The Moogerah Dam is a mass concrete double curvature arch dam with a un-gated spillway across the Reynolds Creek, located in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The main purposes of the dam are for irrigation of the Reynolds Creek and for supply of potable water to Warrill Creek and farmers in the Warrill Valley; the impounded reservoir is called Lake Moogerah. Moogerah is derived from the Aboriginal word Moojirah, meaning "home of the thunderstorm." The dam is located above the Fassifern Valley 60 kilometres southwest of Ipswich. Aratula is the nearest town 11 kilometres from the dam and the nearest major centre is Boonah; the primary inflow of the reservoir is a tributary of the Bremer River. Construction on the dam began in 1959, although land for the project was resumed as early as 1916. Completed in 1961 as the central catchment of the Warrill Valley Water Supply Scheme, the concrete dam structure is 38 metres high and 219 metres long and allows access to Mount Edwards in Moogerah Peaks National Park.
The 315-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 83,765-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity. From a catchment area of 228 square kilometres that includes much of the north–eastern slopes of the Main Range, the dam creates Lake Moogerah, with a surface area of 827 hectares; the uncontrolled spillway has a discharge capacity of 740 cubic metres per second. Managed by SunWater, management of the dam was transferred to Seqwater in July 2008 as part of a water security project in the South East Queensland region, known as the South East Queensland Water Grid; the dam supplies drinking water to the towns of Boonah and Ipswich, although the main user is the Swanbank Power Station. It supplies irrigation water to small crop farms in the Fassifern Valley. SunWater is undertaking a dam spillway capacity upgrade program to ensure the continued safety of the dam. During the 1995 drought dam levels declined to a low of 1% total capacity; the dam reached 100% capacity due to rainfall associated with the 2010–2011 Queensland floods, with water flowing over the spillway for the first time since 1991 on 6 December 2010.
Amenities adjacent to the reservoir include a caravan park. Camp Moogerah is on the eastern shore of the lake, offering cabin accommodation and outdoor activity camps for schools, youth groups, sports clubs etc. On the western shore are School Camps Queensland and Camp Laurence which offer group accommodation camps with educational and adventure activities for school students and church groups. On the southern shore is the owned and used, Brisbane Grammar School Pepperina Hill Campsite, used for grade 8-10 camps throughout the year; as well as the barbecues and picnic areas available at Lake Moogerah Caravan Park there are a number of barbecues, covered picnic tables, toilet facilities and playgrounds on the opposite side of the lake at Haig Park. This side provides access to the dam wall. Across the wall is Mount Edwards - a walking trail and hike; the road uphill behind the old kiosk leads to a lookout and downhill to a further picnic area and playground at the bottom of the wall on the banks of Reynolds Creek.
School Camps Queensland operates camping and family cabins that sleep up to 12 people in each cabin during school holidays and weekends. Scenic Rim Regional Council operate a caravan park at the end of Muller Park road, it offers a variety of accommodation. Other site facilities include electric and wood barbecues, two boat ramps, kayak hire and children's playground. Lake Moogerah Caravan Park is located near many of the areas attractions and activities, including wineries, national parks and Lake Moogerah. In September 2014 a designated swimming area at A G Muller Park was opened to the public. Lake Moogerah is popular for waterskiing and plays host to jetski and waterskiing events throughout the year. A stocked impoundment permit is required to fish in the dam. Permits are available from the manager at Lake Moogerah Caravan Park; the Moogerah Passion Play is an open-air theatre production on the shores of Lake Moogerah. It is held every Easter, with a cast of up to 80. List of dams in Queensland Moogerah Dam Fishing Information & Map Pictures- National Library of Australia Spillway Water Release Photo on Flickr
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
Mudgeeraba is a suburb in the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 Australian Census, the suburb recorded a population of 13,204. Mudgeeraba's essential character remains one of a nineteenth-century village, contains important evidence of its earlier form and building. Most older houses are situated on large blocks of 0.5 acres to 2 acres, alongside much larger farming properties situated in the area. It is thought that the name of the town was derived from an Indigenous Australian expression meaning, "place of infant's excrement", "place where someone told lies" or "place of sticky soil". Another theory is that the name means "low-lying ground". Mudgeeraba is remnant of the type of township that characterises the rural hinterland of the Gold Coast. Subdivision of land was conventional and buildings were traditionally rural or rural commercial; the Schmidt Farmhouse is typical of farms of that period in the district. Mudgeeraba, like other areas in the region, was an early centre for farming, timber getting and cattle grazing by the mid-1870s.
