Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina was Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948. Wilhelmina was the child of King William III and his second wife Emma of Waldeck. She became heir presumptive to the Dutch throne, after her brother and great uncle had died. She became queen when her died, when she was 10 years old. As she was still a minor, her mother served as regent until Wilhelmina became 18 years old, in 1901, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin with whom she had a daughter Juliana. She reigned for nearly 58 years, longer any other Dutch monarch. Her reign saw World War I and World War II, the crisis of 1933. Outside the Netherlands she is remembered for her role in World War II. Princess Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, was born on 31 August 1880 in The Hague and she was the only child of King William III and his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Her childhood was characterised by a relationship with her parents, especially with her father.
King William III had three sons with his first wife, Sophie of Württemberg, when Prince Frederick died a year in 1881, she became second in line. When Wilhelmina was four, Alexander died and the girl became heir presumptive. King William III died on 23 November 1890, although 10-year-old Wilhelmina became queen of the Netherlands instantly, her mother, was named regent. In 1895, Queen Wilhelmina visited Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, still has her hair hanging loose. She is slender and graceful, and makes an impression as a very intelligent and she speaks good English and knows how to behave with charming manners. Wilhelmina was enthroned on 6 September 1898, on 7 February 1901 in The Hague, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Nine months later, on 9 November, Wilhelmina suffered a miscarriage and her next pregnancy ended in another miscarriage on 23 July 1906. The birth of Juliana, on 30 April 1909, was met with great relief after eight years of childless marriage, Wilhelmina suffered two further miscarriages on 23 January and 20 October 1912
The Ridderzaal is the main building of the 13th century Binnenhof in The Hague, Netherlands. It is used for the opening of Parliament on Prinsjesdag. It is used for royal receptions, and interparliamentary conferences. In the 13th century Floris IV, Count of Holland bought a piece of land next to a lake to build a house on. The Ridderzaal, the hall of Floris V, grandson of Floris IV, was built on this estate in the 13th century. Over the centuries, the government buildings developed around this lake, from the early 17th century, the Ridderzaal became an important trading place for booksellers, as Westminster Hall was in London. In centuries it served a variety of purposes - as a hall, a promenade, a drill hall, a public record office. It was restored between 1898 and 1904 to serve its present purposes, the Ridderzaal was the venue for the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference in 1949. The heavy timber roof structure with its 18-metre-long beams has the appearance of an upturned ship, wooden heads symbolizing eavesdroppers from the higher powers are supposed to deter members of the assembly from lying.
The throne in the Ridderzaal was designed by Pierre Cuypers, media related to Ridderzaal at Wikimedia Commons
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld was the consort of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and father of her four children, including the former Queen of the Netherlands, Princess Beatrix. During World War II the German-born prince was part of the London-based Allied war planning councils and he was a Dutch General and Supreme Commander of the Dutch Armed forces, involved in negotiating the terms of surrender of the German Army in the Netherlands. For proven bravery and loyalty during his efforts he was appointed a Commander of the Military William Order. After the War he was made Honorary Air Marshal of the RAF by Queen Elizabeth II, in 1969, Bernhard was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Bernhard helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961, in 1954, he was a co-founder of the international Bilderberg Group, which has met annually since to discuss corporate globalization and other issues concerning Europe and North America.
He was forced to step down from both groups after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal. Because his parents marriage did not properly conform with the laws of the House of Lippe, it was deemed morganatic. He and his brother could only succeed to the Lippian throne if the entire reigning House became extinct, in 1916, the Reigning Prince of Lippe, Leopold IV, raised Bernhard and his mother to Prince / Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld thereby retroactively according his parents marriage regal status. The suffix Biesterfeld was revived to mark the beginning of a new line of the House of Lippe. After World War I, Bernhards family lost their German Principality and he received his early education at home. When he was twelve, he was sent to board at the Gymnasium in Züllichau and several years to board at a Gymnasium in Berlin, Bernhard suffered from poor health as a boy. Doctors predicted that he would not live very long and this prediction might have been the key to Bernhards reckless driving and the risks that he took in the Second World War and thereafter.
