Marlon Brando Jr. was an American actor and film director. With a career spanning 60 years, he is well-regarded for his cultural influence on 20th-century film. Brando's Academy Award-winning performances include that of Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront and Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather. Brando was an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements, he is credited with helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, having studied with Stella Adler in the 1940s. He is regarded as one of the first actors to bring Method Acting to mainstream audiences, he gained acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for reprising the role of Stanley Kowalski in the 1951 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire, a role that he originated on Broadway. He received further praise for his performance as Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront, his portrayal of the rebellious motorcycle gang leader Johnny Strabler in The Wild One proved to be a lasting image in popular culture.
Brando received Academy Award nominations for playing Emiliano Zapata in Viva Zapata!. Brando was included in a list of Top Ten Money Making Stars three times in the 1950s, coming in at number 10 in 1954, number 6 in 1955, number 4 in 1958; the 1960s saw. He directed and starred in the cult western film One-Eyed Jacks, a critical and commercial flop, after which he delivered a series of box-office failures, beginning with the 1962 film adaptation of the novel Mutiny on the Bounty. After 10 years, during which he did not appear in a successful film, he won his second Academy Award for playing Vito Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather, a role critics consider among his greatest; the Godfather was one of the most commercially successful films of all time. With that and his Oscar-nominated performance in Last Tango in Paris, Brando re-established himself in the ranks of top box-office stars, placing sixth and tenth in the Money Making Stars poll in 1972 and 1973, respectively. Brando took a four-year hiatus before appearing in The Missouri Breaks.
After this, he was content with being a paid character actor in cameo roles, such as in Superman and The Formula, before taking a nine-year break from motion pictures. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Brando was paid a record $3.7 million and 11.75% of the gross profits for 13 days' work on Superman. He finished out the 1970s with his controversial performance as Colonel Kurtz in another Coppola film, Apocalypse Now, a box-office hit for which he was paid and which helped finance his career layoff during the 1980s. Brando was ranked by the American Film Institute as the fourth-greatest movie star among male movie stars whose screen debuts occurred in or before 1950, he was one of six professional actors, along with Charlie Chaplin, U. S. President Ronald Reagan, Lucille Ball, Frank Sinatra, Marilyn Monroe, named in 1999 by Time magazine as one of its 100 Most Important People of the Century. Brando was born on April 3, 1924, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Marlon Brando, Sr. a pesticide and chemical feed manufacturer, Dorothy Julia.
Brando had Jocelyn Brando and Frances. His ancestry was German, Dutch and Irish, his patrilineal immigrant ancestor, Johann Wilhelm Brandau, arrived in New York in the early 1700s from the Palatinate in Germany. Brando was raised a Christian Scientist, his mother, known as Dodie, was unconventional for her time. An actress herself and a theatre administrator, she helped Henry Fonda begin his acting career. However, she was an alcoholic and had to be brought home from Chicago bars by her husband. In his autobiography, Songs My Mother Taught Me, Brando expressed sadness when writing about his mother: "The anguish that her drinking produced was that she preferred getting drunk to caring for us." Dodie and Brando's father joined Alcoholics Anonymous. Brando harbored far more enmity for his father, stating, "I was his namesake, but nothing I did pleased or interested him, he enjoyed telling me I couldn't do anything right. He had a habit of telling me I would never amount to anything." Brando's parents moved to Evanston, when his father's work took him to Chicago, but separated when Brando was 11 years old.
His mother took the three children to Santa Ana, where they lived with her mother. In 1937, Brando's parents reconciled and moved together to Libertyville, Illinois, a small town north of Chicago. In 1939 and 1941, he worked as an usher at The Liberty. Brando, whose childhood nickname was "Bud", was a mimic from his youth, he developed an ability to absorb the mannerisms of children he played with and display them while staying in character. He was introduced to neighborhood boy Wally Cox and the two were unlikely closest friends until Cox's death in 1973. In the 2007 TCM biopic, Brando: The Documentary, childhood friend George Englund recalls Brando's earliest acting as imitating the cows and horses on the family farm as a way to distract his mother from drinking, his sister Jocelyn was the first to pursue an acting career, going to study at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. She appeared on Broadway films and television. Brando's sister Frances left college in California to study art in New York.
