SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gold certificate

A gold certificate in general is a certificate of ownership that gold owners hold instead of storing the actual gold. It has both a historic meaning as a U. S. paper currency and a current meaning as a way to invest in gold. Banks may issue gold certificates for gold, allocated or unallocated. Unallocated gold certificates are a form of fractional-reserve banking and do not guarantee an equal exchange for metal in the event of a run on the issuing bank's gold on deposit. Allocated gold certificates should be correlated with specific numbered bars, although it is difficult to determine whether a bank is improperly allocating a single bar to more than one party; the gold certificate was used from 1863 to 1933 in the United States as a form of paper currency. Each certificate gave its holder title to a corresponding amount of gold coin at the statutory rate of $20.67 per troy ounce established by the Coinage Act of 1834. Therefore, this type of paper currency was intended to represent actual gold coinage.

In 1933 the practice of redeeming these notes for gold coins was ended by the U. S. government and until 1964 it was illegal to possess these notes. After the gold recall in 1933, gold certificates were withdrawn from circulation; as noted above, it was illegal to own them. That fact, public fear that the notes would be devalued and made obsolete, resulted in the majority of circulating notes being retired. In general, the notes are scarce and valuable examples in "new" condition; the early history of United States gold certificates is somewhat hazy. They were authorized under the Act of 3 March 1863, but unlike the United States Notes authorized, they were not printed until 1865, they did not have a series date, were hand-dated upon issue. "Issue" meant that the government took in the equivalent value in gold, the first several series of gold certificates promised to pay the amount only to the depositor, explicitly identified on the certificate itself. The first issue featured a vignette of an eagle uniformly across all denominations.

Several issues featured various portraits of historical figures. The reverse sides featured abstract designs; the only exception was the $20 of 1865. From 1862 to 1879, United States Notes were legal tender and the dominant paper currency but were not convertible at face value into gold and traded at a discount; however some transactions, such as customs duties and interest on the federal debt, were required to be made in gold. Thus the early gold certificates were acceptable in some transactions where United States Notes were not, but were not used in general circulation due to their premium value. After 1879, the government was willing to redeem United States Notes at face value in gold, bringing the United States Notes into parity with gold certificates, making the latter a candidate for general circulation; the Series of 1882 was the first series, payable to the bearer. This was the case with all gold certificate series from that point on, with the exception of 1888, 1900, 1934; the series of 1888 and 1900 were issued to specific depositors, as before.

The series of 1882 had the same portraits as the series of 1875, but a different back design, featuring a series of eagles, as well as complex border work. Gold certificates, along with all other U. S. currency, were made in two sizes—a larger size from 1865 to 1928, a smaller size from 1928 to 1934. The backs of all large-sized notes and the small-sized notes of the Series of 1934 were orange, resulting in the nickname "goldbacks"; the backs of the Series of 1928 bills were green, identical to the corresponding denomination of the more familiar Federal Reserve Notes, including the usual buildings on the $10 through $100 designs and the less-known abstract designs of denominations $500 and up. With the 1934 issue, the promise to pay was amended with the phrase "as authorized by law", as redemption was now restricted to only certain entities; the phrase "in gold coin" was changed to "in gold" as the physical amount of gold represented would vary with changes in the government price. Both large and small size gold certificates feature a gold treasury seal on the obverse, just as U.

S. Notes feature a red seal, silver certificates a blue seal, Federal Reserve Notes a green seal. Another interesting note is the Series of 1900. Along with the $5,000 and $10,000 of the Series of 1888, all 1900 bills have been redeemed, no longer have legal tender status. Most were destroyed, with the exception of a number of 1900 $10,000 bills that were in a box in a post office near the U. S. Treasury in Washington, D. C. There was a fire on 13 December 1935, employees threw burning boxes out into the street; the box of canceled high-denomination currency burst open. Much to everyone's dismay, they were worthless. There are several hundred outstanding, their ownership is technically illegal, as they are stolen property. However, due to their lack of intrinsic value, the government has not prosecuted any owners, citing more important concerns, they carry a collector value in the numismatic market and, as noted in Bowers and Sundermans' The 100 Greatest American Currency Notes, the only United States notes that can be purchased for less than their face value.

This is the only example of "circulating" U. S. cu

Cavan Water Mill

Cavan Water Mill Lifeforce Mill, is a 19th-century mill located in Cavan. The current building contains a notable MacAdam water turbine. Having been abandoned in the 1960s, it was restored as a visitor attraction in the 1990s. Milling on this site can be traced back to the 14th century, when there was a Franciscan mill in the same location; the current mill was established by the Greene family in 1846. During the 1840s, there were 90 working water mills in County Cavan, but at the time this mill was built it was the only one within a two-mile radius; the building operated as a mill for more than a century until its closure in the 1960s. Following restoration, it operated again for a short while as a working mill for the creation of wholemeal flour for Lifeforce Foods; the two-storey design has a three-bay extension at split level to the west and a two-storey return to the side. An adjacent mill building to the north was removed from its original site and rebuilt here in 1995 as part of the mill's restoration.