The prince wrecked several cars and planes in his lifetime, Bernhard studied Law at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland and in Berlin, where he acquired a taste for fast cars, horse riding, and big-game hunting safaris. He was nearly killed in an accident and an airplane crash. While at university, Bernhard joined the Nazi Party and he enrolled in the Sturmabteilung, which he left in 1934 when he graduated. The Prince denied that he had belonged to SA, to the Reiter-SS, and to the NSKK, while he was not a fierce champion of democracy, the Prince was never known to hold any radical political views or express any racist sentiments. The Prince eventually went to work for the German chemical giant IG Farben, the worlds fourth-largest company and he lodged with the exiled Russian nobleman Count Pavel Kotzbue and his wife the American-born Allene Tew. After training, Bernhard became secretary to the board of directors at the Paris office in 1935, Bernhard met then-Princess Juliana at the 1936 Winter Olympics at Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
The Spijker, Spyker V.1 or Spyker-Trompenburg V.1, was a single seat biplane fighter built in the Netherlands during World War I. It was underpowered and did not go into production and this request resulted in the Spijker V.1, a conventionally laid out tractor biplane powered by a 60 kW Swedish licence built Thulin Gnôme rotary engine. It was a single bay design with pairs of interplane struts assisted by four parallel cabane struts between the central upper wing and the fuselage. There was neither stagger nor sweep to the covered wings. A semi-circular cut-out in the wing trailing edge over the cockpit enhanced the pilots upward view. The V. 1s fuselage was rectangular in cross-section, with the partially enclosed by a helmet shaped cowling open at the bottom. The open, single seat cockpit was over the trailing edge. The tailplane, carrying separate elevators, was mounted on the top of the fuselage and wire-braced to the fin, the rounded rudder extended to the keel. The V.1 had a fixed, conventional undercarriage with mainwheels on a single axle supported by two V-form pairs of struts, originally curved but straight by May 1917, there was a small tail skid mounted forward of the elevator.
The prototype was complete by late 1916 but concerns over structural strength and some engine tuning delayed the first flight until 31 March 1917, test flights led to aerobatics and Van Heyst became the first Dutchman to execute a loop in a military aircraft. Nonetheless, its low powered engine did not provide high performance for a fighter. No more V. 1s were built, the prototype was bought by the Netherlands Naval Aviation Service in 1917 and retired in 1920. Data from Wesselink General characteristics Crew, One Length,7.50 m Wingspan,9.50 m Powerplant,1 × Thulin rotary engine,60 kW Propellers, 2-bladed Performance Maximum speed,138 km/h
Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands
Willem-Alexander is the King of the Netherlands. Willem-Alexander was born in Utrecht and is the oldest child of Beatrix of the Netherlands and he became Prince of Orange as heir apparent upon his mothers accession on 30 April 1980, and succeeded her following her abdication on 30 April 2013. He went to primary and secondary schools, served in the Royal Netherlands Navy. He married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti in 2002 and they have three daughters, Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Alexia, and Princess Ariane, Willem-Alexander is interested in sports and international water management issues. At the age of 49, he is currently the second youngest monarch in Europe after Felipe VI of Spain, Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand was born on 27 April 1967 in the University Hospital Utrecht, Now is University Medical Center Utrecht in Utrecht, Netherlands. He is the first child of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus, and he was the first male Dutch royal baby since the birth of Prince Alexander in 1851, and the first immediate male heir since Alexanders death in 1884.
From birth, Willem-Alexander has held the titles Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau and he was baptised as a member of the Dutch Reformed Church on 2 September 1967 in Saint Jacobs Church in The Hague. He had two brothers, Prince Friso and Prince Constantijn. He lived with his family at the castle Drakensteyn in the hamlet Lage Vuursche near Baarn from his birth until 1981 and his mother Beatrix became Queen of the Netherlands in 1980, after his grandmother Juliana abdicated. He received the title of Prince of Orange as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Willem-Alexander attended Nieuwe Baarnse Elementary School in Baarn from 1973 to 1979. After his military service from 1985 to 1987, Willem-Alexander studied History at Leiden University from 1987 onwards and his final thesis was on the Dutch response to Frances decision under President Charles de Gaulle to leave the NATOs integrated command structure. Willem-Alexander speaks English and German in addition to his native Dutch, between secondary school and his university education, Willem-Alexander performed military service in the Royal Netherlands Navy from August 1985 until January 1987.
He received his training at the Royal Netherlands Naval College and the frigates HNLMS Tromp and HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen, in 1988 he received additional training at the ship HNLMS Van Kinsbergen and became a lieutenant. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Navy, Willem-Alexander was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in 1995, Commander in 1997, Captain at Sea in 2001, and Commodore in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Army, he was made a Major in 1995, and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1997, Colonel in 2001, and Brigadier General in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, he was made Squadron Leader in 1995, as a reservist for the Royal Marechaussee, he was made Brigadier General in 2005. Before his investiture as king in 2013, Willem-Alexander was honorably discharged from the armed forces, the government declared that the head of state cannot be a serving member of the armed forces, since the government itself holds supreme command over the armed forces.
