A coachman is a man whose business it is to drive a coach, a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. He has been called a coachee, coachy or whip; the term "coachman" is applied to the driver of any type of coach, but it had a specialized meaning before the advent of motor vehicles, as the servant who preceded the chauffeur in domestic service. In a great house, this would have been a specialty, but in more modest households, the coachman would have doubled as the stablehand or groom. In early coaches he sat on a built-in compartment called a boot, bracing his feet on a footrest called a footboard, he was pictured wearing a box coat or box jacket, a heavy overcoat with or without shoulder capes, double-breasted, with fitted waist and wide lapels. An ornamented fringed cloth called a hammercloth might have hung over the coachman's seat of a ceremonial coach, he could be seen taking refreshments at a type of public house called a watering house, which provided water for horses.
The role of the coachman, who sat along with the passengers in the vehicle, was contrasted with that of the postillion, mounted directly upon one of the drawing horses. A coachman was sometimes called a jarvey or jarvie in Ireland. In the first of his Sherlock Holmes stories,'A Study in Scarlet', Conan Doyle refers to the driver of a small cab in London as a jarvey. A coachman who drove dangerously fast or recklessly might invoke biblical or mythological allusions: Some referred to him as a jehu, recalling King Jehu of Israel, noted for his furious attacks in a chariot before he died about 816 BC. Others dubbed him a Phaeton, harking back to the Greek Phaëton, son of Helios who, attempting to drive the chariot of the sun, managed to set the earth on fire; when there was no coachman, a postilion or postillion sometimes rode as a guide on the near horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to a coach. The driver of a wagon or cart drawn by a draught animal was known as carter; the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, the German Kutsche, the Slovak and Czech koč all derive from the Hungarian word "kocsi" meaning "of Kocs".
Kocs was a Hungarian post town, the coach itself may have been invented in Hungary. Hungarian villages still hold Coachman of the Year competitions; the coachman soon became a prominent figure in Hungarian folklore. As the Clever Coachman, he turns up unexpectedly in the hero's life, either knowing his name or naming him by his true name. After the hero enters the coach, the coachman becomes a kind of guide, he may not take the hero to where he wants to go. Many of Steven Brust's novels play with this image of the coachman. Coachman is a synonym for the pennant coralfish; the Royal Coachman is a type of fly used for fly fishing, which exists as both a dry-fly and a wet-fly. The pattern was composed in England pre-1860. Media related to Coachmen by Anne Woodley. George Borrow's, "The Stage-Coachmen Of England: A Bully Served Out". Compiled by Blupete; the stables - Coachmen 1662-1837 | British History Online
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality, it has been a focal point for the British people at times of national mourning. Known as Buckingham House, the building at the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 on a site, in private ownership for at least 150 years, it was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a private residence for Queen Charlotte and became known as The Queen's House. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837; the last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the East Front, which contains the well-known balcony on which the royal family traditionally congregates to greet crowds.
The palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb during World War II. The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque gold colour scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House; the palace has 775 rooms, the garden is the largest private garden in London. The state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring. In the Middle Ages, the site of the future palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury; the marshy ground was watered by the river Tyburn, which still flows below the courtyard and south wing of the palace. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew.
Ownership of the site changed hands many times. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey. In 1531, Henry VIII acquired the Hospital of St James, which became St James's Palace, from Eton College, in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey; these transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away 500 years earlier. Various owners leased it from royal landlords and the freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century. By the old village of Eye Cross had long since fallen into decay, the area was wasteland. Needing money, James I sold off part of the Crown freehold but retained part of the site on which he established a 4-acre mulberry garden for the production of silk. Clement Walker in Anarchia Anglicana refers to "new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. James's". In the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley by the great heiress Mary Davies.
