A dome is a feature in structural geology consisting of symmetrical anticlines that intersect each other at their respective apices. Intact, domes are distinct, spherical-to-ellipsoidal-shaped protrusions on the Earth's surface. However, a transect parallel to Earth's surface of a dome features concentric rings of strata. If the top of a dome has been eroded flat, the resulting structure in plan view appears as a bullseye, with the youngest rock layers at the outside, each ring growing progressively older moving inwards; these strata would have been horizontal at the time of deposition later deformed by the uplift associated with dome formation. There are many possible mechanisms responsible for the formation of domes, the foremost of which are post-impact uplift and diapirism. A complex crater, caused by collision of a hypervelocity body with another larger than itself, is typified by the presence of a dome at the centre of the site of impact; these domes are large-scale and thought to be the result of post-impact weakening of the overlying strata and basement.
Weakening is integral for the vertical uplift required to create a dome to take place, as it allows vertical displacement to happen unconstrained by the original rigidity properties of the undeformed rock. This displacement is the result of the parcel of rock at the centre of the site of impact, composed of the strata and basement, re-equilibrating relative to gravity. Earlier theories attributed the dome-forming uplift to rebound. Elastic deformation is not being that an impact is accompanied by extensive fracturing and partial melting of the rock that would change the mechanical properties of the rock. Structural domes can be formed by horizontal stresses in a process known as refolding, which involves the superposition, or overprinting, of two- or more fold fabrics. Upright folds formed by a horizontal primary stress in one direction can be altered by another horizontal stress oriented at 90 degrees to the original stress; this results in overprinting of the twofold fabrics, similar to wave interference patterns, that results in a system of basins and domes.
Where the synclines of both fabrics are superimposed, a basin is formed. Diapirism involves the vertical displacement of a parcel of material through overlying strata in order to reach equilibrium within a system that has an established density gradient. To reach equilibrium, parcels from a stratum composed of less-dense material will rise towards Earth's surface, creating formations that are most expressed in cross-section as “tear drop”-shaped, where the rounded end is that closest to the surface of the overlying strata. If overlying strata are weak enough to deform as the parcel rises, a dome can form. Potential materials comprised by these less-dense strata include salt and melted migmatite. Upheaval Dome, Utah, USA Vredefort Dome, South Africa Observed in the Karatau fault system, Kazakhstan North Pole Dome, western Australia Mabja Dome, southern Tibet Leo Pargil Dome, Himachal Pradesh/Tibetan border Richat Structure, central Mauritania
Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park is an American national park in south-central Utah. The park is 60 miles long on its north–south axis and just 6 miles wide on average; the park was established in 1971 to preserve 241,904 acres of desert landscape and is open all year, with May through September being the highest visitation months. In Wayne County, the area was named "Wayne Wonderland" in the 1920s by local boosters Ephraim P. Pectol and Joseph S. Hickman. Capitol Reef National Park was designated a national monument on August 2, 1937, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to protect the area's colorful canyons, ridges and monoliths. Road access was improved in 1962 with the construction of State Route 24 through the Fremont River Canyon; the majority of the nearly 100 mi long up-thrust formation called the Waterpocket Fold—a rocky spine extending from Thousand Lake Mountain to Lake Powell—is preserved within the park. Capitol Reef is an rugged and spectacular segment of the Waterpocket Fold by the Fremont River.
The park was named for its whitish Navajo Sandstone cliffs with dome formations—similar to the white domes placed on capitol buildings—that run from the Fremont River to Pleasant Creek on the Waterpocket Fold. Locally, reef refers to any rocky barrier to land travel, just as ocean reefs are barriers to sea travel. Capitol Reef encompasses the Waterpocket Fold, a warp in the earth's crust, 65 million years old, it is the largest exposed monocline in North America. In this fold and older layers of earth folded over each other in an S-shape; this warp caused by the same colliding continental plates that created the Rocky Mountains, has weathered and eroded over millennia to expose layers of rock and fossils. The park is filled with brilliantly colored sandstone cliffs, gleaming white domes, contrasting layers of stone and earth; the area was named for a line of white domes and cliffs of Navajo Sandstone, each of which looks somewhat like the United States Capitol building, that run from the Fremont River to Pleasant Creek on the Waterpocket Fold.