It rose to some prominence with the coming of the railway from Brisbane to Tweed Heads in 1903. The station of the South Coast railway line was located near the present-day motorway entrance. In 1890, the Queensland State Government indicated that the railway station would be positioned as close to the township, located on Coach Road, as possible. Following the decision was made to position the railway station at some distance to the town, early residents acquired land nearby. Once the railway line was in operation the centre of the town was relocated to its present position; the railway was closed in 1961. The modern day Pacific Motorway follows the route of the former railway; the new Gold Coast railway opened on a different alignment from Brisbane to neighbouring Robina in 1998. Robina station is about 1.8 km further than the old Mudgeeraba railway station. In the early 1930s during the Great Depression, the Upper Mudgeeraba Creek banks were the location of unemployment relief camps set up under the Income Tax Acts, 1930.
The creek water helped sustain vegetable gardens for the residents, housed in timber and corrugated iron huts. One aspect of the relief scheme put in place by the Queensland Government was to establish small banana plantations. In Upper Mudgeeraba, 300 acres divided into 50 blocks were made available to successful applicants to farm. Mudgeeraba is home to the Mudgeeraba Water Treatment Plant and a pump and pipeline runs from the Little Nerang Dam to the Water Treatment Plant operated by SEQWater. An above-ground concrete pipeline runs from the WTP through Mudgeeraba to Molendinar. Mudgeeraba is home to the Mudgeeraba Holiday Village which has received national media attention; the Gold Coast City Council opened a public library at the Old Post Office Heritage Centre in Railway Street in 2004. However it did not attract a lot of patronage and it was decided to merge it into the Robina Library with the Mudgeeraba branch closing on 25 January 2017; the Gold Coast City Council operates a fortnightly mobile library service which visits Railway Street beside Mudgeeraba Pool.
Mudgeeraba has a number of local heritage-listed sites, including: Mudgeeraba Old Post Office Wallaby Hotel Mudgeeraba State School Hardy's House Hardy's Bridge Mudgeeraba Creek is the major creek of a catchment area in the southern region of the Gold Coast. It is part of the larger catchment area of Nerang River. Bonogin and Wyangan Creeks are tributaries of Mudgeeraba Creek. Since 2005, under the Beaches to Bushland restoration program, Gold Coast City, with the help of Austinville Landcare Group, have worked on restoration of areas of upper Mudgeeraba Creek. D'Arcy Doyle, artist Darius Boyd, rugby league player for the Brisbane Broncos Matthew Saunoa, 2006 New Zealand Idol champion Mudgeeraba State School has about 900 students enrolled. Somerset College was opened in January 1983. Other schools in the area include Clover Hill State School, Mudgeeraba Creek State School and Mudgeeraba Special School; the Gold Coast City Council provides the Old Post Office to community groups and activities for both adults and children involving computing, robotics etc.
The Springbrook Mudgeeraba branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the Bill Deacon Pavillion, Mudgeeraba Showgrounds at 115 Mudgeeraba Road, Worongary. In the 2011 census, Mudgeeraba recorded a population of 13,204 people, 48.7 % male. The median age of the Mudgeeraba population was 36 years, 1 year below the national median of 37. 69% of people living in Mudgeeraba were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 8.5%, England 6.1%, South Africa 1.7%, Scotland 0.7%, Germany 0.7%. 88.7% of people spoke only English at home. A number of sporting teams represent the area, including the Mudgeeraba Redbacks, the local rugby league club who play home games at Firth Park, the Hinterland District Netball Association who run a large competition on Saturday mornings for players 5yrs to 17yrs and Monday nights for 13yrs to opens at Firth Park, Somerset Drive, the Mudgeeraba Lawn Bowls Club situated just behind the Rugby Club, the Mudgeeraba Soccer Club.