As king, Willem-Alexander may choose to wear a uniform with royal insignia
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding. Gold leaf is available in a variety of karats and shades. The most commonly used gold is 22-karat yellow gold, Gold leaf is a type of metal leaf, but the term is rarely used when referring to gold leaf. The term metal leaf is used for thin sheets of metal of any color that do not contain any real gold. Real yellow gold leaf is about 91. 7% pure gold, silver colored white gold is approximately 50% pure gold. Layering gold leaf over a surface is called gold leafing or gilding, traditional water gilding is the most difficult and highly regarded form of gold leafing. It has remained unchanged for hundreds of years and is still done by hand. Gold leaf is used in art in a raw state. It has been used in jewellery in various periods, often as small pieces hanging freely. Gold glass is gold leaf held between two pieces of glass, and was used for decorated Ancient Roman vessels, where some of the gold was scraped off to form an image, Gold leaf is used in Buddhist art to decorate statues and symbols.
Gold leafing can be seen on domes in religious and public architecture, from the ancient temples to modern day buildings, gold leaf has been an integral component of architecture to designate important structures since the dawn of humankind. Due to gold’s resilience, golden-domed buildings can stand up to weather and even modern pollution, Gold in architecture became an integral component of Byzantine and Roman churches and basilicas in 400 AD, most notably Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The church was built by Pope Sixtus III and is one of the earliest examples of gold mosaics, the mosaics were made of stone, tile or glass backed on gold leaf walls, giving the church a beautifully intricate backdrop. The 14th century campanile, or bell tower, is the highest in Rome, the apse mosaic, the Coronation of the Virgin, is from 1295, signed by the Franciscan friar, Jacopo Torriti. It is the location of ceremonial spaces, such as the Hall of Honour, the Memorial Chamber. Capping the room is a ceiling with deep octagonal coffers, each filled with heraldic symbols, including maple leaves, fleur-de-lis, lions rampant, clàrsach, Welsh Dragons.
This plane rests on six pairs and four pilasters, each of which is capped by a caryatid. Below the windows is an architrave, broken only by baldachins at the base of each of the above pilasters
Renaissance in the Low Countries
The Renaissance in the Low Countries was a cultural period in the Northern Renaissance that took place in around the 16th century in the Low Countries. Culture in the Low Countries at the end of the 15th century was influenced by the Italian Renaissance and its nobles commissioned artists who became known across Europe. In science, the anatomist Andreas Vesalius led the way, in cartography, in art and Flemish Renaissance painting went from the strange work of Hieronymus Bosch to the everyday life of Pieter Brueghel the Elder. In architecture and literature too, the culture of the Low Countries moved into the Renaissance style, during the course of the century the region experienced significant changes. The union with Spain under Charles V, Humanism and Reformation led to a rebellion against the Spanish rule, by the end of the 16th century the northern and Southern Netherlands were effectively split. Gradually, the balance of power shifted away from the Southern Netherlands, two factors determined the fate of the region in the 16th century.
The first was the union with the kingdom of Spain through the 1496 marriage of Philip the Handsome of Burgundy and Juana of Castile. Their son, Charles V, born in Ghent, would inherit the largest empire in the world, a second factor included religious developments. The Middle Ages gave way to new modes of religious thinking, devotio Moderna practices, for example, were particularly strong in the region, while the 16th-century criticisms of the Catholic Church that spread throughout Europe reached the Low Countries. Humanists such as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam were critical but remained loyal to the church, the spread of the Protestant Reformation, started by Martin Luther in 1517, eventually led to outright war. The repression that led to the Dutch Revolt, the beginning of the Eighty Years War. Subsequently, the Southern Netherlands became a bastion for the Counter Reformation, trade in the port of Bruges and the textile industry, mostly in Ghent, turned Flanders into the wealthiest part of Northern Europe at the end of the 15th century.
The Burgundian court dwelled mostly in Bruges and Brussels, the nobles and rich traders were able to commission artists, creating a class of highly skilled painters and musicians who were admired and requested around the continent. This led to frequent exchanges between the Low Countries and Northern Italy, before 1500, the Italian Renaissance had little or no influence above the Alps. After this we begin to see Renaissance influences, but unlike the Italian Renaissance, the revival of the classical period is not a central theme like in Italy, the rebirth shows itself more as a return to nature and earthly beauty. 15th-century painting in the Low Countries still shows strong religious influences, even after 1500, when Renaissance influences begin to show, the influence of the masters from the previous century leads to a largely religious and narrative style of painting. The first painter showing the marks of the new era is Hieronymus Bosch and his work is strange and full of seemingly irrational imagery, making it difficult to interpret.
