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Copyleft licenses require that any derivative works be distributed under the same terms, that the original copyright notices be maintained. A symbol associated with copyleft is a reversal of the copyright symbol, facing the other way. Unlike the copyright symbol, the copyleft symbol does not have a codified meaning. Projects that provide free content exist in several areas of interest, such as software, academic literature, general literature, images and engineering. Technology has reduced the cost of publication and reduced the entry barrier sufficiently to allow for the production of disseminated materials by individuals or small groups. Projects to provide free literature and multimedia content have become prominent owing to the ease of dissemination of materials, associated with the development of computer technology; such dissemination may have been too costly prior to these technological developments. In media, which includes textual and visual content, free licensing schemes such as some of the licenses made by Creative Commons have allowed for the dissemination of works under a clear set of legal permissions.
Not all of the Creative Commons’ licenses are free: their permissions may range from liberal general redistribution and modification of the work to a more restrictive redistribution-only licensing. Since February 2008, Creative Commons licenses which are free carry a badge indicating that they are "approved for free cultural works". Repositories exist which feature free material and provide content such as photographs, clip art and literature. While extensive reuse of free content from one website in another website is legal, it is not sensible because of the duplicate content problem. Wikipedia is amongst the most well known databases of user uploaded free content on the web. While the vast majority of content on Wikipedia is free content, some copyrighted material is hosted under Fair-use criteria. Free and open-source software, often referred to as open source software and free software, is a maturing technology with major companies utilising free software to provide both services and technology to both end u
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation occurring in rural areas. Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire can be classified more as a brush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago. Wildfire's occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, widespread lightning and volcanic ignitions. Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, the effect of weather on the fire. Wildfires can cause damage to property and human life, although occurring wildfires may have beneficial effects on native vegetation and ecosystems that have evolved with fire.
High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat, which has higher species richness and diversity than unburned old forest. Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for reproduction. Wildfires in ecosystems where wildfire is uncommon or where non-native vegetation has encroached may have negative ecological effects. Wildfire behavior and severity result from a combination of factors such as available fuels, physical setting, weather. Analyses of historical meteorological data and national fire records in western North America show the primacy of climate in driving large regional fires via wet periods that create substantial fuels, or drought and warming that extend conducive fire weather. Strategies for wildfire prevention and suppression have varied over the years. One common and inexpensive technique is controlled burning: intentionally igniting smaller fires to minimize the amount of flammable material available for a potential wildfire. Vegetation may be burned periodically to maintain high species diversity and limit the accumulation of plants and other debris that may serve as fuel.
Wildland fire use is the cheapest and most ecologically appropriate policy for many forests. Fuels may be removed by logging, but fuels treatments and thinning have no effect on severe fire behavior when under extreme weather conditions. Wildfire itself is "the most effective treatment for reducing a fire's rate of spread, fireline intensity, flame length, heat per unit of area", according to Jan Van Wagtendonk, a biologist at the Yellowstone Field Station. Building codes in fire-prone areas require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure. Three major natural causes of wildfire ignitions exist: dry climate lightning volcanic eruptionThe most common direct human causes of wildfire ignition include arson, discarded cigarettes, power-lines arcs, sparks from equipment. Ignition of wildland fires via contact with hot rifle-bullet fragments is possible under the right conditions.
Wildfires can be started in communities experiencing shifting cultivation, where land is cleared and farmed until the soil loses fertility, slash and burn clearing. Forested areas cleared by logging encourage the dominance of flammable grasses, abandoned logging roads overgrown by vegetation may act as fire corridors. Annual grassland fires in southern Vietnam stem in part from the destruction of forested areas by US military herbicides and mechanical land-clearing and -burning operations during the Vietnam War; the most common cause of wildfires varies throughout the world. In Canada and northwest China, lightning operates as the major source of ignition. In other parts of the world, human involvement is a major contributor. In Africa, Central America, Mexico, New Zealand, South America, Southeast Asia, wildfires can be attributed to human activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry, land-conversion burning. In China and in the Mediterranean Basin, human carelessness is a major cause of wildfires.
