48th United States Congress
The Forty-Eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1883, to March 4, 1885, during the last two years of the administration of U. S. President Chester A. Arthur; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Tenth Census of the United States in 1880. The Senate had a Republican majority, the House had a Democratic majority. September 5, 1883: Mary F. Hoyt became the first woman appointed to the U. S. federal civil service when she became a clerk in the Bank Redemption Agency of the Department of the Treasury. October 15, 1883: The Supreme Court of the United States declared part of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional, as the Court allowed private individuals and corporations to discriminate based on race. November 18, 1883: U. S. and Canadian railroads instituted 5 standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times.
August 10, 1884: An earthquake measuring 5.5 Mfa affected a large portion of the eastern United States. The shock had a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. Chimneys were toppled in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Property damage was severe in Amityville in New York. October 6, 1884: The United States Naval War College was established in Newport, Rhode Island. October 22, 1884: International Meridian Conference in Washington, D. C. fixed the Greenwich meridian as the world's prime meridian. November 4, 1884: United States presidential election, 1884: Democratic Governor of New York Grover Cleveland defeated Republican James G. Blaine in a close contest to win the first of his non-consecutive terms. December 6: 1884: The Washington Monument was completed. May 17, 1884: District of Alaska was organized; the count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.
Democratic: 196 Republican: 117 Readjuster: 4 National Greenback: 2 Independent: 2 Independent Democratic: 3 Independent Republican: 1TOTAL members: 325 President: Vacant. Chester Arthur, the most recent Senate President, had become U. S. President on the death of his predecessor September 19, 1881, leaving the office vacant through the end of this Congress. President pro tempore: George F. Edmunds Republican Conference Chairman: John Sherman Democratic Caucus Chairman: George H. Pendleton Speaker: John G. Carlisle Democratic Caucus Chairman: George W. Geddes Republican Conference Chair: Joseph Gurney Cannon Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: William Rosecrans This list is arranged by chamber by state. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators are listed by their states and Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. Members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
Replacements: 1 Democratic: no net change Republican: 1 seat net gain Liberal Republican: 1 seat net loss Deaths: 1 Resignations: 0 Interim appointment: 1 Late election: 1 Total seats with changes: 3 replacements: 15 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss National Greenback: 1 seat net gain deaths: 9 resignations: 9 contested election: 8 Total seats with changes: 25 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Conditions of Indian Tribes Scientific Bureaus Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol: Edward Clark Librarian of Congress: Ainsworth Rand Spofford Public Printer of the United States: Sterling P. Rounds Chaplain: Elias D. Huntley Secretary: Francis E. Shober, to December 18, 1883 Anson G. McCook, from December 18, 1883 Sergeant at Arms: Richard J. Bright, to December 18, 1883 William P. Canady, from December 18, 1883 Chaplain: John S. Lindsay Clerk: John B. Clark, Jr. Clerk at the Speaker’s Table: Nathaniel T. Crutchfield Doorkeeper: James G. Wintersmith Postmaster: Lycurgus Dalton Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: John P. Leedom United States elections, 1882 United States Senate elections, 1882 United States House of Representatives elections, 1882 United States elections, 1884 United States presidential election, 1884 United States Senate elections, 1884 United States House of Representatives elections, 1884 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Biograph
Admission to the bar in the United States
Admission to the bar in the United States is the granting of permission by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in the jurisdiction and before those courts. Each U. S. state and similar jurisdiction has its own court system and sets its own rules for bar admission, which can lead to different admission standards among states. In most cases, a person is "admitted" or "called" to the bar of the highest court in the jurisdiction and is thereby authorized to practice law in the jurisdiction. In addition, Federal Courts of the United States, although overlapping in admission standards with states, set their own requirements for practice in each of those courts. In the typical process, lawyers seeking admission must earn a Juris Doctor degree from a law school approved by the jurisdiction, in the states pass an exam administered by the attorney regulating authority of that jurisdiction. There is a character and fitness evaluation, which includes a background check. However, there are exceptions to each of these requirements.
A lawyer, admitted in one state is not automatically allowed to practice in any other. Some states have reciprocal agreements that allow attorneys from other states to practice without sitting for another full bar exam; the use of the term "bar" to mean "the whole body of lawyers, the legal profession" comes from English custom. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall and readers or Benchers on the other side. Students who became lawyers were "called to the bar", crossing the symbolic physical barrier and thus "admitted to the bar"; this was popularly assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judge's seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment and where a barrister stood to plead. In modern courtrooms, a railing may still be in place to enclose the space, occupied by legal counsel as well as the criminal defendants and civil litigants who have business pending before the court.
