ZZ Top is an American rock band formed in 1969 in Houston, Texas. The band has, since 1970, consisted of vocalist/guitarist Billy Gibbons, bassist/vocalist Dusty Hill, drummer Frank Beard. "As genuine roots musicians, they have few peers", according to critic Michael "Cub" Koda. "Gibbons is one of America's finest blues guitarists working in the arena rock idiom while Hill and Beard provide the ultimate rhythm section support."The band released its first album, ZZ Top's First Album, in 1971. Beginning with blues-inspired rock, the trio incorporated new wave, punk rock and dance-rock by using synthesizers, their songs have a reputation for containing humorous lyrics laced with double entendres and innuendos. The band's top-selling album is their 1983 release Eliminator, which sold more than 10 million copies in the United States. Total record sales of 25 million place ZZ Top among the top-100-selling artists in the United States, according to the Recording Industry Association of America; that includes 11 gold, seven platinum and three multi-platinum albums as of 2016, according to the RIAA.
By 2014, ZZ Top had sold more than 50 million albums worldwide. ZZ Top was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004; the original line-up was formed in Houston and consisted of Gibbons, bassist/organist Lanier Greig and drummer Dan Mitchell. The name of the band was Gibbons' idea; the band had a little apartment covered with concert posters and he noticed that many performers' names used initials. Gibbons noticed B. B. King and Z. Z. Hill and thought of combining the two into "ZZ King", but considered it too similar to the original name, he figured that "king is going at the top" which brought him to "ZZ Top". ZZ Top was managed by Bill Ham, a Waxahachie, Texas native, who had befriended Gibbons a year earlier, they released their first single, "Salt Lick", in 1969, the B-side contained the song "Miller's Farm". Both songs were credited to Gibbons. After the recording of "Salt Lick", Greig was replaced by bassist Billy Ethridge, a bandmate of Stevie Ray Vaughan, Mitchell was replaced by Frank Beard of the American Blues.
Due to lack of interest from U. S. record companies, ZZ Top accepted a record deal from London Records. Unwilling to sign a recording contract, Ethridge quit the band and Dusty Hill was selected as his replacement. After Hill moved from Dallas to Houston, ZZ Top signed with London in 1970, they performed their first concert together at the Knights of Columbus Hall in Beaumont, Texas, on February 10. In addition to assuming the role as the band's leader, Gibbons became the main lyricist and musical arranger. With the assistance of Ham and engineer Robin Hood Brians, ZZ Top's First Album was released and exhibited the band's humor, with "barrelhouse" rhythms, distorted guitars, double entendres, innuendo; the music and songs reflected ZZ Top's blues influences. Following their debut album, the band released Rio Grande Mud, which failed commercially and the promotional tour consisted of empty auditoriums. ZZ Top released Tres Hombres in 1973; the album's sound was the result of the propulsive support provided by Hill and Beard, Gibbons' "growling" guitar tone.
Dan Erlewine wrote that the album "brought ZZ Top their first Top Ten record, making them stars in the process". The album included the boogie-driven "La Grange". On the subsequent tour, the band performed sold-out concerts in the US. ZZ Top recorded the live tracks for their 1975 album, Fandango!, during this tour. Fandango! was a top-ten album. Tejas, released in 1976, was not as successful or as positively received as their previous efforts, although the album went to number 17 on the Billboard 200. ZZ Top continued the Worldwide Texas Tour in support of Tejas, though they had been touring for seven years; the band went on what was supposed to be a 90-day break from public appearances. Gibbons traveled to Europe, Beard went to Jamaica, Hill went to Mexico; the break extended to two years, during which Hill grew chest-length beards. In 1979, ZZ Top signed with Warner Bros. Records and released the album Degüello. While the album went platinum, it only reached number 24 on the Billboard chart; the album produced two popular singles: "I Thank You", a cover of a song recorded by Sam & Dave, "Cheap Sunglasses".
