings.
Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C. Forbes became editor-in-chief, a post he held until his death in 1954. B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his father's death, his strengths lay in streamlining operations and developing marketing. During his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazine's circulation nearly doubled. On Bruce's death, his brother Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. became President and Chief executive of Forbes and Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine. Between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. In 2006, an investment group Elevation Partners that includes rock star Bono bought a minority interest in the company with a reorganization, through a new company, Forbes Media LLC, in which Forbes Magazine and Forbes.com, along with other media properties, is now a part.
A 2009 New York Times report said: "40 percent of the enterprise was sold... for a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million". Three years Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners observed, "It's not worth half of that now", it was revealed that the price had been US$264 million. In January 2010, Forbes reached an agreement to sell its headquarters building Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to New York University; the company's headquarters subsequently moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, in 2014. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale; this was encouraged by minority shareholders Elevation Partners. Sale documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publisher's 2012 EBITDA was US$15 million. Forbes sought a price of US$400 million. In July 2014, the Forbes family bought out Elevation and sold a 51 per cent majority of the company to Integrated Whale Media Investments. Apart from Forbes and its lifestyle supplement, Forbes Life, other titles include Forbes Asia and fifteen local language editions.
Steve Forbes and his magazine's writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes on Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group and Forbes Custom Media. From the 2009 Times report: "Steve Forbes returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10." In addition, that year the company began publishing ForbesWoman, a quarterly magazine published by Steve Forbes's daughter, Moira Forbes, with a companion Web site. The company published American Legacy magazine as a joint venture, although that magazine separated from Forbes on May 14, 2007; the company formerly published American Heritage and Invention & Technology magazines. After failing to find a buyer, Forbes suspended publication of these two magazines as of May 17, 2007. Both magazines were purchased by the American Heritage Publishing Company and resumed publication as of the spring of 2008. Forbes has published the Forbes Travel Guide since 2009.
On January 6, 2014, Forbes magazine announced that, in partnership with app creator Maz, it was launching a social networking app called "Stream". Stream allows Forbes readers to save and share visual content with other readers and discover content from Forbes magazine and Forbes.com within the app. Forbes.com is part of Forbes Digital, a division of Forbes Media LLC. Forbes's holdings include a portion of RealClearPolitics. Together these sites reach more than 27 million unique visitors each month. Forbes.com employs the slogan "Home Page for the World's Business Leaders" and claimed, in 2006, to be the world's most visited business web site. The 2009 Times report said that, while "one of the top five financial sites by traffic off an estimated $70 million to $80 million a year in revenue, never yielded the hoped-for public offering". Forbes.com uses a "contributor model" in which a wide network of "contributors" writes and publishes articles directly on the website. Contributors are paid based on traffic to their respective Forbes.com pages.
Forbes allows advertisers to publish blog posts on its website alongside regular editorial content through a program called BrandVoice, which accounts for more than 10 pe
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Afonso Pena International Airport
Afonso Pena International Airport is the main airport serving Curitiba, located in the adjoining municipality of São José dos Pinhais. It is named after the 6th President of Brazil, it is operated by Infraero. As it was the case with many important Brazilian airports located in strategic points along the coast, Afonso Pena, was built by the Brazilian Air Force Ministry in partnership with the United States Army during the Second World War. However, since its construction was completed only in 1945, shortly before the end of the war, Afonso Pena never saw heavy military movement. In 1946 most of its movement comprised civil operations; the original passenger terminal was in use until 1959. This second terminal is today used for cargo operations. In 1996, the present passenger terminal was built; the main problem of the airport are the unstable weather conditions of the region fog and smog in the morning hours of winter and the fact that the auxiliary runway 11/29 is too small and plagued with old equipment.
There are plans to upgrade runway 15/33 from an ILS CAT II runway to ILS CAT III. Since the bottleneck for the airport is the cargo capacity, the main runway was lengthened in 2008 to allow cargo flights to operate with greater loads and the cargo terminal was upgraded. On 31 August 2009, Infraero unveiled a BRL30 million investment plan to upgrade Afonso Pena International Airport focusing on the preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup which will be held in Brazil, Curitiba being one of the venue cities; the investment will include the enlargement of the apron and implementation of taxiways with completion scheduled for March 2011. The terminal is 45,000 m², has 14 jetways, is capable of handling 15 million passengers annually. There are 800 parking places; the airport complex includes a small museum, a playcenter and a mall with 60 stores inside the main terminal. 16 June 1958: a Cruzeiro do Sul Convair 440-59, registration PP-CEP, flying from Florianópolis to Curitiba, was on final approach procedures to land at Curitiba in bad weather when it was caught in windshear.