Most of all it seems surprisingly modern, introducing a world of dreams that highly contrasts with the style of the Flemish masters of his day
Prinsjesdag is the day on which the reigning monarch of the Netherlands addresses a joint session of the Dutch Senate and House of Representatives in the Hall of Knights in The Hague. The speech from the sets out the main features of government policy for the coming parliamentary session. The first part of Prinsjesdag is the Speech from the Throne at the assembly of the States-General in the Ridderzaal, at around 12,30 on Prinsjesdag, the members of the Senate and House of Representatives enter the Ridderzaal. They sit opposite and to the left and right of the throne, the ministers and state secretaries sit to the left of the throne. Behind them sit members of the Council of State, the government’s highest advisory body and they all sit in the enceinte, an area enclosed by unobtrusive wooden barriers symbolising that the head of state is in conference with Parliament. Outside the palace stand an escort of honour and a military band, as the King arrives at the Binnenhof, a band by the steps strikes up the Wilhelmus.
The King and other members of the Royal House salute the colour of the Royal Netherlands Marines Corps and mount the Ridderzaal’s steps, the president of the Senate presides over the joint session. Shortly before 13,00, he opens the meeting and appoints a number of ushers from among the members of the two Houses to escort the King and his entourage. On this occasion, male MPs wear their most formal dress, the ushers receive the King and the members of the Royal House at the entrance to the Ridderzaal. The president of the joint session announces the arrival of the head of state, the King proceeds to the throne, from where he delivers his Speech from the Throne. In his capacity of head of the Government he announces the plans for the new parliamentary year, the Kings Speech is not written by the King, but by the Prime Minister and the cabinet. When the Speech is finished, the speaker of the Senate proclaims Leve de koning, which is answered by everyone present with Hoera. This brings an end to the joint session of the two houses, the ushers escort the King and members of the Royal House to the door.
The president closes the session, after lunch, the Minister of Finance proposes the next years national budget and the Budget Memorandum to the House of Representatives. The presentation is followed by a cycle of parliamentary debates on the budget and these are called the algemene beschouwingen. It is the most important moment for parliamentary policy making, as MPs can amend the budget to finance specific plans, the pomp and circumstance is still very much part of the day. On Prinsjesdag 2010 a mentally disturbed man threw a tea light holder against the Golden Coach, State of the Nation for similar speeches in other countries Prinsjesdag, the third Tuesday in September Official Prinsjesdag 2010 website
Teak is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae. Tectona grandis is a large, deciduous tree that occurs in mixed hardwood forests and it has small, fragrant white flowers and large papery leaves that are often hairy on the lower surface. It is sometimes known as the Burmese teak, Teak wood has a leather-like smell when it is freshly milled. It is particularly valued for its durability and water resistance, and is used for building, exterior construction, furniture, turnings. Myanmars teak forests account for half of the worlds naturally occurring teak. Molecular studies show there are two centres of genetic origin of teak, one in India and the other in Myanmar. CP teak is a description of teak from the states of India. Nagpur teak is another regional Indian teak and it produces small, white flowers arranged in dense clusters at the end of the branches. Flowers contain both types of reproductive organs The word teak comes from, Tamil tekku, Malayalam word thekku, the plant is known as Thekka in Sinhala by Sri Lankan people.
Teak is a large, deciduous tree up to 40 m tall with gray to grayish brown branches, leaves are ovate-elliptic to ovate, 15–45 cm long by 8–23 cm wide, and are held on robust petioles that are 2–4 cm long. Fragrant white flowers are borne on 25–40 cm long by 30 cm wide panicles from June to August, the corolla tube is 2. 5–3 mm long with 2 mm wide obtuse lobes. Tectona grandis sets fruit from September to December, fruits are globose and 1. 2-1.8 cm in diameter, flowers are weakly protandrous in that the anthers precede the stigma in maturity and pollen is shed within a few hours of the flower opening. The flowers are entomophilous, but can occasionally be anemophilous. A1996 study found that in its range in Thailand. Heartwood is brownish red in colour, sometimes there are dark patches on it. There is a scent in newly cut wood. Sapwood is whitish to yellowish brown in colour. It can easily separate from heartwood, wood texture is hard and ring porous