The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Regent's Park is one of the Royal Parks of London. It lies within north-west London in the City of Westminster and in the London Borough of Camden, it contains the London Zoo. The Park was designed by John Nash, James Burton, Decimus Burton, while its construction was financed by James Burton after the Crown Estate rescinded its pledge to finance the construction; the park is Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The park has an outer ring road called the Outer Circle and an inner ring road called the Inner Circle, which surrounds the most tended section of the park, Queen Mary's Gardens. Apart from two link roads between these two, the park is reserved for pedestrians; the south and most of the west side of the park are lined with elegant white stucco terraces of houses designed by John Nash and Decimus Burton. Running through the northern end of the park is Regent's Canal, which connects the Grand Union Canal to London's historic docks; the 166 hectares park is open parkland with a wide range of facilities and amenities, including gardens.
The northern side of the park is the home of London Zoo and the headquarters of the Zoological Society of London. There are several public gardens with flowers and specimen plants, including Queen Mary's Gardens in the Inner Circle, in which the Open Air Theatre is located. Winfield House, the official residence of the U. S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, stands in private grounds in the western section of the park. Nearby is the domed London Central Mosque, better known as Regent's Park mosque, a visible landmark. Located to the south of the Inner Circle is Regent's University London, home of the European Business School London, Regent's American College London and Webster Graduate School among others. Abutting the northern side of Regent's Park is Primrose Hill, another open space which, with a height of 256 feet, has a clear view of central London to the south-east, as well as Belsize Park and Hampstead to the north. Primrose Hill is the name given to the surrounding district; the public areas of Regent's Park are managed by a government agency.
The Crown Estate Paving Commission is responsible for managing certain aspects of the built environment of Regent's Park. The park lies within the boundaries of the City of Westminster and the London Borough of Camden, but those authorities have only peripheral input to the management of the park; the Crown Estate owns the freehold of Regent's Park. In the Middle Ages the land was part of the manor of the property of Barking Abbey. In the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII appropriated the land, it has been Crown property since, except for the period between 1649 and 1660, it was set aside as a hunting park, known as Marylebone Park, until 1649. It was let out in small holdings for hay and dairy produce. James Burton, the pre-eminent London property developer was responsible for the social and financial patronage of the majority of John Nash's London designs, in addition to for their construction. Architectural scholar Guy Williams has written,'John Nash relied on James Burton for moral and financial support in his great enterprises.
Decimus had showed precocious talent as a draughtsman and as an exponent of the classical style... John Nash needed the son's aid, as well as the father's'. Subsequent to the Crown Estate's refusal to finance them, James Burton agreed to finance the construction projects of John Nash at Regent’s Park, which he had been commissioned to construct: in 1816, Burton purchased many of the leases of the proposed terraces around, proposed villas within Regent's Park, and, in 1817, Burton purchased the leases of five of the largest blocks on Regent Street; the first property to be constructed in or around Regent's Park by Burton was his own mansion: The Holme, designed by his son, Decimus Burton, completed in 1818. Burton's extensive financial involvement'effectively guaranteed the success of the project'. In return, Nash agreed to promote the career of Decimus Burton; such were James Burton’s contributions to the project that the Commissioners of Woods described James, not Nash, as ‘the architect of Regent’s Park’.
Contrary to popular belief, the dominant architectural influence in many of the Regent's Park projects - including Cornwall Terrace, York Terrace, Chester Terrace, Clarence Terrace, the villas of the Inner Circle, all of which were constructed by James Burton's company - was Decimus Burton, not John Nash, appointed architectural'overseer' for Decimus's projects. To the chagrin of Nash, Decimus disregarded his advice and developed the Terraces according to his own style, to the extent that Nash sought the demolition and complete rebuilding of Chester Terrace, but in vain. Decimus's terraces were built by James Burton; the Regent Park scheme was integrated with other schemes built for the Prince Regent by the triplet of Nash, James Burton, Decimus Burton: these included Regent Street and Carlton House Terrace in a grand sweep of town planning stretching from St. James's Park to Parliament Hill; the scheme is considered one of the first examples of a garden suburb and continues to influence the design of suburbs.
The park was first opened to the general public in 1835 tw
Camden Town shortened to Camden, is a district of northwest London, England, 2.5 miles north of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Camden, identified in the London Plan as one of 34 major centres in Greater London. Laid out as a residential district from 1791 and part of the manor of Kentish Town and the parish of St Pancras, Camden Town became an important location during the early development of the railways, which reinforced its position on the London canal network; the area's industrial economic base has been replaced by service industries such as retail and entertainment. The area now hosts street markets and music venues that are associated with alternative culture. Camden Town is named after 1st Earl Camden, his earldom was styled after his estate, Camden Place near Chislehurst in Kent owned by historian William Camden. The name, which appears on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822, was applied to the early-20th-century Camden Town Group of artists and the London Borough of Camden, created in 1965.