The aircraft struck the ground. Of the 27 passengers and crew aboard, 24 died. 3 November 1967: a Sadia Handley Page Dart Herald 214, registration PP-SDJ, flying from São Paulo-Congonhas to Curitiba, collided with a hill during approach to land at Curitiba. All 5 crew members and 21 passengers died. 4 passengers survived. 16 August 2000: a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 registration PP-SMG, en route from Foz do Iguaçu to Curitiba, was hijacked by 5 persons demanding the BRL 5 million that the aircraft was transporting. The pilot was forced to land at Porecatu. There were no injuries. 26 December 2002: a Brazilian Air Force Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante, registration FAB-2292, en route from São Paulo-Campo de Marte to Florianópolis Air Force Base, crashed while trying to carry out an emergency landing at Curitiba-Afonso Pena. Both engines had shut down; the airplane had taken off with insufficient fuel on board to complete the flight to Florianópolis. Of the 16 people on board, 1 crew member and 2 passengers died.
The airport is located 18 km southeast of downtown Curitiba. List of airports in Brazil Media related to Afonso Pena International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Airport information for SBCT at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for SBCT at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Current weather for SBCT at NOAA/NWS Accident history for CWB at Aviation Safety Network
B3 (stock exchange)
The B3 BM&FBOVESPA, is a Stock Exchange located at São Paulo and the second oldest of the country. At the end of 2011 it had a market capitalization of R$2.37 Trillion, making it the 13th largest stock exchange in the world. However, owing the slump in economic growth in Brazil associated with political problems, in addition to the strengthening of the U. S. Dollar vis-à-vis the Brazilian Real, the capitalization shrank to R$2.21 trillion by the end of 2015. On May 8, 2008, the São Paulo Stock Exchange and the Brazilian Mercantile and Futures Exchange merged, creating BM&FBOVESPA. At March 30, 2017, BM&FBOVESPA merged with CETIP, creating B3; the benchmark indicator of B3 is the Índice Bovespa or known as Ibovespa. There were 381 companies traded at Bovespa as of April 30, 2008. On March 18th, 2019, the Ibovespa index reached its record market closing at 99,829 points. B3 has offices in Rio de Janeiro and London. Founded on August 23, 1890 by Emilio Rangel Pestana, the "Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo" has had a long history of services provided to the stock market and the Brazilian economy.
Until the mid-1960s, Bovespa and the other Brazilian stock markets were state-owned companies, tied with the Secretary of Finances of the states they belonged to, brokers were appointed by the government. After the reforms of the national financial system and the stock market implemented in 1965/1966, Brazilian stock markets assumed a more institutional role. In 2007, the Exchange became a for-profit company. Through self-regulation, Bovespa operates under the supervision of the Comissão de Valores Mobiliários, analogous to the American SEC. Since the 1960s, it has evolved with the help of technology such as the introduction of computer-based systems, mobile phones and the internet. In 1972, Bovespa was the first Brazilian stock market to implement an automated system for the dissemination of information online and in real-time, through an ample network of computer terminals. At the end of the 1970s, Bovespa introduced a telephone trading system in Brazil. At the same time, Bovespa developed a system of fungible safekeeping and online services for brokerage firms.
In 1990, the negotiations through the Sistema de Negociação Electrônica - CATS was operated with the traditional system of "Pregão Viva Voz". BM&FBOVESPA is a electronic exchange. In 1997, a new system of electronic trading, known as the Mega Bolsa, was implemented successfully; the Mega Bolsa extends the potential volume of processing of information and allows the Exchange to increase its overall volume of activities. With the goal to increase popular access to the stock markets, Bovespa introduced in 1999 the "Home Broker", an internet-based trading systems that allows individual investors to trade stocks; the system enables users to execute sell orders online. In 2000, Bovespa created three new listing segments, the Novo Mercado, Level 2 and Level 1 of Corporate Governance Standards, allowing companies to accede voluntarily to more demanding disclosure and compliance obligations; the new listing segments languished until 2004, when a growing number of newly public companies began to list on the Novo Mercado and other segments as part of a capital-raising effort.
From 2004 to 2010, the vast majority of new listings on the Bovespa were made by Novo Mercado, Level 2 and Level 1 companies. The Novo Mercado, Level 2 and Level 1 segments are based on a contractual agreement of the listed company, its controlling shareholder, its management to comply with specified regulations. In addition, listed companies must submit to arbitration as a method of resolving disputes; the set of protections entailed by a Novo Mercado listing is deemed by market participants to increase the attractiveness of companies. The stock market index of Novo Mercado listed companies has outperformed the broader Ibovespa index since its launch; the recent success of the Brazilian equity capital markets is attributed to a significant extent to the credibility engendered by the Novo Mercado regulations. In 2007, only the United States and China equity markets had a greater number of initial public offerings; the availability of a "market exit" has encouraged the development of a private equity industry, a growing Brazilian investment banking market and a thriving asset management industry.