In the United States and Australia, the source of wildfires can be traced both to lightning strikes and to human activities. Coal seam fires burn in the thousands around the world, such as those in Burning Mountain, New South Wales, they can flare up unexpectedly and ignite nearby flammable material. The spread of wildfires varies based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and moisture content, weather conditions. Fuel arrangement and density is governed in part by topography, as land shape determines factors such as available sunlight and water for plant growth. Overall, fire types can be characterized by their fuels as follows: Ground fires are fed by subterranean roots and other buried organic matter; this fuel type is susceptible to ignition due to spotting. Ground fires burn by smoldering, can burn for days to months, such as peat fires in Kalimantan and Eastern Sumatra, which resulted from a riceland creation project that unintentionally drained and dried the peat.
Crawling or surface fires are fueled by low-lying vegetation on the forest floor such as leaf and timber litter, debris and low-lying shrubbery. This kind of fire burns at a lower temperature than crown fires and may spread
Point Reyes National Seashore
Point Reyes National Seashore is a 71,028-acre park preserve located on the Point Reyes Peninsula in Marin County, California. As a national seashore, it is maintained by the US National Park Service as an important nature preserve; some existing agricultural uses are allowed to continue within the park. Clem Miller, a US Congressman from Marin County wrote and introduced the bill for the establishment of Point Reyes National Seashore in 1962 to protect the peninsula from development, proposed at the time for the slopes above Drake's Bay. All of the park's beaches were listed as the cleanest in the state in 2010; the Point Reyes peninsula is a well defined area, geologically separated from the rest of Marin County and all of the continental United States by a rift zone of the San Andreas Fault, about half of, sunk below sea level and forms Tomales Bay. The fact that the peninsula is on a different tectonic plate than the east shore of Tomales Bay produces a difference in soils and therefore to some extent a noticeable difference in vegetation.
The small town of Point Reyes Station, although not located on the peninsula provides most services to it, though some services are available at Inverness on the west shore of Tomales Bay. The smaller town of Olema, about 3 miles south of Point Reyes Station, serves as the gateway to the Seashore and its visitor center, located on Bear Valley Road; the peninsula includes wild coastal beaches and headlands and uplands. Although parts of the Seashore are commercially farmed, parts are under the jurisdiction of other conservation authorities, the National Park Service provides signage and seeks to manage visitor impact on the entire peninsula and all of Tomales Bay; the Seashore administers the parts of the Golden Gate National Recreation area, such as the Olema Valley, that are adjacent to the Seashore. The northernmost part of the peninsula is maintained as a reserve for tule elk, which are seen there; the preserve is very rich in raptors and shorebirds. The Point Reyes Lighthouse attracts whale-watchers looking for the gray whale migrating south in mid-January and north in mid-March.
The Point Reyes Lifeboat Station is a National Historic Landmark. It is the last remaining example of a rail launched lifeboat station, common on the Pacific coast. Nova Albion, Francis Drake's 1579 campsite; this encompasses 5,965 acres along the coast of Drakes Bay. Kule Loklo, a recreated Coast Miwok village, is a short walk from the visitor center. More than 30,000 acres of the Point Reyes National Seashore are designated as the Phillip Burton Wilderness, named in honor of California Congressman Phillip Burton, who wrote the legislation creating the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and was instrumental in helping to pass the California Wilderness Act of 1984; the Point Reyes National Seashore attracts 2.5 million visitors annually. Hostelling International USA maintains a 45-bed youth hostel at the Seashore. Point Reyes National Seashore Association, formed in 1964, collaborates with the Seashore on maintenance and educational projects. Point Reyes State Marine Reserve & Point Reyes State Marine Conservation Area, Estero de Limantour State Marine Reserve & Drakes Estero State Marine Conservation Area and Duxbury Reef State Marine Conservation Area adjoin Point Reyes National Seashore.
Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. A large shellfish farm raising Japanese oysters, Crassostrea gigas, was located in Drakes Estero until, under court order, it closed down at end of 2014. Court appeals to keep the operation in place were dropped in December, 2014; the farm was purchased by the National Park Service in 1972, the agency issued a permit to allow the previous owner to continue operations for 40 years. The business was sold to a new owner in 2004, the Drakes Bay Oyster Company, informed by the NPS at the time of purchase that their permit to operate would not be renewed beyond the November 30, 2012 expiration date. A federal law enacted in 2009 authorized, but did not require, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar to renew the permit; the NPS and conservation groups viewed the farm as an inappropriate and environmentally-insensitive use of the estero, designated a "potential wilderness area" by Congress. The farm's supporters argued that it was not ecologically harmful and was important to the local economy.
On November 29, 2012, Salazar announced that he would not renew the permit, citing the original intent of the Point Reyes Wilderness Act to designate the area as wilderness upon the removal of the oyster farm. Salazar visited the farm the previous week and personally phoned the farm's owner to give him the news; the oyster farm closure was challenged in U. S. District Court on January 25, 2013; the challenge was rejected by a federal court judge, who ruled that the law gave Salazar unfettered discretion to approve or deny a renewal of the permit. The California Coastal Commission voted on February 7, 2013 to unanimously approve cease and desist and restoration orders for violations of the California Coastal Act; the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected an appeal of the district court's decision, ruling on Sept. 3, 2013 that the oyster farm's owner had not shown a likelihood of success on the merits because Salazar had acted within his discretion in denying the permit.
An attempt to have the appeals court rehear the case was rejected on January 14, 2014 and a petition to the U
The Farallon Islands, or Farallones, are a group of islands and sea stacks in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast of San Francisco, United States. The islands are sometimes referred to by mariners as the Devil's Teeth Islands, in reference to the many treacherous underwater shoals in their vicinity; the islands lie 30 miles outside the Golden Gate and 20 miles south of Point Reyes, are visible from the mainland on clear days. The islands are part of the County of San Francisco; the only inhabited portion of the islands is on Southeast Farallon Island, where researchers from Point Blue Conservation Science and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service stay; the islands are closed to the public. The Farallon Islands National Wildlife Refuge is one of 63 National Wildlife Refuges that have congressionally designated wilderness status. In 1974 the Farallon Wilderness was established and includes all islands except the Southeast Island for a total of 141 acres; the islands were long known by the name Islands of the Dead to the American Indians who lived in the Bay Area prior to the arrival of Europeans, but they are not thought to have traveled to them, either for practical reasons or because of spiritual beliefs.
The first Europeans to see these islands were most the members of the Juan Cabrillo expedition of 1542 which sailed as far north as Point Reyes, however no source record of the Cabrillo expedition's actual sighting of these islands has survived. The first European to create a record of the islands which has survived was the English privateer and explorer Sir Francis Drake, on July 24, 1579. On that day, Drake landed on the islands in order to collect seal bird eggs for his ship, he named them the Islands of Saint James because the day after his arrival was the feast day of St James the Great. The name of St James is now applied to only one of the rocky islets of the North Farallones; the islands were first given their names of the “Farallones” by Friar Antonio de la Ascencion, aboard the Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno's 1603 expedition. De la Ascension wrote in his diary, "Six leagues before reaching Punta de los Reyes is a large island, two leagues from land and three leagues northwest of this are... seven farallones close together."