Mudgeeraba Spartans Junior AFL Club plays their home games at Somerset College. The starting point for the annual 96 km. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Mudgeeraba Mudgeeraba History Mudgeeraba Branch Library Mudgeeraba Heritage Walk Gold Coast Hinterlan
Coombabah is a suburb on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Coombabah had a population of 9,303, it grew to 9,774 by the 2011 census. The word'Coombabah' is an English corruption of the Aboriginal word, can have three alternate translations; the first,'Koomboobah', means'place of the cobra worms'. The second,'Koombabah' means'place of the turtles and the third, Coombabah is an aboriginal word meaning'home of the turtles', or a pocket of land. In the 2011 census, Coombabah recorded a population of 9,774 people, 45.9 % male. The median age of the Coombabah population was 45 years, 8 years above the national median of 37. 61.6% of people living in Coombabah were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 10.6%, England 8.8%, Scotland 1.2%, South Africa 1.1%, Philippines 1%. 87% of people spoke only English at home. Surrounding Coombabah is Paradise Point and Hope Island to the north, Arundel to the south, Runaway Bay and Biggera Waters to the east and Helensvale to the west and the Coombabah State High School.
The minor arterial road servicing Coombabah is Oxley Drive. Sometimes called Coombabah lake, the Coombabah Lakelands It is one of only five sites in Queensland included in the RAMSAR international convention for significant wetlands; the conservation area is surrounded by homes and businesses. The land was bought by Council in the 1980s as a buffer zone for a sewerage plant. In 1994 that Council declared the Coombabah Lakeland Conservation Area; the integrity of the conservation and animal habitat is overseen by several Authorities. There are ten kilometres worth of dirt tracks and boardwalks for access by the public. For marine habitat the area is a protected fish habitat under the Queensland Fisheries Act and a protected marine conservation and habitat zone under the Moreton Bay Marine Park Zoning plan. Guided bush walks night are run by the Council's Natural Areas Management Unit. Three is a carpark on Rain Tree Glen for access to tracks. Griffith University's Healthy Rivers Institute conduct ongoing research in the area.
Over 150 bird species use the area, so conservation of the wetlands aims to ensure migratory birds can use the area, will continue to come. Coombabah is part of Migratory Bird Agreements with China and Japan; the threatened migratory eastern curlew rests at Coombabah on its way to Russia or North-Eastern China breeding grounds. A bird hide is accessed off Shelter Road. Brisbane/Gold Coast branch of Bird Observation and Conservation Australia organise guided bird watching visits. State education is provided by Coombabah State High School and Coombabah State School, a P-6 state primary school. Ugly Dave Gray, television personality. Allen, J. Grammar and Notes of the Wangerriburra Tribe. Gresty, J. A; the Numinbah Valley. Steele, J. G. Aboriginal Pathways in Southeast Queensland and the Richmond River, p. 63. Hanlon, W. E; the Early Settlers of the Logan and Albert Districts. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Coombabah
Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water. More desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, an issue for agriculture. Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources. Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide. Desalination processes are either driven by either thermal or electrical as the primary energy types. 1% of the world's population is dependent on desalinated water to meet daily needs, but the UN expects that 14% of the world's population will encounter water scarcity by 2025.