Another side benefit of a thriving equity market has been access to equity financing for the international expansion of Brazilian business. Brazilian multinational companies have used the proceeds of equity offerings to fund a growing number of international acquisitions. Vale, Gerdau, Brazil Foods, Marfrig Alimentos and JBS have acquired businesses outside Brazil using the proceeds from equity offerings. Attractive valuations of Brazilian subsidiaries have led international companies to list their Brazilian subsidiaries, as was the case of Banco Santander Brasil. On May 8, 2008, Bovespa Holding announced the merger of the São Paulo Stock Exchange and the Brazilian Mercantile and Futures Exchange, creating the world's second largest stock exchange; as a result of an early 2008 stock swap, Chicago's CME Group owns a 5% stake in BM&FBovespa, in turn, BM&FBovespa owns a 5% stake in CME Group. The agreement has created an order routing trading system between both exchanges. On June 18, 2012, BM&FBovespa became a founding member of the United
Brasília International Airport
Brasília–Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport is the only international airport serving Brasília. Built in 22 April 1999, the airport is named after Juscelino Kubitschek, the 21st President of Brazil, it is located in the Federal District. Some of its facilities are shared with the Brazilian Air Force, it is operated by Inframerica Brasília was only a project when in 1956 President Juscelino Kubitschek landed for the first time in the Central Plateau. However, Vera Cruz Airport, built in 1955 by the Deputy-Governor of Goiás, Bernardo Sayão, at the request of the chairman of the location of the New Federal Capital, Marechal José Pessoa existed. On 2 October 1955, the airport received the first crew of workers; this facility was located where today is the Integrated Train Terminal of Brasília. It had a dirt runway of 2,700 metres and a passenger terminal in a makeshift, cob-wall shack covered with buriti-leaves; this facility, was only temporary. The relocation to a definitive site had been identified as a priority and construction works started on 6 November 1956.
The works lasted for only over six months and required the clearing of an area of 1,334 million square metres, 178,500 square metres of earthwork, base-stabilized 40,900 square metres, covering 73,500 square metres, topographical services and leveling. The runway was designed to have a length of 3,300 metres but it had only 324 metres, was 45 metres wide; the passenger terminal was built of wood. On 2 April 1957, the presidential aircraft landed for the first time at the site and the official inauguration took place on 3 May 1957; that year, on the same location the Brasília Air Force Base was commissioned. In 1965 Oscar Niemeyer proposed a project for Brasília Airport to replace the wooden terminal. However, due to the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état, the military-government chose to build the project of Tércio Fontana Pacheco, an architect of the Brazilian Air Force Ministry; the airport is thus one of the few important buildings in Brasília, not related to Niemeyer. This building was opened in 1971 and since 1990 it has been under renovation following an architectural concept of the architect Sergio Roberto Parada.
In 1990 Brasília International Airport underwent its first major renovation and began to gain its present form with a central body and two satellites. The first phase included the construction of an access-viaduct to the passenger terminal and metal cover inaugurated in 1992 and the first circular satellite, inaugurated in 1994. In the second phase, the main body of the passenger terminal was renovated to include a shopping-mall and the satellite received nine jetways. In 2005, a second runway was opened. In April 2014 the South Concourse, which serves domestic flights, was opened; until April 2014 the terminal was capable of handling 9 million passengers per year, but handled around 14 million. With numbers increasing, the former terminal for general aviation built in 1988 was renovated and transformed into Passenger Terminal 2, it was opened for traffic on 2 August 2010. Following a decision made on 26 April 2011 by the Federal Government for private companies being granted concessions to operate some Infraero airports, on 6 February 2012, the administration of the airport was granted for 25 years to the Consortium Inframérica, formed by the Brazilian Engineering Group Engevix and the Argentinean Group Corporación América.
Inframérica won the concession of Gov. Aluízio Alves International Airport in Natal. Infraero, the state-run organization, retains 49% of the shares of the company incorporated for the administration; the Brazilian Integrated Air Traffic Control and Air Defense Center section 1 is located in the vicinity of the airport. On 31 August 2009, Infraero unveiled a BRL514.8 million investment plan to renovate Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport, focusing on the preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brasília being one of the venue cities, the Summer Olympics in 2016 which were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Enlargement of apron and taxiways. Completed in April 2013 Renovation of the existing passenger terminal. Completed in November 2015 Enlargement of the passenger terminal. Completed in April 2015 Parking. Completed in April 2014Between 2012 and 2014, the consortium INFRAMERICA invested R$1.2 billion: remodeling the terminal, increasing from 13 to 29 jetways and 40 to 70 airplane positions.