The first house erected within the site was that of a Sir William Blake, around 1624. The next owner was Lord Goring, who from 1633 extended Blake's house and developed much of today's garden known as Goring Great Garden, he did not, obtain the freehold interest in the mulberry garden. Unbeknown to Goring, in 1640 the document "failed to pass the Great Seal before King Charles I fled London, which it needed to do for legal execution", it was this critical omission that helped the British royal family regain the freehold under King George III. The improvident Goring defaulted on his rents. Arlington House rose on the site—the location of the southern wing of today's palace—the next year. In 1698, John Sheffield the first Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, acquired the lease; the house which forms the architectural core of the palace was built for the first Duke of Buckingham and Normanby in 1703 to the design of William Winde. The style chosen was of a large, three-floored central block with two smaller flanking service wings.
Buckingham House was sold by Buckingham's natural son, Sir Charles Sheffield, in 1761 to George III for £21,000. Sheffield's leasehold on the mulberry garden site, the freehold of, still owned by the royal family, was due to expire in 1774. Under the new Crown ownership, the building was intended as a private retreat for King George III's wife, Queen Charlotte, was accordingly known as The Queen's House. Remodelling of the structure began in 1762. In 1775, an Act of Parliament settled the property on Queen Charlotte, in exchange for her rights to Somerset House, 14 of her 15 children were born there; some furnishings were transferred from Carlton House, others had been bought in France after the French Revolution of 1789. While St James's Palace remained the official and ceremonial royal residence, the name "Buckingham-palace" was used from at least 1791. After his accession to the throne in 1820, King George IV continued the renovation with the idea in mind of a small, comfort
A coach is a large closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with a front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small elevated seat in front called a box, box seat or coach box; the term "coach" first came into use in the 15th century, spread across Europe. There are a number of types of coaches, with differentiations based on use and size. Special breeds of horses, such as the now-extinct Yorkshire Coach Horse, were developed to pull the vehicles. Kocs was the Hungarian post town in the 15th century onwards, which gave its name to a fast light vehicle, which spread across Europe. Therefore, the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, the German Kutsche, the Slovak koč and Czech kočár all derive from the Hungarian word "kocsi" meaning "of Kocs", it was not until about the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, that coaches were introduced to England. Coaches were reputedly introduced into England from France by Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel.
A coach with four horses is a coach-and-four. A coach together with the horses and attendants is a turnout; the bodies of early coaches were hung on leather straps. In the eighteenth century steel springs were substituted, an improvement in suspension. An advertisement in the Edinburgh Courant for 1754 reads: The Edinburgh stage-coach, for the better accommodation of passengers, will be altered to a new genteel two-end glass coach-machine, hung on steel springs, exceedingly light and easy... In the mid 19th century American Concord stagecoaches used leather straps in a similar way. A coach might have a built-in compartment called a boot, used as a seat for the coachman and for storage. A luggage case for the top of a coach was called an imperial; the front and rear axles were connected by a main shaft called the reach. A crossbar known as a splinter bar supported the springs. Coaches were decorated by painters using a sable brush called a liner. In the 19th century the name coach was used for U. S. railway carriages, in the 20th century to motor coaches.
See John Taylor for a adverse opinion of the arrival of horsedrawn coaches in England. There are a number of coach types, including but not limited to: Coach: a large heavy vehicle designed to carry passengers State coach: A coach of state is used to carry important persons, like a visiting president of China and high nobility such as princes and dukes on state occasions. Private coach: a expensive cumbersome 17th century luxury replaced as they were developed by light fast carriages except on formal occasions. Road coach: a private coach kept for pleasure. See Driving club Drag or Park drag: a gentleman's coach kept for pleasure. See Driving clubThe principal ceremonial coaches in the United Kingdom are the Gold State Coach, Irish State Coach and Scottish State Coach. Funeral coach: not a coach but a U. S. name for a hearse, a wagon adapted to carry a coffin hackney coach a hired coach Stagecoach: heavy four-in-hand, closed. Stage wagon or mud wagon: lighter and smaller than a stagecoach, flat sides, simpler joinery The business of a coachman, like the pilot of an aircraft, was to expertly direct and take all responsibility for a coach or carriage and its horses, their stabling and maintenance and the associated staff.