Brando had been held back a year i
Watch on the Rhine
Watch on the Rhine is a 1943 American film drama directed by Herman Shumlin and starring Bette Davis and Paul Lukas. The screenplay by Dashiell Hammett is based on the 1941 play Watch on the Rhine by Lillian Hellman. In 1940, German-born engineer Kurt Muller, his American wife Sara, their children Joshua and Bodo cross the Mexican border into the United States to visit Sara's brother David Farrelly and their mother Fanny in Washington, D. C. For the past seventeen years, the Muller family has lived in Europe, where Kurt responded to the rise of Nazism by engaging in anti-Fascist activities. Sara tells her family. Teck searches the Mullers' room and discovers a gun and money intended to finance underground operations in Germany. Shortly after, the Mullers learn; because Max once rescued Kurt from the Gestapo, Kurt plans to return to Germany to assist him and those arrested with him. Aware that Kurt will be in great danger if the Nazis discover he is returning to Germany, Teck demands $10,000 to keep silent.
After considerable bargaining, Kurt kills him. Realizing the dangers Kurt faces and David agree to help him return. Time passes, when the Mullers fail to hear from Kurt, Joshua announces he plans to search for his father as soon as he turns eighteen. Although distraught by the possibility of losing her son as well as her husband, Sara resolves to be brave when the time comes for Joshua to leave. Bette Davis as Sara Muller Paul Lukas as Kurt Muller Geraldine Fitzgerald as Marthe de Brancovis Lucile Watson as Fanny Farrelly Beulah Bondi as Anise George Coulouris as Teck de Brancovis Donald Woods as David Farrelly Henry Daniell as Phili Von Ramme Donald Buka as Joshua Anthony Caruso as Italian Man Helmut Dantine as Young Man Clyde Fillmore as Sam Chandler Erwin Kalser as Dr. Klauber Kurt Katch as Herr Blecher Clarence Muse as Horace Frank L. Wilson as Joseph Janis Wilson as Babette Mary Young as Mrs. Mellie Sewell Rudolph Anders as Oberdorff The Lillian Hellman play had enjoyed a respectable run of 378 performances on Broadway.
Feeling its focus on patriotism would make it an ideal and prestigious propaganda film at the height of World War II, Jack L. Warner paid $150,000 for the screen rights; because Bette Davis was involved with Now, producer Hal B. Wallis began searching for another actress for the role of Sara Muller while Hellman's lover Dashiell Hammett began writing the screenplay at their farm in Pleasantville, New York. Irene Dunne liked the material but felt the role was too small, Margaret Sullavan expressed no interest whatsoever. Edna Best, Rosemary DeCamp, Helen Hayes were considered. For the role of Kurt Muller, Wallis wanted Charles Boyer. He, felt his French accent was wrong for the character, so the producer decided to cast Paul Lukas, who had originated the role on Broadway and had been honored by The Drama League for his performance. Meanwhile, Hammett was sidelined by an injured back, by the time he was ready to resume work on the script, Davis was close to completing her work in Now, Voyager. Wallis sent Davis, a staunch supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt and a fierce opponent of the Nazi Party, the screenplay-in-progress and she accepted the offer.
With Davis cast as Sara, Wallis encouraged Hammett to embellish what was a secondary role to make it worthy of the leading lady's status as a star, to open up the story by adding scenes outside the Farrelly living room, the sole setting on stage. The Production Code Administration was concerned that Kurt Muller escaped prosecution for his murder of Teck de Brancovis, the Hays Office suggested it be established Kurt was killed by the Nazis at the end of the film in order to show he paid for his crime. Hellman objected and the studio agreed Kurt had been justified in shooting Teck, the scene remained. Filming began on June 15, 1942, did not go smoothly. Beginning only a week after Now, Voyager had ended production, Davis was working without a substantial vacation and was on edge; as a result, she clashed with Herman Shumlin, who had directed the play but had no experience in film, tended to ignore his suggestions. Her emotional overacting prompted Wallis to send Shumlin numerous memos urging the director to tone down her performance.
