The Thai highlands or Hills of northern Thailand is a mountainous natural region in the north of Thailand. Its mountain ranges are part of the system of hills extending through Laos and China and linking to the Himalayas, of which they may be considered foothills; the highlands in the north of Thailand are characterized by a pattern of steep hill ranges, intermontane basins and alluvial gorges. Elevations are moderate, little above 2,000 metres for the highest summits. There is a wide range of elevations though, with floors ranging between 200 and 500 metres above sea level. Towards the Lao border, the divide to the Mekong basin becomes higher with peaks rising above 1,500 metres and streams flowing in narrow steep valleys; the climate is typical of tropical mountains with delineated wet and dry seasons. Winter temperatures can be cool with frosts occurring most years at higher elevations, but no snow on the highest peaks; the region of the Thai Highlands encompasses the nine administrative provinces of northern Thailand, based on the six-region system, as well as parts of Tak and Sukhothai Provinces.
Some areas of the highlands are sparsely populated. Except for the Daen Lao Range at the far northern edge, all ranges in the north of Thailand are aligned from north to south, they are linked to a wide system of ranges in neighboring Burma and Laos that do not have a specific name for the whole, "Thai highlands" being the term restricted to the Thai area. Broadly defined, based on their geological composition, there are two mountainous subsystems in Northern Thailand: In the western part the ranges stretching southwards from the Daen Lao Range, in the southern region of the Shan Hills or Shan Highland, with the two parallel mountain chains of the Thanon Thong Chai Range; this area has the highest elevations, with Doi Inthanon, the highest point in Thailand, reaching 2,565 metres. The Dawna Range forms the western border of Thailand between Mae Hong Son and the Salween River, The remaining mountainous region of parallel ranges that extend into northern Laos includes the Khun Tan Range, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Phlueng Range as well as the western part of the Luang Prabang Range.
A great part of the highland area is drained by rivers Ping, Wang and Nan, all tributaries of the Chao Phraya River flowing in a southern direction. The ranges separating the main rivers are steep and continuous. Towards the east, as well as in the Yom drainage basins, they are lower; the Pai River in the northwest flows westwards into the Salween and the northeastern part is drained by rivers of the Mekong basin, like the Kok and Ing. Geologically in the southern subranges of the Shan Hills layers of alluvium are superimposed on hard rock; the ranges closer to Laos consist of Permo-Carboniferous limestone, which makes for a more jagged and steep relief, despite the more moderate height. Most of the Thai highlands are part of a tectonic plate; the natural environment of the hills used to be dense montane rain forest. Swidden agricultural practices and logging have much reduced the old-growth forest areas which have been replaced by secondary forest. For centuries the Thai highlands have been inhabited with hill tribes from Chinese or Tibeto-Burman descent, such as the Akha, Lahu, Khmu and Lisu.
These human groups immigrated into this empty region fleeing persecution or harsh central rule in their respective environments, as well as seeking new land for their shifting agricultural productions system. For the past decades these groups have been undergoing a process of integration into the Thai mainstream. Owing to the unrest in Burma, some refugee camps have been established for cross-border refugees in the Thai highlands. Certain Kayah and Karen communities, like the "long-necked Karen", are visited by organized tourist groups. At higher elevations, above 1,000 metres, one of the main crops was opium until the 1990s, when the combined effects of development became evident—from the construction of roads into the remote area efficient policing, opium replacement programs. Yearly wildfires are started by local farmers during the dry season in different areas of northern Thailand. Speculators hire people to set forests on fire in order to claim land title deeds for the areas that, post-fire, become "degraded forest".