The fold forms a north-to-south barrier, breached by roads. Early settlers referred to parallel impassable ridges as "reefs", from which the park gets the second half of its name; the first paved road was constructed through the area in 1962. State Route 24 cuts through the park traveling east and west between Canyonlands National Park and Bryce Canyon National Park, but few other paved roads invade the rugged landscape; the park is filled with canyons, towers and arches. The Fremont River has cut canyons through parts of the Waterpocket Fold, but most of the park is arid desert. A scenic drive shows park visitors some highlights, but it runs only a few miles from the main highway. Hundreds of miles of trails and unpaved roads lead into the scenic backcountry. Fremont-culture Native Americans lived near the perennial Fremont River in the northern part of the Capitol Reef Waterpocket Fold around the year 1000, they stored their grain in stone granaries. In the 13th century, all of the Native American cultures in this area underwent sudden change due to a long drought.
The Fremont settlements and fields were abandoned. Many years after the Fremont left, Paiutes moved into the area; these Numic-speaking people named the Fremont granaries moki huts and thought they were the homes of a race of tiny people or moki. In 1872 Alan H. Thompson, a surveyor attached to United States Army Major John Wesley Powell's expedition, crossed the Waterpocket Fold while exploring the area. Geologist Clarence Dutton spent several summers studying the area's geology. None of these expeditions explored the Waterpocket Fold to any great extent, however, it was, as now rugged and forbidding. Following the American Civil War, officials of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City sought to establish missions in the remotest niches of the Intermountain West. In 1866, a quasi-military expedition of Mormons in pursuit of natives penetrated the high valleys to the west. In the 1870s, settlers moved into these valleys establishing Loa, Lyman and Torrey. Mormons settled the Fremont River valley in the 1880s and established Junction and Aldridge.
Fruita prospered, Caineville survived, Aldridge died. In addition to farming, lime was extracted from local limestone, uranium was extracted early in the 20th century. In 1904 the first claim to a uranium mine in the area was staked; the resulting Oyler Mine in Grand Wash produced uranium ore. By 1920 no more than ten families at one time were sustained by the fertile flood plain of the Fremont River and the land changed ownership over the years; the area remained isolated. The community was abandoned and still some buildings were restored by the National Park Service. Kilns once used to produce lime are still near the campgrounds on Scenic Drive. Local Ephraim Portman Pectol organized a "booster club" in Torrey in 1921. Pectol pressed a promotional campaign, furnishing stories to be sent to newspapers. In his efforts, he was aided by his brother-in-law, Joseph S. Hickman, the Wayne County High School principal. In 1924, Hickman extended community involvement in the promotional effort by organizing a Wayne County-wide Wayne Wonderland Club.
That same year, Hickman was elected to the Utah State Legislature. In 1933, Pectol was elected to the presidency
Navajo Sandstone is a geological formation in the Glen Canyon Group, spread across the U. S. states of southern Nevada, northern Arizona, northwest Colorado, Utah as part of the Colorado Plateau province of the United States. The Navajo Sandstone is prominent in southern Utah, where it forms the main attractions of a number of national parks and monuments including Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, Zion National Park, Capitol Reef National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Canyonlands National Park. Navajo Sandstone overlies and interfingers with the Kayenta Formation of the Glen Canyon Group. Together, these formations can result in immense vertical cliffs of up to 2,200 feet. Atop the cliffs, Navajo Sandstone appears as massive rounded domes and bluffs that are white in color. Navajo Sandstone occurs as spectacular cliffs, cuestas and bluffs rising from the desert floor, it can be distinguished from adjacent Jurassic sandstones by its white to light pink color, meter-scale cross-bedding, distinctive rounded weathering.