Shumlin threatened to quit because he was unhappy with cinematographer Merritt B. Gerstad, replaced by Hal Mohr in order to appease the director. Meanwhile, Davis was at odds with Lucile Watson, reprising the role of the mother she had portrayed on stage, because she was a Republican whose political views contrasted with those of the Democratic Davis, she and Lukas, got along quite well. Several exterior scenes shot on location in Washington were cut from the film prior to its release due to wartime restrictions on the filming of government buildings; when Wallis announced he was giving Davis top billing, she argued it was ridiculous to do so given hers was a supporting role. The studio's publicity department argued it was her name that would attract an audience and, despite her resistance, the film's credits and all promotional materials listed her first. Davis and Lukas reprised their roles for a radio adaptation that aired in the January 10, 1944, broadcast of The Screen Guild Theater. According to Warner Bros records the film earned $2,149,000 domesticall
Ernest Borgnine was an American actor whose career spanned over six decades. He was noted for his gruff but calm voice, gap-toothed Cheshire Cat grin. A popular performer, he appeared as a guest on numerous talk shows and as a panelist on several game shows. Borgnine's film career began in 1951, included supporting roles in China Corsair, From Here to Eternity, Vera Cruz, Bad Day at Black Rock and The Wild Bunch, he played the unconventional lead in many films, winning the Academy Award for Best Actor for Marty. He achieved continuing success in the sitcom McHale's Navy, in which he played the title character, co-starred as Dominic Santini in the action series Airwolf, in addition to a wide variety of other roles. Borgnine earned his third Primetime Emmy Award nomination at age 92 for his work on the 2009 series finale of ER, he was known as the voice of Mermaid Man on SpongeBob SquarePants from 1999 until his death in 2012. He had earlier replaced the late Vic Tayback as the voice of the villainous Carface Caruthers in both All Dogs Go to Heaven 2 and All Dogs Go to Heaven: The Series.
Borgnine was born Ermes Effron Borgnino on January 24, 1917, in Hamden, the son of Italian immigrants. His mother, hailed from Carpi, near Modena, while his father Camillo Borgnino was a native of Ottiglio near Alessandria. Borgnine's parents separated when he was two years old, he lived with his mother in Italy for about four and a half years. By 1923, his parents had reconciled, the family name was changed from Borgnino to Borgnine, his father changed his first name to Charles. Borgnine had Evelyn Borgnine Velardi; the family settled in New Haven, where Borgnine graduated from James Hillhouse High School. He showed no interest in acting. Borgnine joined the United States Navy in October 1935, after graduation from high school, he served aboard the destroyer/minesweeper USS Lamberton and was honorably discharged from the Navy in October 1941. In January 1942, he reenlisted in the Navy after the attack on Pearl Harbor. During World War II, he patrolled the Atlantic Coast on an antisubmarine warfare ship, the USS Sylph.
In September 1945, he was honorably discharged from the Navy. He served a total of ten years in the Navy and obtained the grade of gunner's mate 1st class, his military awards include the Navy Good Conduct Medal, American Defense Service Medal with Fleet Clasp, American Campaign Medal with 3⁄16" bronze star, the World War II Victory Medal. In 1997, Borgnine received Lone Sailor Award. On December 7, 2000, Borgnine was named the Veterans Foundation's Veteran of the Year. In October 2004, Borgnine received the honorary title of chief petty officer from Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Terry D. Scott; the ceremony for Borgnine's naval advancement was held at the U. S. Navy Memorial in Washington, D. C, he received the special honor for his naval service and support of the Navy and navy families worldwide. On February 5, 2007, he received the California Commendation Medal. Borgnine returned to his parents' house in Connecticut after his Navy discharge without a job to go back to and no direction.
In a British Film Institute interview about his life and career, he said: After World War II, we wanted no more part in war. I didn't want to be a Boy Scout. I went home and said that I was through with the Navy and so now, what do we do? So I went home to mother, after a few weeks of patting me on the back and, "You did good," and everything else, one day she said, "Well?" Like mothers do. Which meant, "All right, you gonna get a job or what?" He was unwilling to settle down to that kind of work. His mother encouraged him to pursue a more glamorous profession and suggested to him that his personality would be well suited for the stage, he surprised his mother by taking the suggestion to heart, although his father was far from enthusiastic. In 2011, Borgnine remembered, She said, "You always like getting in front of people and making a fool of yourself, why don't you give it a try?" I was sitting at the kitchen table and I saw this light. No kidding, it sounds crazy. And 10 years I had Grace Kelly handing me an Academy Award.