Camden Town stands on land, once the manor of Kentish Town. Sir Charles Pratt, a radical 18th-century lawyer and politician, acquired the manor through marriage. In 1791, he started granting leases for houses to be built in the manor. In 1816, the Regent's Canal was built through the area. Up to at least the mid-20th century, Camden Town was considered an "unfashionable" locality; the Camden markets, which started in 1973 and have grown since attract many visitors. A 1993 bomb blast injured 18 people in High Street. On 9 February 2008 Camden Lock Village known as Camden Lock market, suffered a major fire, but there were no injuries, it has since recovered. Camden Town in the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras, became part of the London Borough of Camden when it was created in 1965. Camden Town is contained in the following political constituencies for different purposes, listed with some incumbents as of 2017: Camden London Borough Council: London Borough of Camden. 54 councillors, Labour control.
Camden Town with Primrose Hill, returns three Borough councillors. UK Parliament: Holborn and St Pancras. Keir Starmer, Labour Party. London Assembly: Barnet and Camden. Andrew Dismore, Labour Party. European Parliament: London. Returns eight MEPs. Four Labour, two Conservative, one Green, one UKIP. Camden Town is on flat ground at 100 feet above sea level, 2.5 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross. To the north are the hills of Hampstead and Highgate; the culverted, subterranean River Fleet flows from its source on Hampstead Heath through Camden Town south to the Thames. The Regent's Canal runs through the north of Camden Town. At the end of the 20th century entertainment-related businesses and a Holiday Inn began moving into the area. A number of retail and food chain outlets replaced independent shops, driven out by high rents and redevelopment. Restaurants with a variety of culinary traditions thrived, many of them near the markets, on Camden High Street and its side streets, Chalk Farm Road, Bayham Street.
The plan to redevelop the historic Stables Market led to a steel and glass extension, built on the edges of the site in 2006, increased the market's capacity. Camden is well known for its markets; these date from 1974 or except for Inverness Street market, for over a century a small food market serving the local community, though by 2013 all foodstuff and produce stalls had gone, leaving only touristy stalls. Camden Lock market proper started in a former timber yard in 1973, is now surrounded by five more markets: Buck Street market, Stables market, Camden Lock village, an indoor market in the Electric Ballroom; the markets are a major tourist attraction at weekends, selling goods of all types, including fashion, books, junk/antiques and more bizarre items. While open on Sundays only, market activity extended throughout the week, though concentrating on weekends. Camden Town Tube station is near other attractions, it is a key interchange station for the Bank, Charing Cross and High Barnet Northern line branches.
The station was not designed to cope with the volume of traffic it handles since the area increased in popularity. It is crowded at weekends, and, as of 2011, is closed to outbound passengers on Sunday afternoons for safety reasons. London Underground has made many proposals to upgrade the station. In 2004 a proposal requiring the compulsory purchase and demolition of'the Triangle'—land bordered by Kentish Town Road, Buck Street and Camden High Street—was rejected by Camden Council after opposition from local people. Chalk Farm and Mornington Crescent tube stations serve the area, it was planned to redevelop the station between 2020 and 2024/5, with less demolition than proposed but the redevelopment was postponed in December 2018 by TfL "until we have the funds we need". Camden Town tube station is exit-only at times when market-related traffic would cause dangerous overcrowding on the narrow platforms. At these times, alternative stations within walking distance are Mornington Crescent, Chalk Farm, Kentish Town.
Camden Road is a London Overground station at the corner of Royal College Camden Road. It is on the line from Richmond in the West to Stratford station in the East; the nearest National Rail station is Kentish Town on the Thameslink route on
Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator and eats another organism, its prey. It is one of a family of common feeding behaviours that includes parasitism and micropredation and parasitoidism, it is distinct from scavenging on dead prey, though many predators scavenge. Predators may search for prey or sit and wait for it; when prey is detected, the predator assesses. This may involve pursuit predation, sometimes after stalking the prey. If the attack is successful, the predator kills the prey, removes any inedible parts like the shell or spines, eats it. Predators are adapted and highly specialized for hunting, with acute senses such as vision, hearing, or smell. Many predatory animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, have sharp claws or jaws to grip and cut up their prey. Other adaptations include aggressive mimicry that improve hunting efficiency. Predation has a powerful selective effect on prey, the prey develop antipredator adaptations such as warning coloration, alarm calls and other signals, mimicry of well-defended species, defensive spines and chemicals.
Sometimes predator and prey find themselves in an evolutionary arms race, a cycle of adaptations and counter-adaptations. Predation has been a major driver of evolution since at least the Cambrian period. At the most basic level, predators eat other organisms. However, the concept of predation is broad, defined differently in different contexts, includes a wide variety of feeding methods. A parasitoid, such as an ichneumon wasp, lays its eggs on its host. Zoologists call this a form of parasitism, though conventionally parasites are thought not to kill their hosts. A predator can be defined to differ from a parasitoid in two ways: it kills its prey immediately. There are other borderline cases. Micropredators are small animals that, like predators, feed on other organisms. However, since they do not kill their hosts, they are now thought of as parasites. Animals that graze on phytoplankton or mats of microbes are predators, as they consume and kill their food organisms. However, when animals eat seeds or eggs, they are consuming entire living organisms, which by definition makes them predators, albeit unconventional ones: for instance, a mouse that eats grass seeds has no adaptations for tracking and subduing prey and its teeth are not adapted to slicing through flesh.