He was called a jarvey or jarvie in Ireland. If he drove dangerously fast or recklessly he was a jehu (from Jehu, king of Israel, noted for his furious attacks in a chariot, or a Phaeton. A postilion or postillion sometimes rode as a guide on the near horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to a coach when there was no coachman. A guard on a horse-drawn coach was called a shooter. Traveling by coach, or pleasure driving in a coach, as in a tally-ho, was called coaching. In driving a coach, the coachman used a coachwhip provided with a long lash. Experienced coachmen never used the lash on their horses, they used the whip to flick the ear of the leader to give them the office to move on, or cracked it next to their heads to request increased speed. Box coat: a heavy overcoat with or without shoulder capes used by coachmen exposed to all kinds of weather. Hammercloth: ornamented and fringed was hung over the coachman's seat on a ceremonial coach. Cockhorse: An extra horse led behind a coach to be hitched when passing over steep or difficult terrain.
Stable was a building to shelter horses close to the owner's house. Staff accommodation would be close within the same building. Coach house was a special building for sheltering a coach or coaches but coaches were more kept within the stable building. Coaching inn or coaching house provided accommodation for travellers and provided a change of horses and offered stabling. Coach dog or carriage dog was trained to run in attendance on a coach Dalmatians. A coach horse
A bridegroom is a man who will soon be or has been married. A bridegroom is attended by a best man and groomsmen; the first mention of the term bridegroom dates to 1604, from the Old English brȳdguma, a compound of brȳd and guma. It is related to the Old Saxon brūdigomo, the Old High German brūtigomo, the German Bräutigam, the Old Norse brúðgumi; the style of the bridegroom's clothing can be influenced by many factors, including the time of day, the location of the ceremony, the ethnic backgrounds of the bride and bridegroom, the type of ceremony, whether the bridegroom is a member of the Armed Forces. In the United States, the bridegroom wears a dark-colored suit for a daytime wedding or tuxedo for an evening ceremony. British tradition for a formal wedding requires the bridegroom, male ushers, close male family to wear morning suits. Bridegrooms of Scottish descent wear full Highland dress, as do their groomsmen. In Norway the bridegroom may wear a folk costume like the gákti among Northern Sami or bunad, a dark-colored suit or a tuxedo.
In Anglo-American weddings, the bridegroom will give a short speech after the reception, thanking the guests for attending, complimenting the bride, thanking members of the wedding party, sharing a "roast toast", in which he makes jokes at the expense of himself or a member of his party. His speech will be followed by one from the best man. In Christianity, Jesus Christ is called a bridegroom in relation to the Church as his bride. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist speaks of Jesus Christ as the bridegroom and mentions the bride, he that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled. See Matthew 9:15.
State Opening of Parliament
The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It includes a speech from the throne known as the Queen's Speech; the State Opening is an elaborate ceremony showcasing British history and contemporary politics to large crowds and television viewers. It takes place in the House of Lords chamber in May or June, but traditionally in November, in front of both Houses of Parliament; the monarch, wearing the Imperial State Crown, reads a speech, prepared by his or her government outlining its plans for that parliamentary year. A State Opening may take place at other times of the year if an election is held early due to a vote of no confidence in the government. In 1974, when two general elections were held, there were two State Openings. Queen Elizabeth II has opened every session of Parliament since her accession, except in 1959 and 1963 when she was pregnant with Prince Andrew and Prince Edward respectively; those two sessions were opened by Lords Commissioners, headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, empowered by the Queen.
The Lord Chancellor read the Queen's Speech on those occasions. The State Opening of Parliament is a ceremony loaded with historical ritual and symbolic significance for the governance of the United Kingdom. In one place are assembled the members of all three branches of government, of which the Monarch is the authority and nominal head in each part: the Crown-in-Parliament, constitutes the legislature. Therefore, the State Opening demonstrates the governance of the United Kingdom but the separation of powers; the importance of international relations is represented through the presence in the Chamber of the corps diplomatique. The ceremonial surrounding the opening of parliament can be broken down into several parts: First, the cellars of the Palace of Westminster are searched by the Yeomen of the Guard in order to prevent a modern-day Gunpowder Plot; the Plot of 1605 involved a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill the Protestant King James I and aristocracy.