He studied acting at the Randall School of Drama in Hartford moved to Virginia, where he became a member of the Barter Theatre in Abingdon, Virginia. It had been named for the director's allowing audiences to barter produce for admission during the cash-lean years of the Great Depression. In 1947, Borgnine landed his first stage role in State of the Union. Although it was a short role, he won over the audience, his next role was as the Gentleman Caller in Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie. In 1949, Borgnine went to New York, where he had his Broadway debut in the role of a nurse in the play Harvey. More roles on stage led him to being cast for decades as a character actor. An appearance as the villain on TV's Captain Video led to Borgnine's casting in the motion picture The Whistle at Eaton Falls for Columbia Pictures; that year, Borgnine moved to Los Angeles, where he received his big break in Columbia's From Here to Eternity, playing the sadistic Sergeant "Fatso" Judson, who beats a stockade prisoner in his charge, Angelo Maggio.
Borgnine built a reputation as a dependable character actor and played villains in early films, including movies such as Johnny Guitar, Vera Cruz, Bad Day at Black Rock. In 1955, the actor starred as a warmhear
1951 in film
The year 1951 in film involved some significant events. Sweden – May Britt is scouted by Italian film-makers Carlo Ponti and Mario Soldati United States of America – Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland premieres; the Wilhelm scream, one of the most frequently-used stock sound effects, makes its first use in the film Distant Drums. The scream would not get its name until The Charge at Feather River in 1953. September 10 - Rashomon wins the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival, bringing worldwide attention to Japanese film. September - The House Un-American Activities Committee investigation into Communism in the film industry starts to wind up after four years, they report in February 1952 that Hollywood has not done enough against Communist employees and hearings and blacklisting continues. After theatrical re-issue The highest-grossing 1951 films in countries outside of North America; the following table lists known worldwide gross figures for several high-grossing films that released in 1951.
Note that this list is incomplete and is therefore not representative of the highest-grossing films worldwide in 1951. This list includes gross revenue from re-releases; the Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll was published by Quigley Publishing Company based on a poll of U. S. movie theater owners who were asked to name who they felt were the previous year's top 10 moneymaking stars. They published a Western stars poll which Roy Rogers topped for the ninth year running. U. S. A. release unless stated # The 13th Letter, directed by Otto Preminger, starring Linda Darnell and Charles BoyerA Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man, starring Bud Abbott and Lou Costello Ace in the Hole, directed by Billy Wilder, starring Kirk Douglas and Jan Sterling Across the Wide Missouri, starring Clark Gable The African Queen, directed by John Huston, starring Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn – Air Cadet, starring Gail Russell and Stephen McNally Alice in Wonderland, an animated film by Walt Disney Along the Great Divide, starring Kirk Douglas An American in Paris, directed by Vincente Minnelli, starring Gene Kelly and Leslie Caron Angels in the Outfield, starring Paul Douglas and Janet Leigh Anna, starring Silvana Mangano, Raf Vallone and Vittorio Gassman – Another Man's Poison, directed by Irving Rapper, starring Bette Davis, Gary Merrill, Emlyn Williams and Anthony Steel – Apache Drums, starring Stephen McNally and Coleen Gray Appointment with Danger, starring Alan Ladd, with future Dragnet co-stars Jack Webb and Harry Morgan Appointment with Venus, starring Glynis Johns and David Niven – As Young as You Feel, starring Monty Woolley Atoll K, starring Laurel and Hardy in their final film Awaara, directed by and starring Raj Kapoor – The Axe of Wandsbek – B Baazi, starring Dev Anand – Bedtime for Bonzo, starring Ronald Reagan Bellissima, directed by Luchino Visconti, starring Anna Magnani – Blackmailed, starring Mai Zetterling and Dirk Bogarde – The Blue Veil, starring Jane Wyman Bright Victory, starring Arthur Kennedy The Browning Version, directed by Anthony Asquith, starring Michael Redgrave and Jean Kent – Bullfighter and the Lady, starring Robert Stack and Joy PageC Callaway Went Thataway, starring Fred MacMurray, Dorothy McGuire, Howard Keel Call Me Mister, starring Betty Grable Captain Horatio Hornblower, starring Gregory Peck – Cattle Drive, starring Joel McCrea, Dean Stockwell and Chill Wills Cause for Alarm!, starring Loretta Young and Barry Sullivan China Corsair, starring Jon Hall Circle of Danger, starring Ray Milland – The Clouded Yellow, starring Trevor Howard