Desalination is relevant in dry countries such as Australia, which traditionally have relied on collecting rainfall behind dams for water. According to the International Desalination Association, in June 2015, 18,426 desalination plants operated worldwide, producing 86.8 million cubic meters per day, providing water for 300 million people. This number increased from 78.4 million cubic meters in a 10.71 % increase in 2 years. The single largest desalination project is Ras Al-Khair in Saudi Arabia, which produced 1,025,000 cubic meters per day in 2014. Kuwait produces a higher proportion of its water than any other country, totaling 100% of its water use. There are several methods; each has advantages and disadvantages but all are useful. The traditional process of desalination is distillation, i.e. boiling and re-condensation of seawater to leave salt and impurities behind. Solar distillation mimics the natural water cycle, in which the sun heats the sea water enough for evaporation to occur. After evaporation, the water vapor is condensed onto a cool surface..
There are two types of solar desalination. The former one is using photo voltaic cells which converts solar energy to electrical energy to power the desalination process; the one utilises the solar energy in the heat form itself and is known as solar thermal powered desalination. In vacuum distillation atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering the temperature required to evaporate the water. Liquids boil when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Liquids boil at a lower temperature, when the ambient atmospheric pressure is less than usual atmospheric pressure. Thus, because of the reduced pressure, low-temperature "waste" heat from electrical power generation or industrial processes can be employed. Water is evaporated and separated from sea water through multi-stage flash distillation, a series of flash evaporations; each subsequent flash process utilizes energy released from the condensation of the water vapor from the previous step.
Multiple-effect distillation works through a series of steps called "effects". Incoming water is sprayed onto pipes which are heated to generate steam; the steam is used to heat the next batch of incoming sea water. To increase efficiency, the steam used to heat the sea water can be taken from nearby power plants. Although this method is the most thermodynamically efficient among methods powered by heat, a few limitations exist such as a max temperature and max number of effects. Vapor-compression evaporation involves using either a mechanical compressor or a jet stream to compress the vapor present above the liquid; the compressed vapor is used to provide the heat needed for the evaporation of the rest of the sea water. Since this system only requires power, it is more cost effective; the leading process for desalination in terms of installed capacity and yearly growth is reverse osmosis. The RO membrane processes use semipermeable membranes and applied pressure to preferentially induce water permeation through the membrane while rejecting salts.
Reverse osmosis plant membrane systems use less energy than thermal desalination processes. Energy cost in desalination processes varies depending on water salinity, plant size and process type. At present the cost of seawater desalination, for example, is higher than traditional water sources, but it is expected that costs will continue to decrease with technology improvements that include, but are not limited to, improved efficiency, reduction in plants footprint, improvements to plant operation and optimization, more effective feed pretreatment, lower cost energy sources. Reverse osmosis uses a thin-film composite membrane, which comprises an ultra-thin, aromatic polyamide thin-film; this polyamide film gives the membrane its transport properties, whereas the remainder of the thin-film composite membrane provides mechanical support. The polyamide film is a dense, void-free polymer with a high surface area, allowing for its high water permeability; the Reverse Osmosis process is not maintenance free.
Various factors interfere with efficiency: ionic contamination. In extreme cases the RO membranes are destroyed. To mitigate damage, various pretreatment stages are introduced. Anti-scaling inhibitors include acids and other agents like the organic polymers Polyacrylamide and Polymaleic Acid, Ph
City of Gold Coast
The City of Gold Coast is the local government area spanning the Gold Coast, Queensland and surrounding areas. Based on resident population in the 2016 census, it is the second largest local government area in Australia, its council maintains a staff of over 2,500. It was established in 1948, but has existed in its present form since 2008. By the late 1870s, the Government of Queensland had become preoccupied with the idea of getting local residents to pay through rates for local services, which had become a massive cost to the colony and were undermaintained in many areas; the McIlwraith government initiated the Divisional Boards Act 1879 which created a system of elected divisional boards covering most of Queensland. It was assented by the Governor on 2 October 1879, on 11 November 1879, the Governor gazetted a list of 74 divisions which would come into existence. Four of these—Nerang, Coomera and Waterford—were in the Gold Coast region. Southport was developed as both an administrative centre as well as a holiday destination with hotels and guesthouses to cater for visitors.