The band toured in support of Degüello. In April 1980, ZZ Top made their first appearance in Europe, performing for the German music television show Rockpalast, their next album, El Loco, was released in October 1981, featured the singles "Tube Snake Boogie", "Pearl Necklace", "Leila". ZZ Top's next album was more successful. Eliminator, released in March 1983, featured two top-40 singles, two additional Top Rock hits, with "Legs" peaking at number 13 on the Club Play Singles chart. Eliminator was a critical and commercial success, selling more than 10 million copies, several music videos were in regular rotation on MTV; the band won their first MTV Video Music Awards in the categories of Best Group Video for "Legs", Best Direction for "Sharp Dressed Man". The music videos were included in their Greatest Hits video, released on DVD and went multiple-platinum. However, the Eliminator album was not without controversy. According to former stage manager David Blayney in his book "Sharp Dressed Men", sound engineer Linden Hudson co-wrote much of the material
Rose City, Texas
Rose City is a city three miles east of Beaumont in Orange County, United States. The population was 502 at the 2010 census, down from 519 at the 2000 census, it is part of the Beaumont–Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area. Rose City is located at 30°6′18″N 94°3′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rose City has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. In 1950, an oilfield called Rose Hill was discovered just south of the town plat which yielded large quantities of crude oil and gas; the oil field along with gravel pits would provide revenue for the area. In 1973, the town's voters elected to incorporate; as of the census of 2000, there were 519 people, 190 households, 126 families residing in the city. The population density was 301.3 people per square mile.
There were 215 housing units at an average density of 124.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.52% White, 0.58% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 4.43% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.40% of the population. There were 190 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families. Of all households 23.7% were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.32. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,344, the median income for a family was $31,429.
Males had a median income of $31,923 versus $16,591 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,143. About 14.6% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. Public education in Rose City is provided by the Vidor Independent School District
Southeast Texas is a sub-region of East Texas located in the southeast corner of the U. S. state of Texas. The sub-region is geographically centered on the Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan areas. Culturally, Southeast Texas is more akin to the Gulf Coast, Louisiana, or Mississippi, than it is to West Texas. Much of modern Southeast Texas culture has its roots in traditions. Southeast Texas is consistent with much of the rest of rural Texas in that it is a part of the Bible Belt, an area in which many inhabitants have Fundamentalist Christian beliefs. Many of the largest cities in East Texas outside Houston still follow a rural Southern way of life in dialect, mannerisms and cuisine. Though 35 percent of Texas' population is now Hispanic, African-Americans are still the most populous minority in Southeast Texas. During the Civil Rights Movement several communities clashed over racial integration issues. Southeast Texas includes part of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and most of the Texas portion of the Intracoastal Waterway.
The area is crossed by numerous rivers and streams, the largest three being the Sabine River, the Neches River, the Trinity River. In Southeast Texas and the rest of the South, small rivers and creeks collect into swamps called "bayous" and merge with the surrounding forest; the only large bodies of water in Southeast Texas are Galveston Bay and Sabine Lake, but the large reservoirs of East Texas are just to the North. The southeastern portion of Texas is geographically and culturally attached to Southwest Louisiana. Near the coast, the land is low and flat, marshy; the Piney Woods extend into the Northern parts of Southeast Texas, reaching as far south as the rice paddies and marshlands that lie between Houston and Beaumont. The highest point on the coast is at High Island, where a salt dome raises the elevation to around 40 feet. Away from the coast, the terrain begins to exhibit the rolling hills of Central Texas. Toward Central Texas, the mixed pine and hardwood forests give way to the East Central Texas forests of post oak and grasslands.
The Golden Triangle is an area of extreme Southeast Texas near the Louisiana border. The "triangle" is formed by Beaumont, Port Arthur, Orange, which are the largest cities in the area. "Golden" refers to the wealth that came from the Spindletop oil strike near Beaumont in 1901. In an attempt to distance the area from the petrochemical industry, some area interests attempted to rename the Golden Triangle as the "Triplex." This name change did not catch on, local residents still refer to it as the Golden Triangle. Some residents of the Golden Triangle do not consider the Greater Houston area to be part of Southeast Texas and place the western boundary of the region at the Trinity River, 30 miles from downtown Houston; this area holds the annual South Texas State Fair in Beaumont. The Big Thicket is an area of dense forest located in the area just north and northwest of the city of Beaumont. There are many small towns including Woodville and Kountze; the Big Thicket National Preserve protects part of the old thicket, highlighting the area's biological resources.
The 97,000 acre preserve boasts a varied ecology of piney woods and coastal prairies. It includes diverse range of plant species including orchids, cactus and pine in close proximity to each other. 65,000 people visit this area each year. Two important routes cross the Big Thicket: to the north lies the old cattle route or Beef Trail, that ran from Tyler County to Louisiana. Galveston Bay is a large estuary located along Texas upper coast; the bay is fed by the Trinity River and the San Jacinto River, numerous local bayous, incoming tides from the Gulf of Mexico. The bay covers 600 square miles, is 30 miles long and 17 miles wide. Galveston Bay is on average 7–9 feet deep; the bay has three inlets to the Gulf of Mexico: Bolivar Roads between Galveston Island and the Bolivar Peninsula, San Luis Pass to the west, Rollover Pass to the east. The Houston Ship Channel, connecting the Port of Houston to the Gulf, passes through Galveston Bay. Houston is the largest city on the bay, while smaller ones include Galveston, Pasadena and Texas City.