It is believed that for the next two centuries after their discovery, their rather ominous appearance, lying just off the entrance to San Francisco Bay, most caused the earlier mariners to prefer to skirt far to the West and offshore from the entrance to the bay, thus leading to the much discovery of the San Francisco Bay by land over two centuries after the 1542 discovery of the islands. In 1769 the bay inlet was discovered soon after an overland sighting of the bay was made from what is now the Pacifica area. In the years following the discovery of the islands, during the Maritime Fur Trade era, the islands were exploited by seal hunters, first from New England and from Russia; the Russians maintained a sealing station in the Farallones from 1812 to 1840, taking 1,200 to 1,500 fur seals annually, though American ships had exploited the islands. The Albatross, captained by Nathan Winship, the O'Cain, captained by his brother Jonathan Winship, were the first American ships sent from Boston in 1809 to establish a settlement on the Columbia River.
In 1810, they met up with two other American ships at the Farallon Islands, the Mercury and the Isabella, at least 30,000 seal skins were taken. By 1818 the seals diminished until only about 500 could be taken annually and within the next few years, the fur seal was extirpated from the islands, it is not known whether the northern fur seal or the Guadalupe fur seal were the islands' native fur seal, although the northern fur seal is the species that began to recolonize the islands in 1996. On July 17, 1827, the French sea captain Auguste Duhaut-Cilly sailed by the southernmost Farallon Island and counted the "crude dwellings of about a hundred Kodiaks stationed there by the Russians of Bodega...the Kodiaks, in their light boats, slip into San Francisco Bay by night, moving along the coast opposite the fort, once inside this great basin they station themselves temporarily on some of the inner islands, from where they catch the sea otter without hindrance."After Alta California was ceded by Mexico to the United States in 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the islands' environment became linked to the growth of the city of San Francisco.
Beginning in 1853, a lighthouse was constructed on SEFI. As the city grew, the seabird colonies came under severe threat as eggs were collected in the millions for San Francisco markets; the trade, which in its heyday could yield 500,000 eggs a month, was the source of conflict between the egg collecting companies and the lighthouse keepers. This conflict turned violent in a confrontation between rival companies in 1863; the clash between two rival companies, known as the Egg War, left two men dead and marked the end of private companies on the islands, although the lighthouse keepers continued egging. This activity, combined with the threat of oil spills from San Francisco's shipping lanes, prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to sign Executive Order No. 1043 in 1909, creating the Farallon Reservation to protect the chain's northern islands. This was expanded to the other islands in 1969; the islands are the site of many shipwrecks. The liberty ship SS Henry Bergh, a converted troop carrier that hit West End in 1944, pieces of which can
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve
The Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 483 hectares nature preserve and biological field station formally established as a reserve in 1973. Owned by Stanford University, located at 37.408°N 122.2275°W / 37.408. It is used by students and docents to conduct biology research, teach the community about the importance of that research; the preserve encompasses Jasper Ridge and Searsville Lake and the upper reaches of San Francisquito Creek, along with the latter's Corte Madera Creek and Bear Creek tributaries. Jasper Ridge is part of the foothills northeast of the Santa Cruz Mountains and is bounded by San Francisquito Creek, Corte Madera Creek and Los Trancos Creek, although the preserve occupies only the northwestern half of the ridge; the hilly mass runs about ten kilometers from about half that in width. Serpentine is the California State Rock, it was formed from deep mantle rocks. This rock was squeezed toward the surface by tectonic plate movement, thus feels greasy, as it has been polished over millions of years.
Graywacke Sandstone after crossing Leonard's Bridge. This sandstone was part of the Franciscan formation 138 M years ago; some rocks found at the preserve include: Greenstone, Serpentinite, Sandstone. In 1922, Cooper asserted that Jasper Ridge was chaparral, cleared in the nineteenth century to open grasslands Eurasian wild oats; however much of the grassland has been replaced by various oaks Coast Live Oak, Pacific Madrone. More the oak/madrone forest is being succeeded by specimens of large Douglas fir as in the image above. In addition there are several groves of second growth Coast Redwoods in the preserve, some in large "fairy rings" indicating that trees of immense girth were cut down in the nineteenth century. Numerous academic studies and ecological experiments are conducted at Jasper Ridge; the Global Change Experiment studies the response of California annual grassland to global change, including elevated atmospheric CO2, altered precipitation, increased nitrogen deposition. This project tracks the Argentine ants, an invasive species.