For 2016-19 there are planned investments for the international area, new parking construction, four new hotels in the vicinity, a new business area and other facilities. 22 December 1962: a Varig Convair CV-240-2 registration PP-VCQ flying from Belo Horizonte-Pampulha to Brasília descended below the prescribed altitude while on final approach to Brasília, struck trees and fell to one side. One crew member died. 25 April 1970: a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 en route from Brasília to Manaus-Ponta Pelada was hijacked by a person who demanded to be flown to Cuba. The hijack lasted a day. 14 May 1970: a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 en route from Brasília to Manaus-Ponta Pelada was hijacked by a person who demanded to be flown to Cuba. The hijack lasted a day. 22 February 1975: a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 registration PP-SMU en route from Goiânia to Brasília was hijacked by a person who demanded ransom. The hijacker was taken down. 25 May 1982: a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 registration PP-SMY on landing procedures at Brasília during rain
Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport
Salvador-Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport called Dois de Julho International Airport is the airport serving Salvador, Brazil. Since 16 June 1998 the airport is named after Luís Eduardo Maron Magalhães, an influential politician of the state of Bahia; some of its facilities are shared with the Salvador Air Force Base of the Brazilian Air Force. The airport called Santo Amaro do Ipitanga Airport, was founded in 1925. In 1941 Panair do Brasil participating in the World War II efforts with the support of the American and Brazilian governments rebuilt the facility. On 20 December 1955, the airport had its name changed for the first time: it became known as Dois de Julho International Airport, celebrating Bahia Independence Day; this is still the name. On 16 June 1998 the airport name was again changed to its present form, honoring Luís Eduardo Maron Magalhães an influential politician of the state of Bahia; this second change remains however controversial and there have been attempts to revert it.
The airport is located in an area of more than 6 million square meters between sand dunes and native vegetation. The lush, bamboo-covered road to the airport has become one of the scenic attractions of Salvador da Bahia. A brand new passenger terminal was opened in 1998; this new terminal continued to be upgraded and was completed by the end of year 2000. The main terminal, which includes a shopping mall has 69,400 m², 11 jetways and a capacity to handle 6,000,000 passengers/year. Traffic has been growing at an average of 14% per year. On March 2017, Vinci SA purchased for R$2,35 billions the administration for 30 years. Since the innovations are the withdrawal of three obsolete B737-200 VASP aircraft in the yard remained abandoned for 10 years, the first was withdrawn on 23 February 2018 and two more on 28 March 2018; the 3 aircraft were sold to the farms within São Paulo and Paraná. There is still a Beech 18 PT-KXE. Many of the old SATA and infraero equipments have been demolished and to be recycled.
Duplication of the passenger terminal to the existing one, forming 2 parallels, with same architecture. 21 September 1944: a Panair do Brasil Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar registration PP-PBH crashed shortly after take-off from Salvador da Bahia. All 18 occupants died. 11 July 1952: a Brazilian Air Force Douglas C-47A-35-DL registration FAB-2048 flying from Salvador da Bahia to Rio de Janeiro crashed following an engine fire. Thirteen of the 33 occupants died. 1 March 1959: a Brazilian Air Force Douglas C-47A-85-DL registration FAB-2060 flying from Rio de Janeiro to Salvador da Bahia crashed en route killing all 18 occupants. 17 November 1996: a Brazilian Air Force Embraer P-95 Bandeirante registration FAB-7102 flying from Salvador da Bahia to Natal Air Force Base had an accident in the vicinity of Caruaru. Four Brazilian Air Force Bandeirantes were flying on formation from Salvador da Bahia to Natal when the tail of FAB-7102 was struck by the propeller of another aircraft. Control of the aircraft was lost and it crashed.
All 9 occupants died. 15 May 1973: a VASP Vickers Viscount registration PP-SRD was damaged beyond economic repair when it departed the runway on landing and the undercarriage collapsed. The airport is located 28 km north from downtown Salvador da Bahia. On 31 August 2009 Infraero unveiled an ambitious BRL 5.3 billion investment plan to renovate and upgrade airports of ten cities focusing on the preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup which held in Brazil. At the occasion it was announced that though Salvador da Bahia is one of the venue cities, the plan excluded its airport because renovations had been completed and Infraero considered the airport fit to handle the forthcoming increases in traffic. Vinci airports may consider reviewing all Facility, due the 30-year contract, assumed from Infraero and Anac. List of airports in Brazil Salvador Air Force Base This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Media related to Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Airport information for SBSV at World Aero Data.
Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for SBSV at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Current weather for SBSV at NOAA/NWS Accident history for SSA at Aviation Safety Network Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport Photo Archive at airliners.net
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it