The bay provides nursery and spawning grounds for large amounts of marine life and is important for both commercial and recreational fishing. Compared to the rest of the state, Southeast Texas' climate is warmer in winter and cooler in summer. On average, the region receives more rain than other parts of the state; this can increase the humidity level in the region. The mild and wet climate is due to the influence of the Gulf of Mexico. Average annual rainfall in the Golden Triangle is 60 inches. Rainfall totals in other parts of Southeast Texas are lower, but still in excess of 40 inches per year. During Tropical Storm Claudette in 1979, the city of Alvin recorded an official 24-hour rainfall total of 42 inches — the highest one-day rainfall total measured in the United States. Nederland received 66 inches during Harvey. Houston has been called the Lightning Capital of Texas, as its density of lightning strikes is higher than it is in other parts of the state; this area of unusually high lightning activity stretches from Houston eastward into Southwest Louisiana.
Much of this can be explained by the natural occurrence of thunderstorms in the region, which form al
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Port Arthur, Texas
Port Arthur is a city in Jefferson County within the Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan area of the U. S. state of Texas. A small portion extends into Orange County, it is 90 mi east of Houston. It is host to the largest oil refinery in the United States; the population of Port Arthur was 53,818 at the 2010 census, down from 57,755 at the 2000 census. Early attempts at settlements in the area had all failed. However, in 1895, Arthur Stilwell founded Port Arthur, the town grew. Port Arthur was soon developed into a seaport, it became the center of a large oil refinery network. The Rainbow Bridge across the Neches River connects Port Arthur to Bridge City. Aurora was an early settlement attempt near the mouth of Taylor Bayou on Sabine Lake, about 14 miles long and 7 miles wide, it is a saltwater estuary formed by the confluence of the Sabine rivers. Through its tidal outlet, 5-mile-long Sabine Pass, Sabine Lake drains some 50,000 sq mi of Texas and Louisiana into the Gulf of Mexico; the town was conceived in 1837, in 1840 promoters led by Almanzon Huston were offering town lots for sale.
Some were sold. The area next was known as "Sparks", after John Sparks, who moved his family to the shores of Sabine Lake near the site of Aurora; the Eastern Texas Railroad, completed between Sabine Pass and Beaumont, passed 4-mile west of Sparks. However, the American Civil War soon began, rail lines were removed. In 1886, a destructive hurricane hit the coast, causing the remaining residents to dismantle their homes and move to Beaumont. By 1895, Aurora had become a ghost town. Arthur Stilwell led the resettling of the area as part of his planned city of Port Arthur. Pleasure Island now separates the city from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway; the 18.5-mile man-made island was created between 1899 and 1908 by the Corps of Engineers to support development of the port. Arthur Stilwell founded the Port Arthur Dock Company to manage the port facilities; the port opened with the arrival of the British steamer Saint Oswald in 1899. When oil was discovered in the region, Port Arthur developed for a time as the center of the largest oil refinery network in the world.
Port Arthur is located on the eastern edge of Jefferson County at 29°53′6″N 93°56′24″W, on the west side of Sabine Lake. It is bordered to the northeast by Orange County, to the southeast, across Sabine Lake, by Cameron Parish, Louisiana; the Port Arthur city limits extend south along the west side of Sabine Pass, the outlet of Sabine Lake, as far as the Gulf of Mexico on the city's southern border. To the north the city limits extend across the Neches River into Orange County. Port Arthur is bordered to the northwest by the cities of Nederland and Port Neches, to the northeast by Bridge City in Orange County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 144.1 square miles, of which 76.9 square miles are land and 67.1 square miles, or 46.61%, are covered by water. Communities in Port Arthur include: El Vista Griffing Park Lakeview Pear Ridge Port Acres Sabine Pass Port Arthur is tied with Lake Charles and Astoria, Oregon, as the most humid city in the contiguous United States.