Since that year, the cellars have been searched, now but not only, for ceremonial purposes. This is supervised by the Lord Great Chamberlain, the Yeomen are paid for their services with a small glass of port wine; the peers assemble in the House of Lords wearing their robes. They are joined by members of the diplomatic corps; the Commons assemble in their own chamber, wearing ordinary day dress, begin the day, as any other, with prayers. The Speaker of the House of Commons makes his usual procession towards the Commons Chamber, accompanied by his Household, the Mace, a police inspector who makes a traditional cry of "Hats off, strangers." This commands those in Central Lobby to remove their hats in deference to the highest-ranking commoner in the realm. Before the monarch departs from Buckingham Palace the Treasurer and Vice-Chamberlain of the Queen's Household deliver ceremonial white staves to her; the Lord Chamberlain, on behalf of the monarch, keeps the hostage MP "prisoner" for the duration of the state opening, by tradition as a surety for the safe return of the monarch.
The hostage MP is well entertained until the successful conclusion of the ceremony, when he or she is released upon the safe return of the Queen. The Vice-Chamberlain's imprisonment is now purely ceremonial; the tradition stems from the time of Charles I, who had a contentious relationship with Parliament and was beheaded in 1649 during the Civil War between the monarchy and Parliament. A copy of Charles I's death warrant is displayed in the robing room used by the monarch as a ceremonial reminder of what can happen to a monarch who attempts to interfere with Parliament. Hostage MPs have included: 2014: Desmond Swayne 2015–16: Kris Hopkins 2017: Chris Heaton-Harris Before the arrival of the sovereign, the Imperial State Crown is carried to the Palace of Westminster in its own State Coach from the Victoria Tower, the Crown is passed by the sovereign's Bargemaster to the Comptroller of the Lord Chamberlain's office, under the watchful eye of the Crown Jeweller, it is carried, along with the Great Sword of State and the Cap of Maintenance, to be displayed in the Royal Gallery.
Brought in this procession in King Edward VII's Town Coach, are two maces, separate from the three used by parliament, to be displayed by the Sergeants-at-Arms in the Royal Procession. The monarch arrives at the Palace of Westminster from Buckingham Palace in a state coach, entering through the Sovereign's Entrance under the Victoria Tower. Members of the armed forces line the procession route from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster; as the national anthem is played, the Royal Standard is hoisted to replace the Union Flag upon the Sovereign's entrance and remains flying whilst she is present
Coronation of the British monarch
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey. It corresponds to the coronations that took place in other European monarchies, all of which have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies; the coronation takes place several months after the death of the previous monarch, as it is considered a joyous occasion that would be inappropriate while mourning continues. This interval gives the planners enough time to complete the elaborate arrangements required. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953, having ascended the throne on 6 February 1952; the ceremony is performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the most senior cleric in the Church of England, of which the monarch is supreme governor. Other clergy and members of the nobility have roles. Many other government officials and guests attend, including representatives of other countries.
The essential elements of the coronation have remained unchanged for the past thousand years. The sovereign is first presented to, acclaimed by, the people, he or she swears an oath to uphold the law and the Church. Following that, the monarch is anointed with holy oil, invested with regalia, crowned, before receiving the homage of his or her subjects. Wives of kings are anointed and crowned as queen consort; the service ends with a closing procession, since the 20th century it has been traditional for the royal family to appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, before attending a banquet there. The main elements of the coronation service and the earliest form of oath can be traced to the ceremony devised by Saint Dunstan for Edgar's coronation in 973 AD at Bath Abbey, it drew on ceremonies used by those used in the ordination of bishops. Two versions of coronation services, known as ordines or recensions, survive from before the Norman Conquest, it is not known if the first recension was used in England and it was the second recension, used by Edgar in 973 and by subsequent Anglo-Saxon and early Norman kings.