Scavengers, organisms that only eat organisms found dead, are not predators, but many predators such as the jackal and the hyena scavenge when the opportunity arises. Among invertebrates, social wasps are both scavengers of other insects. While examples of predators among mammals and birds are well known, predators can be found in a broad range of taxa, they are common among insects, including mantids, dragonflies and scorpionflies. In some species such as the alderfly, only the larvae are predatory. Spiders are predatory, as well as other terrestrial invertebrates such as scorpions. In marine environments, most cnidarians, ctenophora and flatworms are predatory. Among crustaceans, crabs and barnacles are predators, in turn crustaceans are preyed on by nearly all cephalopods. Seed predation is restricted to mammals and insects and is found in all terrestrial ecosystems. Egg predation includes both specialist egg predators such as some colubrid snakes and generalists such as foxes and badgers that opportunistically take eggs when they find them.
Some plants, like the pitcher plant, the Venus fly trap and the sundew, are carnivorous and consume insects. Some carnivorous fungi catch nematodes using either active traps in the form of constricting rings, or passive traps with adhesive structures. Many species of protozoa and bacteria prey on other microorganisms. Among freshwater and marine zooplankton, whether single-celled or multi-cellular, predatory grazing on phytoplankton and smaller zooplankton is common, found in many species of nanoflagellates, ciliates, rotifers, a diverse range of meroplankton animal larvae, two groups of crustaceans, namely copepods and cladocerans. To feed, a predator must search for and kill its prey; these actions form a foraging cycle. The predator must decide. If it chooses pursuit, its physical capabilities determine the mode of pursuit. Having captured the prey, it may need to expend energy handling it (e.g. killing it, removing any shell or
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased vehicular queueing. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation, this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads; as demand approaches the capacity of a road, extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming engaging in road rage. Mathematically, congestion is looked at as the number of vehicles that pass through a point in a window of time, or a flow. Congestion flow lends itself to principles of fluid dynamics. Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic or modal split generates demand for space greater than the available street capacity.
There are a number of specific circumstances which aggravate congestion. About half of U. S. traffic congestion is recurring, is attributed to sheer weight of traffic. Traffic research still cannot predict under which conditions a "traffic jam" may occur, it has been found that individual incidents may cause ripple effects which spread out and create a sustained traffic jam when, normal flow might have continued for some time longer. People work and live in different parts of the city. Places of work are located away from housing areas, resulting in the need for people to commute to work. According to a 2011 report published by the United States Census Bureau, a total of 132.3 million people in the United States commute between their work and residential areas daily. People may need to move about within the city to obtain goods and services, for instance to purchase goods or attend classes in a different part of the city. Brussels, a city with a strong service economy, has one of the worst traffic congestion in the world, wasting 74 hours in traffic in 2014.
This means that the city’s transportation facilities are not capable of handling the amount of traffic it receives, such as the lack of alternative routes on roads, a lack of public transportation where buses and trains are overcrowded and infrequent. In Mumbai, trains are filled to many times their capacity. Buses caught in traffic congestion are filled with passengers. Therefore, many people turn to driving their own cars to have a more pleasant commute. Thus, many people turn to driving their own cars; some traffic engineers have attempted to apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, likening it to the flow of a fluid in a pipe. Congestion simulations and real-time observations have shown that in heavy but free flowing traffic, jams can arise spontaneously, triggered by minor events, such as an abrupt steering maneuver by a single motorist. Traffic scientists liken such a situation to the sudden freezing of supercooled fluid. However, unlike a fluid, traffic flow is affected by signals or other events at junctions that periodically affect the smooth flow of traffic.
Alternative mathematical theories exist, such as Boris Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. Because of the poor correlation of theoretical models to actual observed traffic flows, transportation planners and highway engineers attempt to forecast traffic flow using empirical models, their working traffic models use a combination of macro-, micro- and mesoscopic features, may add matrix entropy effects, by "platooning" groups of vehicles and by randomising the flow patterns within individual segments of the network. These models are typically calibrated by measuring actual traffic flows on the links in the network, the baseline flows are adjusted accordingly. A team of MIT mathematicians has developed a model that describes the formation of "phantom jams," in which small disturbances in heavy traffic can become amplified into a full-blown, self-sustaining traffic jam. Key to the study is the realization that the mathematics of such jams, which the researchers call "jamitons," are strikingly similar to the equations that describe detonation waves produced by explosions, says Aslan Kasimov, lecturer in MIT's Department of Mathematics.
That discovery enabled the team to solve traffic-jam equations that were first theorized in the 1950s. Congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons; because roads in most places are free at the point of usage, there is little financial incentive for drivers not to over-use them, up to the point where traffic collapses into a jam, when demand becomes limited by opportunity cost. Privatization of highways and road pricing have both been proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives. Congestion can happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or roadworks, which may reduce the road's capacity below normal levels. Economist Anthony Downs argues that rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of