The smoke produced by these fires is the main cause of the intense seasonal air pollution in the Thai highlands known as the "northern haze". Fires contribute to the floods in the country by denuding forest undergrowth and the dry forest soil leads to lower water intake for the trees to extract when the rains arrive. Presently large tracts of the mountains are covered with a mixed vegetation resulting from the capacity of the efficient shifting agricultural system being exceeded; as a result, large areas end up becoming dominated by Imperata cylindrica grass, used throughout Thailand as roofing material. Cattle can graze on the grass to an extent; the longer term environmental care of the region is associated with forestry and in the lower reaches, perennial fruit like peaches and other trees. Some projects for the restoration of forest cover have been undertaken in ecologically degraded areas. Doi Inthanon, the highest mountain in Thailand Doi Nang Non, a karstic formation in Chiang Rai province Golden Triangle Deforestation in Thailand Tribal Museum in Chiang Mai Western Forest Complex Southeast Asian Massif Zomia Chiang Mai tra
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. Poppies are herbaceous plants grown for their colourful flowers. One species of poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the source of the narcotic drug opium which contains powerful medicinal alkaloids such as morphine and has been used since ancient times as an analgesic and narcotic medicinal and recreational drug, it produces edible seeds. Following the trench warfare in the poppy fields of Flanders during World War I, poppies have become a symbol of remembrance of soldiers who have died during wartime. Poppies are herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plants; some species are monocarpic. Poppies can be over a metre tall with flowers up to 15 centimetres across. Flowers of species have 4 to 6 petals, many stamens forming a conspicuous whorl in the center of the flower and an ovary of from 2 to many fused carpels; the petals are showy, may be of any color and some have markings. The petals are crumpled in the bud and as blooming finishes, the petals lie flat before falling away.
In the temperate zones, poppies bloom from spring into early summer. Most species secrete latex. Bees use poppies as a pollen source; the pollen of the oriental poppy, Papaver orientale, is dark blue, that of the field or corn poppy is grey to dark green. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, grows wild in eastern and southern Asia, South Eastern Europe, it is believed. Poppies belong to the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae, which includes the following genera: Papaver – Papaver rhoeas, Papaver somniferum, Papaver orientale, Papaver nudicaule Eschscholzia – Eschscholzia californica Meconopsis – Meconopsis cambrica, Meconopsis napaulensis Stylophorum – celandine poppy Argemone – prickly poppy Romneya – matilija poppy and relatives Canbya – pygmy poppy Stylomecon – wind poppy Arctomecon – desert bearpaw poppy Hunnemannia – tulip poppy Dendromecon – tree poppy The flowers of most poppy species are attractive and are cultivated as annual or perennial ornamental plants; this has resulted in a number of commercially important cultivars, such as the Shirley poppy, a cultivar of Papaver rhoeas and semi-double or double forms of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum and oriental poppy.
Poppies of several other genera are cultivated in gardens. A few species have other uses, principally as sources of foods; the opium poppy is cultivated and its worldwide production is monitored by international agencies. It is used for production of dried latex and opium, the principal precursor of narcotic and analgesic opiates such as morphine and codeine. Poppy seeds are rich in oil, carbohydrates and protein. Poppy oil is used as cooking oil, salad dressing oil, or in products such as margarine. Poppy oil can be added to spices for cakes, or breads. Poppy products are used in different paints and some cosmetics. Ancient Egyptian doctors would have their patients eat seeds from a poppy to relieve pain. Poppy seeds contain small quantities of both morphine and codeine, which are pain-relieving drugs that are still used today. Poppy seeds and fixed oils can be nonnarcotic because when they are harvested about twenty days after the flower has opened, the morphine is no longer present. In Mexico, Grupo Modelo, the makers of Corona beer, used red poppy flowers in most of its advertising images until the 1960s.
Artificial poppies are used in the veterans' aid campaign by the Veterans of Foreign Wars, which provides money to the veterans who assemble the poppies and various aid programs to veterans and their families. A poppy flower is depicted on the reverse of the Macedonian 500-denar banknote, issued in 1996 and 2003; the poppy is part of the coat of arms of North Macedonia. Canada issued special quarters with a red poppy on the reverse in 2004, 2008 and 2010; the 2004 Canadian "poppy" quarter was the world's first coloured circulation coin. The girl's given name "Poppy". Poppies have long been used as a symbol of sleep and death: Sleep because the opium extracted from them is a sedative, death because of the common blood-red color of the red poppy in particular. In Greek and Roman myths, poppies were used as offerings to the dead. Poppies used; this symbolism was evoked in the children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, in which a magical poppy field threatened to make the protagonists sleep forever.
A second interpretation of poppies in Classical mythology is that the bright scarlet color signifies a promise of resurrection after death. The poppy of wartime remembrance is the red-flowered corn poppy; this poppy is a common weed in Europe and is found in many locations, including Flanders, the setting of the famous poem "In Flanders Fields" by the Canadian surgeon and soldier John McCrae. In Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Africa and New Zealand, artificial poppies are worn to commemorate those who died in war; this form of commemoration is associated with Remembrance Day, which falls on November 11. In Canada and the UK, poppies are worn from the beginning of November through to the 11th, or Remembrance Sunday if that falls on a date. In New Zealand and Australia, soldiers are commemorated on ANZAC day, although the poppy is still worn around Remembrance Day. Wearing of poppies has been a custom since 1924 in the United States. Miss Moina Michael of G
Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant, used as a recreational drug and less as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine in their pure amine forms, it is prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. Dextromethamphetamine is a much stronger CNS stimulant than levomethamphetamine. Both methamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine are illicitly trafficked and sold owing to their potential for recreational use; the highest prevalence of illegal methamphetamine use occurs in parts of Asia, in the United States, where racemic methamphetamine, levomethamphetamine, dextromethamphetamine are classified as schedule II controlled substances.
Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States. Internationally, the production, distribution and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. In low to moderate doses, methamphetamine can elevate mood, increase alertness and energy in fatigued individuals, reduce appetite, promote weight loss. At high doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle and bleeding in the brain. Chronic high-dose use can precipitate unpredictable and rapid mood swings, stimulant psychosis and violent behavior. Recreationally, methamphetamine's ability to increase energy has been reported to lift mood and increase sexual desire to such an extent that users are able to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days.
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability and high dependence liability. Heavy recreational use of methamphetamine may lead to a post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, which can persist for months beyond the typical withdrawal period. Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons, it has been shown to damage serotonin neurons in the CNS. This damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in grey matter volume in several brain regions and adverse changes in markers of metabolic integrity. Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes, it is related to the other dimethylphenethylamines as a positional isomer of these compounds, which share the common chemical formula: C10H15N1. In the United States, dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride, under the trade name Desoxyn, has been approved by the FDA for treating ADHD and obesity in both adults and children.
Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed off label for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. In the United States, methamphetamine's levorotary form is available in some over-the-counter nasal decongestant products; as methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. Methamphetamine hydrochloride dispensed in the United States is required to include a boxed warning regarding its potential for recreational misuse and addiction liability. Methamphetamine is used recreationally for its effects as a potent euphoriant and stimulant as well as aphrodisiac qualities. According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use. Participants in this subculture, which consists entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will meet up through internet dating sites and have sex.
Due to its strong stimulant and aphrodisiac effects and inhibitory effect on ejaculation, with repeated use, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days on end. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is often severe, with marked hypersomnia; the party and play subculture is prevalent in major US cities such as San Francisco and New York City. Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals experiencing arteriosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension; the FDA states that individuals who have experienced hypersensitivity reactions to other stimulants in the past or are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not take methamphetamine. The FDA advises individuals with bipolar disorder, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette s
Chin Haw or Chin Ho are Chinese people who migrated to Thailand via Myanmar or Laos. Most of them were from Yunnan, the southern province of China, they speak Southwestern Mandarin. The Chin Haw can be divided into three groups according to the time of their migration. In nineteenth century, the Qing army had sent troops to suppress the rebellion in Yunnan, known as the Panthay Rebellion, which caused up to 1,000,000 lives lost - both civilians and soldiers. During this time, many people fled to the Shan state in Burma to the north of Thailand; the Panthay Chinese merchants who traded between Yunnan and Lanna from their base in the Wa States. Some of them decided to settle down along this trade route. After the Chinese revolution in 1949 AD, the 93rd Corps, which supported the Kuomintang party, fled to Burma and to the north of Thailand; the majority follow Chinese folk religion or Buddhism. One-third are Muslim known as Hui people or Hui Muslim, they have engaged in the heroin trade. Ma Hseuh-fu, from Yunnan province, was one of the most prominent Chin Haw heroin drug lords, his other professions included trading in tea and a hotelier.
The Muslim Chin Haw are the same ethnic group as the Panthay in Burma who are descendants of Hui Muslims from Yunnan province, China. Baan Haw Mosque Attaqwa Mosque Kokang people Kuomintang in Burma and spillover into Thailand
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, the most read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news and analysis. It was founded on July 1865, as a successor to William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator, it is published by its namesake owner The Nation Company, L. P. at 33 Irving Place, New York City, associated with The Nation Institute. The Nation has news bureaus in Washington, D. C. London, South Africa, with departments covering architecture, corporations, environment, legal affairs, music and disarmament, the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, although digital subscriptions had risen to over 15,000; the Nation was established in July 1865 at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan. Its founding publisher was Joseph H. Richards, the editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin, an immigrant from Ireland who had worked as a correspondent of the London Daily News and The New York Times. Godkin sought to establish what one sympathetic commentator characterized as "an organ of opinion characterized in its utterance by breadth and deliberation, an organ which should identify itself with causes, which should give its support to parties as representative of these causes."In its "founding prospectus" the magazine wrote that the publication would have "seven main objects" with the first being "discussion of the topics of the day, above all, of legal and constitutional questions, with greater accuracy and moderation than are now to be found in the daily press."