As the only surviving example of one of the five mills that stood in Cavan Town, it is listed on the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage for Ireland. Cavan Water Mill operates a MacAdam turbine as opposed to a conventional water wheel; the turbine was described as one of the few, if not the only surviving MacAdam turbines in Ulster in 1983. The turbine may be an example of 19th-century industrial espionage, as it is believed to be a patent infringing copy of a design by Benoît Fourneyron. A similar turbine was installed at Ballincollig Royal Gunpowder Mills, Cork in 1853. Cavan Water Mill website

Yellow-browed sparrow

The yellow-browed sparrow is a species of bird in the family Passerellidae. First described by Johann Baptist von Spix in 1825, this American sparrow is found across much of the Amazon basin in South America, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist shrubland and degraded former forest. When Johann Baptist von Spix first described the yellow-browed sparrow in 1825, he put it in the now-defunct genus Tanagra, believing it to be a tanager; the classification error was soon recognized, the species was moved first to the genus Ammodramus to Myospiza—a genus Robert Ridgway created in 1898 for this and the related grassland sparrow. Most taxonomists now subsume Myospiza into Ammodramus. DNA analysis indicates that the yellow-browed sparrow is a sister species to the grassland sparrow, that these two species make a sister group with the grasshopper sparrow; the yellow-browed sparrow has four subspecies, which differ in the extent of yellow on the face and the amount of streaking on the upperparts and crown: A. a. apurensis, first described by William Henry Phelps and Ernest Thomas Gilliard in 1941, is found in northeastern Colombia.

A. a. cherriei, first described by Frank Chapman in 1914, is found in central Colombia. A. a. tenebrosus, first described by John Todd Zimmer and Phelps in 1949, ranges from southeastern Colombia through southwestern Venezuela into the adjacent areas of Brazil. A. a. aurifrons, described by Spix in 1825, ranges south from southeastern Colombia into central Bolivia and east along the Amazon basin to the Atlantic coast. The yellow-browed sparrow is one of nine sparrows in the genus Ammodramus, a name which means "desert runner" or "desert racer"; the species name aurifrons is a combination of the Latin words auri, meaning "gold" and frons, meaning "forehead" or "front". The yellow-browed sparrow is a small American sparrow, measuring 13 cm in length, with a mass between 14.5 and 19 g. Sexes are plumaged, though males average slightly larger than females; the adult is brownish gray with dusky streaks on the back. Its underparts are whitish, shading to grayish on the buff on the flanks, its legs are pinkish-brown.

Its iris is reddish brown. The juvenile, which has no yellow on its face or wings, is buffier than adults are, with thin brownish streaks on its breast and flanks. Although quite similar to the grassland sparrow, the yellow-browed sparrow shows more yellow on its face, it is overall paler and less streaked than the grassland sparrow, lacks chestnut edges to its flight feathers. It is best told by its buzzy song, its less secretive behavior and less restrictive habitat preferences. Although its former habitat was along rivers and on islands, the yellow-browed sparrow is now widespread in grassy areas of the Amazon biome, including agricultural fields and around towns, it is found in the lowlands, though it has been recorded to 1,000 m on the east side of the Andes, as high as 1,500 m — and sometimes to 2,000 m — in Ecuador. The yellow-browed sparrow is easier to see than its sister species is, it is less secretive, is found in a wider range of grasslands. Like most American sparrows, the yellow-browed sparrow is granivorous, feeding on the seeds of native grasses and various introduced plants.

It eats insects, including larvae. It feeds on the ground. Breeding has been recorded between September; the yellow-browed sparrow builds a cup nest of dried grass lined with fine plant material. The nest is on the ground in a grass clump, though sometimes it is placed low in a shrub; the female lays 2–3 white eggs. The yellow-browed sparrow's high-pitched song is described as "insect-like". Monotonous and buzzy, it is transcribed as tzzz-tzzzzz, with the first note weak and short; the male sings throughout the day from a low, exposed perch. Because of its large range and stable population, the yellow-browed sparrow has been designated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as a species of least concern, it is described as common throughout its range. This species has benefited from the clearing of rainforest for agriculture and cattle ranching. Jobling, James A.. The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Names. London, UK: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. Ridgely, Robert S.. The Birds of South America, volume 1: The Oscine Passerines.

Austin, TX, US: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70756-6. Yellow-browed sparrow photo gallery at VIREO "Yellow-browed sparrow media". Internet Bird Collection. Audio recordings of Yellow-browed sparrow on Xeno-canto