The average relative humidity is 90% in the morning, 72% in the afternoon. As of the 2010 census, 53,818 people, 20,183 households, 13,191 families resided in the city; the population density was 654.6 people per square mile. The 23,577 housing units averaged 284.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 41.7% African American, 37.9% White, 1.2% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 15.3% from other races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 29.6% of the population. Of the 20,183 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were not families. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.31. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $26,455, for a family was $32,143. Males had a median income of $30,915 versus $21,063 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,183. About 22.9% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Of the total people living in poverty, 35.2% were under age 18 and 14.4% were age 65 or over. Home to a large portion of United States refining capacity, Port Arthur is now seeing renewed investment in several key installations. Motiva Enterprises is undertaking a major addition to its western Port Arthur refinery, expanding capacity to 600,000 barrels per day; this $10.0 billion project is the largest US refinery expansion to occur in 30 years. Premcor Refining completed a $775 million expansion of its petrochemical plant, BASF/Fina commenced operations of a new $1.75 billion gasification and cogeneration unit on premises of its current installation, which had just completed its own $1 billion upgrade.
Orange is a city in Orange County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 18,595, it is the county seat of Orange County, is the easternmost city in Texas. Located on the Sabine River at the border with Louisiana, Orange is 113 miles from Houston and is part of the Beaumont−Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area. Founded in 1836, it is a deep-water port to the Gulf of Mexico; this community was called Greens Bluff after a man named Resin Green, a Sabine River boatman who arrived at this location sometime before 1830. A short time in 1840, the town was renamed Madison in honor of President James Madison. To resolve the frequent post office confusion with another Texas community called Madisonville, the town was renamed "Orange" in 1858; the area experienced rapid growth in the late 19th century due to 17 sawmills within the city limits, making Orange the center of the Texas lumber industry. Orange's growth led to the arrival of many immigrants in the late 19th century, including a moderately-sized Jewish population by 1896.
In 1898, the County built a courthouse in the city, which burned down and was replaced by the Orange County Courthouse. The harbor leading into the Port of Orange was dredged in 1914 to accommodate large ships. Ship building during World War I contributed to the growth in economy; the Great Depression, not affected the city negatively, it was not until World War II that the local economy was boosted again. A U. S. Naval Station was installed and additional housing was provided for thousands of defense workers and servicemen and their families; the population increased to just over 60,000 residents. USS Aulick was the first ship built in Orange that included 300 ships of various types during the war. After the war, the peace-time population decreased to about 35,000. At this time, the Navy Department announced it selected Orange as one of eight locations where it would store reserve vessels; the area of the shipyards provided a favorable location, as the Sabine River furnished an abundant supply of fresh water to prevent saltwater corrosion.
During this period the local chemical plants expanded which boosted the economy. The chemical industry continues today as a leading source of revenue to the area; the U. S. Naval Station was changed to a Reserve base in December 1975, decommissioned in September, 2008; the Port of Orange became the home to USS Orleck, one of the few naval ships remaining, built at the Orange shipyards during World War II. The city of Orange sustained a direct hit from Hurricane Rita in 2005; the city decreed. Orleck was not allowed to return to the port due to politics so a new location was sought, including one in Arkansas and Lake Charles, for a new home. On May 6, 2009, the Lake Charles city council voted in favor of an ordinance authorizing the city to enter into a "Cooperative Endeavor Agreement" with "USS ORLECK". On May 20, 2010 the ship was moved to Lake Charles; the Grand Opening was on April 10, 2011. Orange was damaged by Hurricane Ike on September 13, 2008. Damage was severe across Orange County; the 22-foot storm surge breached the city's levees, caused catastrophic flooding and damage throughout the city.
The storm surge traveled up the Neches River to flood Rose City. Orange received winds at hurricane force. Nearly the entire city of 19,000 people was flooded, anywhere from 6 inches to 15 feet; the mayor of the city said about 375 people, of those who stayed behind during the storm, began to emerge, some needing food and medical care. Many dead fish littered properties. Three people were found dead in Orange County on September 29. Hurricane Harvey Orange once again fell victim to widespread flooding when Hurricane Harvey hit the city on August 29, 2017; the flood waters were caused by the rising of the nearby Sabine River and its many tributaries, which forms the border between Texas and Louisiana. The flooding from Harvey was due to extreme rainfall that fell after the storm's landfall, leaving 65% of the county under water; the Sabine river did not rise until three days after the storm, when the flood gates of the Toledo Bend Reservoir were opened. The Orange Leader KOGT 1600 AM Orange is located at 30°6′33″N 93°45′33″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.8 square miles, of which, 20.1 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. Orange has a humid subtropical climate. Winters are warm and rainy while summers are hot and wet; the climate is similar to nearby Vinton and Beaumont, Texas. The record high in Orange is 105 °F or 40.6 °C recorded August 10, 1962. The record low is 11 °F or −11.7 °C recorded December 26, 1983. Orange records 1,500 millimetres of rain per year; as of the census of 2010, there were 18,595 people, 7,585 households, 5,021 families residing in the city. The population density was 872.7 people per square mile. There were 8,868 housing units at an average density of 441.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 60.9% White, 33.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.7% Asian, NA% Pacific Islander, 1.08% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.2% of the population. The average household size was 2.41.