The Nation pledged to "not be the organ of any party, sect or body" but rather to "make an earnest effort to bring to discussion of political and social questions a critical spirit, to wage war upon the vices of violence and misrepresentation by which so much of the political writing of the day is marred."In the first year of publication, one of the magazine's regular features was The South As It Is, dispatches from a tour of the war-torn region by John Richard Dennett, a recent Harvard graduate and a veteran of the Port Royal Experiment. Dennett interviewed Confederate veterans, freed slaves, agents of the Freedmen's Bureau, ordinary people he met by the side of the road; the articles, since collected as a book, have been praised by The New York Times as "examples of masterly journalism."Among the causes supported by the publication in its earliest days was civil service reform—moving the basis of government employment from a political patronage system to a professional bureaucracy based upon meritocracy.
The Nation was preoccupied with the reestablishment of a sound national currency in the years after the American Civil War, arguing that a stable currency was necessary to restore the economic stability of the nation. Related to this was the publication's advocacy of the elimination of protective tariffs in favor of lower prices of consumer goods associated with a free trade system. Wendell Phillips Garrison, son of William Lloyd Garrison, was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906; the magazine would stay at Newspaper Row for 90 years. In 1881, newspaperman-turned-railroad-baron Henry Villard acquired The Nation and converted it into a weekly literary supplement for his daily newspaper the New York Evening Post; the offices of the magazine were moved to the Evening Post's headquarters at 210 Broadway. The New York Evening Post would morph into a tabloid, the New York Post, a left-leaning afternoon tabloid, under owner Dorothy Schiff from 1939 to 1976. Since it has been a conservative tabloid owned by Rupert Murdoch, while The Nation became known for its "far left" ideology.
In 1900, Henry Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, inherited the magazine and the Evening Post, sold off the latter in 1918. Thereafter, he remade The Nation into a current affairs publication and gave it an anti-classical liberal orientation. Oswald Villard welcomed the New Deal and supported the nationalization of industries – thus reversing the meaning of "liberalism" as the founders of The Nation would have understood the term, from a belief in a smaller and more restricted government to a belief in a larger and less restricted government. Villard sold the magazine in 1935. Maurice Wertheim, the new owner, sold it in 1937 to Freda Kirchwey, who served as editor from 1933 to 1955; every editor of The Nation from Villard's time to the 1970s was looked at for "subversive" activities and ties. When Albert Jay Nock, not long afterward, published a column criticizing Samuel Gompers and trade unions for being complicit in the war machine of the First World War, The Nation was suspended from the U.
S. mail. During the 1930s, The Nation showed enthusiastic support for the New Deal; the magazine's financial problems in early 1940s prompted Kirchwey to sell her individual ownership of the magazine in 1943, creating a nonprofit organization, Nation Associates, formed out of the money generated from a recruiting drive of sponsors. This organization was responsible for academic responsibilities, including conducting research and organizing conferences, a part of the early history of the magazine. Nation Associates became responsible for the operation and publication of the magazine on a nonprofit basis, with Kirchwey as both president of Nation Associates and editor of The Nation magazine. Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, The Nation called on the United States to enter World War II to resist fascism, after the US entered the war, the publication supported the American war effort, it supported the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. During the late 1940s and again in the early 1950s, a merger was discussed
The Thai Chinese known as Chinese Thais or Sino-Thais, are an ethnic Chinese community in Thailand. Thai Chinese are the largest minority group in Thailand and the largest overseas Chinese community in the world with a population of 10 million people, accounting for 14% of the total population of the country as of 2012, it is the oldest and most prominent integrated overseas Chinese community. More than half of the ethnic Chinese population in Thailand trace their ancestry to eastern Guangdong; this is evidenced by the prevalence of the Southern Min Chaozhou dialect among the Chinese in Thailand. A minority trace their ancestry to Hainanese immigrants; the Thai Chinese have been ingrained into all elements of Thai society over the past 200 years. The present Thai royal family, the Chakri dynasty, was founded by King Rama I who himself was Chinese, his predecessor, King Taksin of the Thonburi Kingdom, was the son of a Thai mother and a Chinese immigrant from Guangdong Province. With the successful integration of historic Chinese immigrant communities throughout Thailand, a significant number of Thai Chinese are the descendants of intermarriages between Chinese immigrants and native Thais.