and Jean Simmons – Come Fill the Cup, starring James Cagney and Gig Young Comin' Round The Mountain, starring Abbott and Costello Cops and Robbers, directed by Mario Monicelli – Cry Danger, starring *** Powell and Rhonda Fleming Cry, the Beloved Country, directed by Zoltan Korda, starring Sidney Poitier – D Darling, How Could You!, starring Joan Fontaine Daughter of Deceit, directed by Luis Buñuel – David and Bathsheba, starring Gregory Peck and Susan Hayward The Day the Earth Stood Still, directed by Robert Wise, starring Michael Rennie and Patricia Neal Death of a Salesman, starring Fredric March Decision Before Dawn, starring Richard Basehart, Gary Merrill and Oskar Werner Deedar, starring Ashok Kumar, Dilip Kumar, Nargis – The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel, starring James Mason Detective Story, starring Kirk Douglas, Eleanor Parker, William Bendix, Lee Grant, Horace McMahon, George Macready Diary of a Country Priest, directed by Robert Bresson – Distant Drums, directed by Raoul Walsh, starring Gary Cooper Double Dynamite, starring Jane Russell, Frank Sinatra and Groucho Marx Dream of a Cossack, starring Sergei Bondarchuk – Daar Doer in Die Bosveld, starring Jamie Uys – E-F Early Summer, directed by Yasujirō Ozu – Encore, starring Nigel Patrick and Kay Walsh – The Enforcer, starring Humphrey Bogart and Zero Mostel FBI Girl, starring Audrey Totter and Cesar Romero The Family Secret, starring John Derek and Lee J. Cobb Father's Little Dividend, starring Spencer Tracy and Elizabeth Taylor The Fighting Seventh, starring Lloyd Bridges Flying Leathernecks, starring John Wayne and Robert Ryan Follo
Alexander Knox was a Canadian actor on stage and television. He was nominated for an Oscar and won a Golden Globe for his performance as Woodrow Wilson in the film Wilson. Although his liberal views forced him to leave Hollywood because of McCarthyism, Knox had a long career, he was an author, writing adventure novels set in the Great Lakes area during the 19th century, as well as plays and detective novels. Knox was born in Strathroy and graduated from the University of Western Ontario, he moved to Boston, Massachusetts, to perform on stage with the Boston Repertory Theatre. After the company folded following the stock market crash of 1929, Knox returned to London, Ontario where, for the next two years, he worked as a reporter for The London Advertiser before moving to London, England where, during the 1930s, he appeared in several films, he starred opposite Jessica Tandy in the 1940 Broadway production of Jupiter Laughs and, in 1944, he was chosen by Darryl F. Zanuck to star in Wilson, the biographical film about American President Woodrow Wilson, for which he won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor.
However, during the McCarthy Era, his liberal views and work with the Committee for the First Amendment hurt his career, though he was not blacklisted, he returned to Britain. Knox had major roles in The Sea Wolf, None Shall Escape, Over 21, Sister Kenny, Europa'51, The Vikings, as well as supporting roles late in his career, such as in The Damned and Alexandra, Joshua Then and Now and the miniseries Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, he wrote six adventure novels: Bride of Quietness, Night of the White Bear, The Enemy I Kill, Raider's Moon, The Kidnapped Surgeon and Totem Dream. He wrote plays and at least three detective novels under a pseudonym prior to 1945. Knox was married to American actress Doris Nolan from 1944 until his death in 1995, they starred together in the 1949 Broadway play The Closing Door, which Knox wrote. They had a son Andrew Joseph Knox who became an actor and appeared in Doctor on the Go, and, married to Imogen Hassall. Alexander Knox died in Northumberland from bone cancer. Notes Alexander Knox on IMDb Alexander Knox at the Internet Broadway Database New York Times obituary
Eldred Gregory Peck was an American actor. He was one of the most popular film stars from the 1940s to the 1960s. Peck received five Academy Award for Best Actor nominations and won once for his performance as Atticus Finch in the 1962 drama film To Kill a Mockingbird. Peck received Oscar nominations for his roles in The Keys of the Kingdom, The Yearling, Gentleman's Agreement and Twelve O'Clock High. Other notable films in which he appeared include Spellbound, The Gunfighter, Roman Holiday, Moby Dick, The Big Country, The Bravados, Pork Chop Hill, The Guns of Navarone, Cape Fear, How the West Was Won, The Omen and The Boys from Brazil. U. S. President Lyndon Johnson honored Peck with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969 for his lifetime humanitarian efforts. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Peck among Greatest Male Stars of Classic Hollywood cinema, ranking him at No. 12. Eldred Gregory Peck was born on April 5, 1916, in San Diego, the son of Bernice Mae "Bunny", Gregory Pearl Peck, a Rochester New York-born chemist and pharmacist.