In Orange, the population is 24.8% under the age of 18, 15.9% who are 65 years of age o
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills. In industrial plants, flare stacks are used for burning off flammable gas released by pressure relief valves during unplanned over-pressuring of plant equipment. During plant or partial plant startups and shutdowns, flare stacks are often used for the planned combustion of gases over short periods. Gas flaring at many oil and gas production sites protects against the dangers of over-pressuring industrial plant equipment. An example of the consequences of failure to flare escaping gas was evident in the Bhopal disaster when a flare tower was broken and couldn't flare escaping Methyl isocyanate gas, which resulted in its release into the surrounding area; when petroleum crude oil is extracted and produced from oil wells, raw natural gas associated with the oil is brought to the surface as well.
In areas of the world lacking pipelines and other gas transportation infrastructure, vast amounts of such associated gas are flared as waste or unusable gas. The flaring of associated gas may occur at the top of a vertical flare stack or it may occur in a ground-level flare in an earthen pit. Preferably, associated gas is reinjected into the reservoir, which saves it for future use while maintaining higher well pressure and crude oil producibility; when industrial plant equipment items are over-pressured, the pressure relief valve is an essential safety device that automatically release gases and sometimes liquids. Those pressure relief valves are required by industrial design codes and standards as well as by law; the released gases and liquids are routed through large piping systems called flare headers to a vertical elevated flare. The released gases are burned; the size and brightness of the resulting flame depends upon the flammable material's flow rate in joules per hour. Most industrial plant flares have a vapor-liquid separator upstream of the flare to remove any large amounts of liquid that may accompany the relieved gases.
Steam is often injected into the flame to reduce the formation of black smoke. When too much steam is added, a condition known as "over steaming" can occur resulting in reduced combustion efficiency and higher emissions. To keep the flare system functional, a small amount of gas is continuously burned, like a pilot light, so that the system is always ready for its primary purpose as an over-pressure safety system; the adjacent flow diagram depicts the typical components of an overall industrial flare stack system: A knockout drum to remove any oil or water from the relieved gases. A water seal drum to prevent any flashback of the flame from the top of the flare stack. An alternative gas recovery system for use during partial plant startups and shutdowns as well as other times when required; the recovered gas is routed into the fuel gas system of the overall industrial plant. A steam injection system to provide an external momentum force used for efficient mixing of air with the relieved gas, which promotes smokeless burning.
A pilot flame that burns all the time so that it is available to ignite relieved gases. The flare stack, including a flashback prevention section at the upper part of the stack. Improperly operated flares may emit methane and other volatile organic compounds as well as sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds, which are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory problems. Other emissions from improperly operated flares may include, aromatic hydrocarbons and benzopyrene, which are known to be carcinogenic. Flaring can affect wildlife by attracting insects to the flame. 7,500 migrating songbirds were attracted to and killed by the flare at the liquefied natural gas terminal in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on September 13, 2013. Similar incidents have occurred at flares on offshore gas installations. Moths are known to be attracted to lights. A brochure published by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity describing the Global Taxonomy Initiative describes a situation where "a taxonomist working in a tropical forest noticed that a gas flare at an oil refinery was attracting and killing hundreds of these moths.
Over the course of the months and years that the refinery was running a vast number of moths must have been killed, suggesting that plants could not be pollinated over a large area of forest". As of the end of 2011, 150 × 109 cubic meters of associated gas are flared annually; that is equivalent to about 25 percent of the annual natural gas consumption in the United States or about 30 per cent of the annual gas consumption in the European Union. If it were to reach market, this quantity of gas would be worth $29.8 billion USD. As of the end of 2011, 10 countries accounted for 72 per cent of the flaring, twenty for 86 per cent; the top ten leading contributors to world gas flaring at the end of 2011, were: Russia, Iran, United States, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. That amount of flaring and burning of associated gas from oil drilling sites is a significant source of carbon dioxide emissions. Coupled with fossil fuel combustion and cement production, flaring's carbon dioxide emissions in