Town dwellers had different needs to the rural landholders so Southport ratepayers lobbied the colonial government to create a separate Divisional Board so that rates monies raised by Southport landholders could be spent on town improvements. This resulted in the establishment of the Southport Division on 14 July 1883 by an amalgamation of part of Nerang Division and part of Coomera Division. On 31 March 1903, following the enactment of the Local Authorities Act 1902, the divisions became shires. On 12 June 1914, the Town of Coolangatta was created from part of the Shire of Nerang, on 12 April 1918, Southport became a Town. On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council created the Town of South Coast by amalgamating Town of Southport, Town of Coolangatta and coastal sections of the Shire of Nerang, creating a narrow coastal strip; the same Order abolished all of the earlier Shires and amalgamated most of their area into the new Shire of Albert, with the rest becoming part of the Shire of Beaudesert.
The Order came into effect on 10 June 1949. On 23 October 1958, the Town of the South Coast adopted the name of Town of Gold Coast, on 16 May 1959, the Town was proclaimed as the City of Gold Coast by the Governor of Queensland, having met the requirements for city status. Most of what is now regarded as the Gold Coast urban area was at that time located within the Shire of Albert, which had its administrative offices in Nerang-Southport Road, Nerang. On 19 March 1992, the Electoral and Administrative Review Commission, created two years earlier, produced its report External Boundaries of Local Authorities, recommended a number of changes to local government boundaries and the amalgamation of some local governments. Although their recommendations only included boundary adjustments between the Gold Coast City and Albert Shire, the outcome following much public debate was a decision by the Queensland Government to absorb Albert Shire into Gold Coast City; the Local Government Regulation 1994 was gazetted on 16 December 1994, resulting in the amalgamation of the Shire of Albert into Gold Coast City at the 1995 local government elections.
In 2007, as part of a report recommending massive amalgamation of local government in Queensland, the Local Government Reform Commission recommended that the Beenleigh-Eagleby region on the Gold Coast's northern border be transferred to Logan City, on the basis that a common community of interest existed and that planning of the South East Queensland urban footprint would be made more efficient by the change. The area to be excised was estimated by the Commission to have an area of 49 km2 and a population of 40,148; the change took effect at 15 March 2008 local government elections. The Gold Coast has many heritage-listed sites, including those at: Currumbin Main Beach Pimpama Numinbah Valley South Stradbroke Island Southport Springbrook Surfers Paradise Tallebudgera Willow Vale Gold Coast City has been divided into 14 divisions, each electing one councillor at elections held every four years; the most recent local government election was on 19 March 2016. Additionally, a mayor is elected by the entire City.
The present mayor is Cr Tom Tate, with Cr Donna Gates as Deputy Mayor. Populations are provided below for the Gold Albert entities; as Albert included the entire Logan City area prior to 1978, figures are only provided from the 1976 census. The first municipal library on the Gold Coast opened in the Southport Town Hall on 30 April 1958. Prior to this, a series of School of arts and private circulating libraries had supported the communities' and visitors' recreational and educational reading needs; the City of Gold Coast has 12 libraries at Broadbeach, Burleigh Heads, Burleigh Waters, Elanora, Nerang, Palm Beach, Runaway Bay and Upper Coomera. There is a special needs library within a Local Studies Library; the council operate a mobile library service. In 2018, the mobile library provides a fortnight service to Alberton, Benowa, Cedar Creek, Currumbin Valley, Jacobs Well, Ormeau, Paradise Point, Tugun, Tallabudgera Valley, Woongoolba; the Gold Coast City Library is a member of the Queensland Public Libraries Association.