Many Thai Chinese have assimilated into Thai society and self-identify as Thai. Thai Chinese are a well established middle class ethnic group and are well represented in all levels of Thai society. Thai Chinese play a leading role in Thailand's business sector and dominate the Thai economy today. In addition, Thai Chinese have a strong presence in Thailand's political scene with most of Thailand's former Prime Ministers and the majority of parliament having at least some Chinese ancestry. Thailand has the largest overseas Chinese community in the world outside China. Fourteen percent of Thailand's population is considered ethnic Chinese; the Thai linguist Theraphan Luangthongkum estimates the share of those having at least Chinese ancestry at about 40 percent. For assimilated second and third generation descendants of Chinese immigrants, it is principally a personal choice whether or not to identify themselves as ethnic Chinese. Nonetheless, nearly all Thai Chinese sole self-identify as Thai, due to their close integration and successful assimilation into Thai society.
G William Skinners observed that the level of assimilation of the descendants of Chinese immigrants in Thailand disproved the "myth about the'unchanging Chinese'", noting that "assimilation is considered complete when the immigrant's descendant identifies himself in all social situations as a Thai, speaks Thai language habitually and with native fluency, interacts by choice with Thai more than with Chinese." Skinners believed that the assimilation success of the Thai Chinese was a result of the wise policy of the Thai rulers who, since the 17th century, allowed able Chinese tradesmen to advance their ranks into the kingdom's nobility. The rapid and successful assimilation of the Thai Chinese has been celebrated by the Chinese descendants themselves, as evident in contemporary literature such as the novel Letters from Thailand by Botan. Today, the Thai Chinese constitute a significant part of the royalist/nationalist movements; when the prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra was ousted from power in 2006, it was Mr. Sondhi Limthongkul, another prominent Thai Chinese businessman, who formed and led People’s Alliance for Democracy movement to overthrow the Thaksin government.
Mr. Sondhi accused Mr. Thaksin of corruption based on improper business ties between Thaksin's corporate empire and the Singapore-based Temasek Holdings Group; the Thai Chinese in and around Bangkok were the main participants of the months-long political campaign against the government of Ms. Yingluck, between November 2013 and May 2014, the event which culminated in the military takeover in May 2014. Han Chinese traders from Fujian and Guangdong, began arriving in Ayutthaya by at least the 13th century. According to the Chronicles of Ayutthaya, King Ekathotsarot had been "concerned with ways of enriching his treasury," and was "greatly inclined toward strangers and foreign nations," Spain, China and the Philippines. Ayutthaya was under constant Burmese threat from the 16th century onward, the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty was alarmed by Burmese military might. From 1766-1769, the Qianlong Emperor sent his armies four times to subdue the Burmese, but the Sino-Burmese Wars ended in complete failure and Ayutthaya fell in the Burmese–Siamese War.
However, the Chinese efforts did divert the attention of Burma's Siam army. General Taksin, himself the son of a Chinese immigrant, took advantage of this to organize his force and attack the Burmese invaders; when he became king, Taksin encouraged Chinese immigration and trade. Settlers from Chaozhou prefecture came to Siam in large numbers. Immigration continued over the following years, the Chinese population in Thailand jumped from 230,000 in 1825 to 792,000 by 1910. By 1932 12.2 percent of the population of Thailand was Chinese. The early Chinese immigration consisted entirely of men who did not bring women. Therefore, it became common for male Chinese immigrants to marry local Thai women; the children of such relationships were called luk-jin in Thai. These Chinese-Thai intermarriages declined somewhat in the early 20th century, when significant numbers of Chinese women began immigrating to Thailand; the corruption of the Qing dynasty and the massive population increase in China, along with high taxes, caused many men to leave China for Thailand in search of work.
If successful, they se
Union Oil Company of California, dba Unocal is a company, a major petroleum explorer and marketer in the late 19th century, through the 20th century, into the early 21st century. It was headquartered in El Segundo, United States. Unocal was involved in global energy projects. Unocal was one of the key players in the CentGas consortium, which attempted to build the Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline to run from the Caspian area, through Afghanistan, to the Indian Ocean, at a time after the recent Taliban siege of Kabul in 1996. On August 10, 2005, Unocal merged its entire upstream petroleum business with Chevron Corporation and became a wholly owned subsidiary. Unocal has now ceased operations as an independent company, but continues to conduct many operations as Union Oil Company of California, a Chevron company. Since 1990, Unocal continues to have strong presence in the downstream petroleum business with their technical collaborators M/s Raaj Unocal Lubricants Ltd for manufacture and marketing of their lubricating products in Asia.