His father was of English and Irish heritage and his mother was of English and Scots ancestry. She converted to her husband's religion, Roman Catholicism, when she married Gregory Pearl, Peck was raised as a Catholic. Through his Irish-born paternal grandmother Catherine Ashe, Peck was related to Thomas Ashe, who participated in the Easter Rising less than three weeks after Peck's birth and died while being force fed during his hunger strike in 1917. Peck's parents divorced when he was five and he was brought up by his maternal grandmother, who took him to the movies every week. At the age of 10 he was sent to a Catholic military school, St. John's Military Academy in Los Angeles. While he was a student there, his grandmother died. At 14, he moved back to San Diego to live with his father, attended San Diego High School, after graduating enrolled for one year at San Diego State Teacher's College. While there, he joined the track team, took his first theatre and public-speaking courses, pledged the Epsilon Eta fraternity.
Peck, had ambitions to be a doctor and the following year gained admission to the University of California, Berkeley, as an English major and pre-medical student. Standing 6 ft 3 in, he rowed on the university crew. Although his tuition fee was only $26 per year, Peck still struggled to pay, took a job as a "hasher" for the Gamma Phi Beta sorority in exchange for meals. At Berkeley, encouraged by the acting coach who saw in him perfect material for university theatre, Peck became more and more interested in acting, he was recruited by Edwin Duerr, director of the university's Little Theater, appeared in five plays during his senior year. Peck would say about Berkeley that "it was a special experience for me and three of the greatest years of my life, it woke me up and made me a human being." In 1997, Peck donated $25,000 to the Berkeley rowing crew in honor of his coach, the renowned Ky Ebright. Peck was ready to graduate from Cal Berkeley, but was not able to graduate along with his friends because he lacked one course.
His college friends wondered how he'd get along without his degree. "I have all I need from the University," he told them, reassuringly. Peck dropped the name "Eldred" and headed to New York City to study at the Neighborhood Playhouse with the legendary acting teacher Sanford Meisner, he was broke and sometimes slept in Central Park. He worked as a tour guide for NBC's television broadcasting. In 1940, Peck learned more of the acting craft, working in exchange for food, at the Barter Theatre in Abingdon, appearing in five plays including Family Portrait and On Earth As It Is, his stage career began in 1941 when he played the secretary in a Katharine Cornell production of George Bernard Shaw's play The Doctor's Dilemma. The play opened in San Francisco just one week before the attack on Pearl Harbor, he made his Broadway debut as the lead in Emlyn Williams' The Morning Star in 1942. His second Broadway performance that year was in I with Edward Pawley. Peck's acting abilities were in high demand during World War II because he was exempt from military service owing to a back injury suffered while receiving dance and movement lessons from Martha Graham as part of his acting training.
Twentieth Century Fox claimed he had injured his back while rowing at university, but in Peck's words, "In Hollywood, they didn't think a dance class was macho enough, I guess. I've been trying to straighten out that story for years."In 1947, Peck co-founded The La Jolla Playhouse, at his birthplace, with Mel Ferrer and Dorothy McGuire. This summer stock company presented productions in the La Jolla High School Auditorium from 1947 until 1964. In 1983 the La Jolla Playhouse reopened in a new home at the University of California, San Diego where it still thrives today, it has attracted Hollywood film stars on hiatus both as performers and enthusiastic supporters since its inception. Peck's first film, Days of Glory, was released in 1944, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor five times, four of which came in his first five years of film acting: for The Keys of the Kingdom, The Yearling, Gentleman's Agreement, Twelve O'Clock High. The Keys of the Kingdom emphasized his stately presence.