A station near the lake monitors bats by converting and recording bat sounds. Organization of Biological Field Stations Official Jasper Ridge website Organization of Biological Field Stations
The cougar commonly known by other names including catamount, mountain lion and puma, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas. Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the widest of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere. An adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in most American habitat types, it is the biggest cat in North America, the second-heaviest cat in the New World after the jaguar. Secretive and solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although daytime sightings do occur; the cougar is more related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat, than to any species of subfamily Pantherinae, of which only the jaguar is native to the Americas. The cougar is an ambush predator. Primary food sources are ungulates deer, it hunts species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, but can live in open areas.
The cougar survives at low population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain and abundance of prey. While large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding prey it has killed to lone jaguars, American black bears, grizzly bears, to groups of gray wolves, it is reclusive and avoids people. Fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have been increasing in North America as more people enter cougar territories. Intensive hunting following European colonization of the Americas and the ongoing human development of cougar habitat has caused populations to drop in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the North American cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, except for the isolated Florida panther subpopulation. Transient males have been verified in Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan and Illinois, in at least one instance, observed as far east as coastal Connecticut. Reports of eastern cougars still surface, although it was declared extirpated in 2011.
P. concolor holds the Guinness record for the animal with the greatest number of names, with over 40 in English alone. With its vast range across the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of names and various references in the mythology of the indigenous Americans and in contemporary culture. Scientists refer to it as "puma", as do the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas; the first English record of "puma" was in 1777, where it had come from the Spanish, who had in turn borrowed it from the Peruvian Quechua language in the 16th century, where it means "powerful". Although "puma" is the common name in Spanish or Portuguese-speaking countries, the cat has many local or regional names in the United States and Canada, of which cougar and mountain lion are popular, it was called gato monte by the early Spanish explorers of the Americas. "Mountain lion" was a term first used in writing in 1858 from the diary of George Andrew Jackson of Colorado. Other names include catamount, mountain screamer, painter.
Lexicographers regard painter as a upper-Southern US regional variant on panther."Cougar" is borrowed from the Portuguese çuçuarana, via French. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana. In the 17th century, German naturalist Georg Marcgrave named the cat the cuguacu ara. Marcgrave's rendering was reproduced in 1648 by his associate, Dutch naturalist Willem Piso. Cuguacu ara was adopted by English naturalist John Ray in 1693; the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in 1774 converted the cuguacu ara to cuguar, modified to "cougar" in English. Cougars are the largest of the small cats, they are placed in the subfamily Felinae, although their physical characteristics are similar to those of the big cats in the subfamily Pantherinae. The family Felidae is believed to have originated in Asia about 11 million years ago. Taxonomic research on felids remains partial, much of what is known about their evolutionary history is based on mitochondrial DNA analysis, as cats are poorly represented in the fossil record, significant confidence intervals exist with suggested dates.
In the latest genomic study of the Felidae, the common ancestor of today's Leopardus, Puma and Felis lineages migrated across the Bering land bridge into the Americas 8.0 to 8.5 million years ago. The lineages subsequently diverged in that order. North American felids invaded South America 2–4 Mya as part of the Great American Interchange, following formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Linnaeus placed the cougar in the genus which includes the domestic cat; the cougar is now placed in Puma, is most related to the jaguarundi, as well as the modern cheetah of Africa and western Asia, but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is suggested by some studies to have diverged from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated back to Asia and Africa, while other research suggests the cheetah diverged in the Old World itself. A high level of genetic similarity has been found among North American cougar populations, suggesting they are all recent descendants of a small ancestral group. Culver et al. propose the original North American population of P. concolor was extirpated during the Pleistocene extinctions some 10,000