Raaj Unocal Lubricants Ltd continues the legacy of Unocal 76 in the downstream petroleum business and has intellectual property rights of the brand since 1994. The Union Oil Company of California was founded on October 17, 1890, in Santa Paula, California, by Lyman Stewart, Thomas Bard, Wallace Hardison, it was a merger of three Southern Californian oil companies: the Sespe Oil Company and the Torrey Canyon Oil Company and the Hardison and Stewart Oil Company. All three were notable as being unaffiliated with Standard Oil. Union Oil moved its headquarters to Los Angeles, in 1901; the original headquarters in Santa Paula is a California Historical Landmark. About 1910, Union Oil made a strategic alliance with the Independent Producers Agency, a group of small oil producers, to build pipelines from the Kern County oil fields to Union Oil facilities on the Pacific coast; this gave the independent producers an alternative to what they perceived as the low prices paid by Standard Oil and the high freight rates charged by the railroads to move crude oil.
It gave Union access to a large volume of crude oil. The situation was fictionalized in the 2007 film There Will Be Blood. In 1919, the Union Oil Company of Delaware was incorporated as a holding company for the Union Oil Company of California. In 1920, Union Oil purchased the Central Petroleum Company from the Texas Company. In 1922, the Union Oil Associates, Inc. was incorporated in California as a holding company to prevent control of the Union Oil Company of California passing to foreign interests after the merger of the Union Oil Company of Delaware with Royal Dutch Company. In 1961 Union entered into the Indonesian oil market. Henry L. Brandon, Union's Vice President of International Development wrote a "contract of work" arrangement, a first for Indonesia. In a speech on Indonesian Independence Day in August, 1961 President Sukarno talked at some length about "production sharing", which included language written into the contract by Union executives; the company expanded to national status in 1965, when Union Oil merged with the Pure Oil Company, headquartered in what was Palatine and now Schaumburg, Illinois.
Over the next two decades, Union became the major oil producer in southern Alaska and a major natural gas producer in the Gulf of Mexico. The company was reorganized in 1983, Union Oil Company of California became an operating subsidiary of a new Delaware-based holding company, Unocal Corporation. In 1985, Mesa Petroleum, controlled by billionaire T. Boone Pickens, attempted a takeover of Unocal Corp. that resulted in the Delaware Supreme Court landmark decision Unocal v. Mesa Petroleum, which upheld Unocal's takeover defense. All operations are conducted by Union Oil Company of California. In 1977, Unocal acquired The Molybdenum Corporation of America. Among the assets acquired was Mountain Pass rare earth mine, a world's largest producer of rare earth elements. In 1989, Unocal placed its midwest refining and marketing assets, including Union's 150,000-barrel-per-day refinery in Lemont, into a 50/50 joint venture with Petróleos de Venezuela, S. A.. The joint venture, known as the Uno-Ven Company, was headquartered in Arlington Heights and comprising employees from Union Oil's Schaumburg, division headquarters and Lemont, refinery.
The joint venture was dissolved in 1997, with P. D. V. S. A. Receiving full ownership. During the life of the joint venture, the familiar Union 76 brand name continued in full force. At the termination of the joint venture, most stations were converted to Citgo, controlled by P. D. V. S. A. In 1990, Unocal entered into a technical collaboration with a multimillion-dollar business house of India M/s Raaj Unocal Lubricants Limited flagship company of Rajgarhia group of Industries via their chairman Late Shri K. L Rajgarhia to market Unocal range of Lubricants and greases in India. Unocal subsequently under the provisions of their collaboration agreement granted permission of transferring IP rights to the brand name "UNOCAL 76", "76", "UNOCAL" both collectively and separately to M/s Raaj Unocal Lubricants Limited for Asia to protect their IP rights due to non existence of a bilateral agreement between USA and INDIA on IP rights. In 1997, Unocal sold its western United States refining and marketing operations to Tosco Corporation, including the rights to the Union 76 brand for refining and marketing.
Tosco was acquired by Phillips Petroleum, which merged with Conoco to form ConocoPhillips. In April 2005, the United States oil company Chevron made an offer to acquire Unocal, which