As the farmer Ezra "Penny" Baxter in The Yearling, his good-humored warmth and affection toward the characters p
The Lost Weekend (film)
The Lost Weekend is a 1945 American film noir directed by Billy Wilder and starring Ray Milland and Jane Wyman. The film was based on Charles R. Jackson's 1944 novel of the same name about an alcoholic writer; the film was nominated for seven Academy Awards and won four: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Adapted Screenplay. It shared the Grand Prix at the first Cannes Film Festival, making it one of only two films to win both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the highest award at Cannes. In 2011, The Lost Weekend was added to the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 100% based on 33 reviews, with an average rating of 8.3/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Director Billy Wilder's unflinchingly honest look at the effects of alcoholism may have had some of its impact blunted by time, but it remains a powerful and remarkably prescient film."
On a Thursday, an alcoholic New York writer, Don Birnam, is packing for a weekend vacation with his brother Wick, trying to discourage his drinking. When Don's girlfriend Helen comes to see them off, she mentions that she has two tickets for a concert. Don suggests that he and Wick take a train and that Wick go to the concert with Helen, they are suspicious of leaving Don alone, since they have found a bottle hidden outside his window, but leave anyway. Since his hidden bottle had been poured down the drain by Wick, Don heads for Nat's Bar, using money Wick hid in the flat to pay the cleaning lady. Don intends to be back home in time to meet Wick and catch the train, but he loses track of time due to his drinking; when he arrives home he sees Wick leaving and Helen saying she will stay and wait for Don, as she is worried about Don being left alone. Don sneaks back into the flat to drink some cheap whisky he has bought. On Friday, back at the bar, the owner, criticizes Don for treating Helen so badly, Don recalls how he first met her.
It was due to a mix-up of cloakroom tickets at the opera-house, where he had to wait for the person, given his coat-check in error, as his coat contained a bottle of alcohol. This was Helen, he remains sober during this time, but when he is due to meet her parents for lunch at a hotel, he overhears them talking about how he doesn't have a job and wondering if he is good enough for their daughter. He loses his nerve and phones a message to her and sneaks off; when she arrives at his flat, Wick tries to cover for him, but Don appears, confessing to her that he is two people: "Don the writer", whose fear of failure causes him to drink, "Don the drunk" who always has to be bailed out by his brother. Still, Helen devotes herself to helping him in his plight. Back in the present day, Don has moved on to another bar, where he is caught stealing money from a woman's purse to pay his bill, he is promptly thrown out of the establishment by its staff. Back in his flat, he finds a bottle he had stashed in a light fixture the previous night and drinks himself into a stupor.
On Saturday, Don is broke. But all the pawnshops are closed for the Jewish festival Yom Kippur. At Nat's Bar, he is refused service. Desperate for money, he visits a girl who has had a long-held crush on him, but who he stood up during this latest binge, she gives him some money, but while leaving her flat he falls down the stairs and is knocked unconscious. On Sunday, Don wakes up in an alcoholics' ward where "Bim" Nolan, a cynical male nurse, mocks him and other guests at "Hangover Plaza", but he offers to help cure his delirium tremens. Don refuses help and manages to escape from the ward while the staff are occupied with a raving, violent patient. On Monday, still broke, Don spends the day drinking. Suffering from an episode of delirium tremens, he hallucinates a nightmarish scene in which a bat flies in his window and kills a mouse, spilling its blood. Helen returns, alerted by a call from Don's landlady. Finding him collapsed and in a delirious state, she vows to look after him and stays overnight on his couch.
On Tuesday morning, Don slips out and pawns Helen's coat—the thing that had first brought them together. She trails him to the pawn shop, thinking that he sold her coat so he could buy more alcohol, but learns from the pawnbroker that he traded the coat for a gun he had pawned earlier, she races to Don's apartment and interrupts him just before he is about to shoot himself in the bathroom. He tells her their relationship is over as she catches a glimpse of the gun lying in the bathroom sink. Helen rushes to the sink, grabs the weapon, but he pries it out of her hand, she reminds Don of her love for him, her concern that he should stop drinking. Nat arrives to return Don's portable typewriter, which the bartender says he found "floating around in the Nile" and warns him not to "hock her". After Nat leaves, Helen is able to convince him that "Don the writer" and "Don the drunk" are the same person, he commits to writing his novel The Bottle, dedicated to her, which will recount the events of the weekend.
He drops a cigarette into a glass of whiskey to make it undrinkable, as evidence of his resolve. Wilder was drawn to this material after having worked with Raymond Chandler on the screenplay for Double Indemnity. Chandler was a recovering alcoholic at the time, the stress and t