The wide range of colors exhibited by the Navajo Sandstone reflect a long history of alteration by groundwater and other subsurface fluids over the last 190 million years. The different colors, except for white, are caused by the presence of varying mixtures and amounts of hematite and limonite filling the pore space within the quartz sand comprising the Navajo Sandstone; the iron in these strata arrived via the erosion of iron-bearing silicate minerals. This iron accumulated as iron-oxide coatings, which formed after the sand had been deposited. After having been buried, reducing fluids composed of water and hydrocarbons flowed through the thick red sand which once comprised the Navajo Sandstone; the dissolution of the iron coatings by the reducing fluids bleached large volumes of the Navajo Sandstone a brilliant white. Reducing fluids transported the iron in solution. Where the oxidizing and reducing fluids mixed, the iron precipitated within the Navajo Sandstone. Depending on local variations within the permeability, porosity and other inherent rock properties of the sandstone, varying mixtures of hematite and limonite precipitated within spaces between quartz grains.
Variations in the type and proportions of precipitated iron oxides resulted in the different black, crimson, orange, peach, pink and yellow colors of the Navajo Sandstone. The precipitation of iron oxides formed laminea, corrugated layers and pipes of ironstone within the Navajo Sandstone. Being harder and more resistant to erosion than the surrounding sandstone, the ironstone weathered out as ledges, fins, "flags", other minor features, which stick out and above the local landscape in unusual shapes; the age of the Navajo Sandstone is somewhat controversial. It may originate from the Late Triassic but is at least as young as the Early Jurassic stages Pliensbachian and Toarcian. There is no type locality of the name, it was named for the'Navajo Country' of the southwestern United States. The two major subunits of the Navajo are the Shurtz Sandstone Tongue; the Navajo Sandstone was named as the uppermost formation of the La Plata Group by Gregory and Stone in 1917. Baker reassigned it as the upper formation of Glen Canyon Group in 1936.
Its age was modified by Lewis and others in 1961. The name was not used in northwest Colorado and northeast Utah, where the name'Glen Canyon Sandstone' was preferred, its age was modified again by Padian in 1989. The sandstone was deposited in an arid erg on the Western portion of the Supercontinent Pangaea; this region was affected by annual monsoons that came about each winter when cooler winds and wind reversal occurred. Navajo Sandstone outcrops are found in these geologic locations: Colorado Plateau Black Mesa Basin Great Basin province Paradox Basin Piceance Basin Plateau sedimentary province San Juan Basin Uinta Basin Uinta Uplift Uncompaghre UpliftThe formation is found in these parklands: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Zion National Park Canyonlands National Park Capitol Reef National Park Arches National Park Dinosaur National Monument Navajo National Monument Colorado National Monument Pink coral sand dunes, Utah Indeterminate theropod remains geographically located in Arizona, USA.
Theropod tracks are geographically located in Arizona and Utah, USA. Ornithischian tracks located in Arizona, USA; the Navajo Sandstone is well known among rockhounds for its hundreds of thousands of iron oxide concretions. Informally, they are called "Moqui marbles" and are believed to represent an extension of Hopi Native American traditions regarding ancestor worship. Thousands of these concretions weather out of outcrops of the Navajo Sandstone within south-central and southeastern Utah within an area extending from Zion National Park eastward to Arches and Canyonland national parks, they are quite abundant within Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. The iron oxide concretions shapes, their shape ranges from spheres to discs. Although many of these concretions are fused together like soap bubbles, many more occur as isolated concretions, which range in diameter from the size of peas to baseballs; the surface of these spherical concretions can range fr
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
Baltoro Kangri is a mountain of the Karakoram mountain range in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Baltoro Kangri is the 82nd highest mountain in the world with an elevation of 7,312 metres, it lies to the south of the east of Chogolisa Peak. The huge Baltoro Glacier rises from the foot of Baltoro Kangri. In the north of Baltoro Kangri is the Abruzzi Glacier. In 1963, a Japanese expedition made the first ascent of Baltoro Kangri; the expedition consisted of nine members from the Tokyo University Alpine Ski Club, led by Seihei Kato. List of mountains in Pakistan Baltoro Muztagh