A third recension was compiled during the reign of Henry I and was used at the coronation of his successor, Stephen, in 1135. While retaining the most important elements of the Anglo-Saxon rite, it borrowed from the consecration of the Holy Roman Emperor from the Pontificale Romano-Germanicum, a book of German liturgy compiled in Mainz in 961, thus bringing the English tradition into line with continental practice, it remained in use until the coronation of Edward II in 1308 when the fourth recension was first used, having been compiled over several preceding decades. Although influenced by its French counterpart, the new ordo focussed on the balance between the monarch and his nobles and on the oath, neither of which concerned the absolutist French kings. One manuscript of this recension is the Liber Regalis at Westminster Abbey which has come to be regarded as the definitive version. Following the start of the reformation in England, the boy king Edward VI had been crowned in the first Protestant coronation in 1547, during which Archbishop Thomas Cranmer preached a sermon against idolatry and "the tyranny of the bishops of Rome".
However, six years he was succeeded by his half-sister, Mary I, who restored the Catholic rite. In 1559, Elizabeth I underwent the last English coronation under the auspices of the Catholic Church. Scottish coronations were traditionally held at Scone Abbey, with the king seated on the Stone of Destiny; the original rituals were a fusion of ceremonies used by the kings of Dál Riata, based on the inauguration of Aidan by Columba in 574, by the Picts from whom the Stone of Destiny came. A crown does not seem to have been used until the inauguration of Alexander II in 1214; the ceremony included the laying on of hands by a senior cleric and the recitation of the king's genealogy. Alexander III was the last Scottish king to be crowned in this way in 1249, since the Stone was captured by the English forces of Edward I in 1296, it was incorporated into the English Coronation Chair and its first certain use at an English coronation was that of Henry IV in 1399. Pope John XXII in a bull of 1329 granted the kings of Scotland the right to be crowned.
No record exists of the exact form of the medieval rituals, but a account exists of the coronation of the 17-month-old infant James V at Stirling Castle in 1513. The ceremony was held in a church, since demolished, within the castle walls and was conducted by the Bishop of Glasgow, because the Archbishop of St Andrews had been killed at the Battle of Flodden, it is that the child would have been knighted before the start of the ceremony. The coronation itself started with a sermon, followed by the anointing and crowning the coronation oath, in this case taken for the child by an unknown noble or priest, an oath of fealty and acclamation by the congregation. James VI had been crowned in The Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, in 1567 and inherited the English crown in 1603. Charles I travelled north for a Scottish coronation at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh in 1633, but caused consternation amongst the Presbyterian Scots by his insistence on elaborate
Several monarchs have used golden coaches. These horse-drawn coaches were made of wood and covered with gold leaf, a solid golden coach would be expensive and so heavy that it would be a practical impossibility. Although a gilden coach with or without painted panels was a sign of high social and governamental status, the position of the occupants of the coach determines the number of horses that draw the vehicle. Monarchs have the right to be drawn by eight horses. A prince of the blood royal uses a nobleman four; the Gold State Coach of the British monarchs built for George III. The Golden Coach of the Dutch monarchs, built for Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands The Golden Coupé of the Danish monarchs. A small and elegant coach called "the coach of Christian VIII", is gilded with 24 carat gold leaf and is drawn by eight horses ridden à la Deaumont, it was built in 1840 by the British coachbuilder Henry Fife for the Danish King Christian VIII The coach is still used on important occasions. Several relics of abolished monarchies are exhibited in European or Asian museums.
The Coronation Coach of Charles X in the Grand Stables in Versailles The court of the Russian czars used several golden coaches, last used when Nicholas II was crowned emperor of Russia in 1896. A miniature of one of them is placed inside the Imperial Coronation Egg; the gilded coronation Coach of Sweden has last been used in 1970. It is on display in the King's stables in Stockholm; the Prince of Liechtenstein owns a Golden Carriage. It was built for Prince Joseph Wenzel von Liechtenstein and the panels were painted by François Boucher and Hyacinthe Rigaud, it is on display in Vienna. The National Coach Museum in Lisbon houses several golden coaches of the defunct Portuguese monarchy; the Wagenburg in Vienna houses the collection of coaches of the former Austro-Hungerian monarchs. There are several gilded coaches on display; the Nymphenburg Palace in Münich contains the golden coaches of the Bavarian Kings. The golden Coach of the King of Spain is on display in Madrid