Gold Coast University Hospital Tugun Desalination Plant Raising of Hinze Dam Southport Broadwater Pa
Tropical Cyclone Oswald in January 2013 passed over parts of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia over a number of days, causing widespread impact including severe storms and water spouts. Coastal regions of Queensland were the most impacted with Mundubbera, Eidsvold and Bundaberg in the Wide Bay–Burnett hit severely. In many places the rainfall total for January set new records. Across the affected region, damage from severe weather and flooding amounted to at least A$2.4 billion.7,500 residents of Bundaberg and patients at the Bundaberg Hospital were evacuated. Houses were washed away and parts of Bundaberg's sewage network were destroyed. Cuts to transport links including damage to numerous bridges, communication interruptions, electrical blackouts and water supply problems were experienced across wide areas. Several swiftwater rescues had to be undertaken. On 17 January, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres and the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center started to monitor a tropical low that had developed within a marginal environment for further development over the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Over the next two days, the cyclone developed further before the system made landfall to the southwest of Borroloola early on 19 January, where the possibility for further development became stifled. By 20 January, the system completed a clockwise loop before re-emerging into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Once back over water, the system organised and strengthened into Tropical Cyclone Oswald early on 21 January. At the same time, the JTWC began monitoring the system as Tropical Cyclone 11P. Radar imagery from Mornington Island depicted a well-defined low-level circulation with defined banding features wrapping into the centre. Situated in a moist air mass and over the warm waters of the Gulf, some intensification was expected before Oswald struck the Cape York Peninsula. 12 hours after being named, the storm made its second landfall north of Kowanyama with winds of 65 km/h and the final advisory was issued by the TCWC in Brisbane. Although over land, the system was able to maintain a defined circulation and reorganised as it moved southwestward.
By 23 January, deep convection redeveloped over the circulation and a strong monsoonal flow became established to its north. A high pressure system over New Zealand blocked the low pressure system from moving east, away from the Queensland coast, allowing the low to move along the Queensland coast causing it to stall near Rockhampton and in southern Queensland. Favourable upper-level conditions and ample moisture allowed the system to maintain its identity despite remaining over land for a prolonged period of time. By 30 January, the system had travelled more than 3,000 km and its remnants passed south of Sydney in New South Wales, emerging into the Tasman Sea; as a precautionary measure, on 25 January Queensland Premier Campbell Newman ordered the pre-emptive release of water from Wivenhoe Dam to increase the dam's flood mitigation capacity. Releases from North Pine Dam were made. Due to the threat of heavy rains from Oswald, flood warnings were issued for much of northern New South Wales. By 28 January and major flood warnings were in place for the Bellinger, Macleay, Manning and Tweed Rivers, as well as Camden Haven, the Clarence Valley, Hastings.
Severe weather warnings were in place for much of the state, indicating the threat of heavy rains, destructive winds, dangerous seas. Hundreds of travellers were stranded at Sydney Airport as flights were cancelled due to dangerous winds. Rainfall was the heaviest around Tully where 1,000 mm of rain fell, with 632 mm falling over 48 hours; the town of Ingham was cut off due to high waters. Residents in the town were advised to stock up on emergency supplies as the Herbert River rose after 200 mm of rain fell in the town in just three hours. A brief tornado or waterspout with winds of 140 km/h touched down near Hay Point. On the afternoon of 26 January, three separate tornadoes tore through the Bundaberg Region. At 1:00 pm, the first tornado struck the town of Bargara, which brought down power lines, tore off roofs and smashed windows. At 3:30 pm, the town of Burnett Heads was battered by a second tornado, soon after a third tornado struck Coonarr, 6 kilometres south of Bargara; the tornadoes damaged 150 properties.
Weather conditions favoured tornadic activity because of strong low-level winds which were feeding into the low pressure system. The Burnett River reached a new recorded height of 9.53 metres on 29 January. More than 7,500 residents of Bundaberg were forced to evacuate from about 2,000 homes as the river's waters rose. 130 patients were evacuated from the Bundaberg Hospital to hospitals in Brisbane. Staff and resources from the Department of Health, Queensland Ambulance Service, Australian Defence Force, CareFlight and Royal Flying Doctor Service, including several aircraft, were used to transport patients; as of 29 January, the floods had claimed the lives of four people, including a three-year-old boy who died after being crushed by a falling tree at Gordon Park. On 28 January, the body of a man, swept away by floodwaters the day before was pulled from Oxley Creek, while the bodies of two others – a 27-year-old man and an 81-year-old man – were recovered