The first bar exam in what is now the United States was instituted by Delaware Colony in 1763, as an oral examination before a judge. The other American colonies soon followed suit. By the late 19th century, the examinations were administered by committees of attorneys, they changed from an oral examination to a written one. Today, each state has its own rules which are the ultimate authority concerning admission to its bar. Admission to a bar requires that the candidate do the following: In most situations, earn a Juris Doctor from a law school approved by that state; the first law school in colonial America was not established until 1773. Abraham Lincoln is an example of a lawyer who did not attend law school, did not read with anyone else, stating in his autobiography that he "studied with nobody". Another telling example is Levi Woodbury, the 30th person appointed to the US Supreme Court, yet the first to have attended law school. In all United States jurisdictions except Maryland, Puerto Rico, Wisconsin, pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination, an examination covering the professional responsibility rules governing lawyers.
This test is not administered at the same time as any U. S. bar exam. Most candidates sit for the MPRE while still in law school, right after studying professional responsibility, while the material is still fresh in their memory; some states require. Connecticut and New Jersey waive the MPRE for candidates who have received a grade of C or better in a law school professional ethics class. Pass a bar examination administered by the state bar association or under the authority of the supreme court of the particular state; as of June 2015, 16 jurisdictions have adopted the Uniform Bar Examination. Missouri and North Dakota were the first two states to administer the UBE, doing so in February 2011. Since Alabama, Arizona, Idaho, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Utah and Wyoming have adopted and administered the UBE. According to the National Conference of Bar Examiners, which prepares the UBE, it is intended to "test knowledge and skills that every lawyer should be able to demonstrate prior to becoming licensed to practice law", "is uniformly administered and scored by user jurisdictions and results in a portable score."
UBE jurisdictions are allowed to additionally test candidates' knowledge of state-specific law, through either a test or course. The UBE consists of three parts:The Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized test consisting of 200 multiple-choice questions covering seven key areas of law: Constitutional law, Criminal law and Procedure, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federal Rules of Evidence, Real Property and Torts. Examinees have three hours to answer 100 questions in a morning session and the same for an afternoon session; the MBE is administered on the last Wednesday in July. The Multistate Essay Examination, a uniform though not standardized test that examines a candidate's ability to analyze legal i
Lebanon is the county seat of Wilson County, United States. The population was 26,190 at the 2010 census, 28,608 in 2013 and 32,372 following a special census conducted in 2016. Lebanon is located in Middle Tennessee 25 miles east of downtown Nashville. Lebanon is part of the Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city was incorporated in 1801, was named after the biblical cedars of Lebanon. Local residents have called Lebanon "Cedar City" a reference to the abundance of cedar trees in the area; the city is home to a small, private four-year liberal arts institution. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.63 square miles, of which 38.5 square miles is land and 0.03% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,235 people, 7,987 households, 5,319 families residing in the city; the population density was 692.0 people per square mile. There were 8,693 housing units at an average density of 297.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.89% White, 13.78% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.26% of the population. There were 7,987 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,118, the median income for a family was $45,094. Males had a median income of $31,207 versus $24,420 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,366. About 9.3% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.0% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over.
Cracker Barrel has its corporate headquarters there. PFG Customized / Kenneth O. Lester company is based in Lebanon, has both a corporate office and a distribution center there, where they service Cracker Barrel and many other restaurant companies. Lochinvar Corporation, a water products manufacturer, is based in Lebanon; the city threatened to sue Dell Inc. for eliminating 700 of the 1,000 jobs the company proferred as part of a tax deal on which the company reneged. In 2015, Chinese tile company Wonderful Group invested $150 million to build their company's first manufacturing location in North America; the fraternity Sigma Pi is headquartered in Lebanon. Lebanon is host to the annual Wilson County Fair, considered by Busy Bee Trader Magazine to be the best County Fair in Tennessee; the Wilson County Fair has been listed as one of the top 50 fairs in North America by attendance in 2008, 2009, 2010. The fair has been named as one of the top events to attend by Southeastern Tourism and voted the "Best Fair" by the Middle Tennessee Electric Membership Corporation.
It has paid attendance more than double that of the Tennessee State Fair. Lebanon Democrat, published Tuesday through Saturday Wilson Post, published twice a week WANT 98.9 FM, country music/local sports and affairs WCOR 1490 AM WRVW 107.5 FM, licensed to Lebanon but serves Nashville WTWW, shortwave on several different frequencies WJFB 66, religious programming/TCT Network WRTN 6, general/local programming Interstate 40, the major corridor between Nashville and Knoxville, runs south of the city. I-840 connects I-40 to I-24 and I-65. Railroad freight service is provided by the Eastern Railroad short line. Commuter rail service to Nashville began service in 2006 via the Music City Star. Lebanon is the eastern terminus of the Music City Star commuter rail service which runs via scheduled service Mon-Fri. There are two times. July 4 fireworks at Riverfront Park calls for a special event train. In addition, when the Tennessee Titans play at home, a special service called Game-Day Express operates.
Rail service began in 1871 with the now defunct Tennessee & Pacific Railroad, which ran to Nashville. The last original passenger train departed Lebanon in 1935. Lebanon has a municipal airport referenced by FAA Identifier M54. Operating two runways, M54's main runway is asphalt. Runway 1/19 is 5,000 by 100 feet. Runway 4/22 is turf 1,801 by 150 feet; the Lebanon Special School District encompasses two middle schools. Wilson County Schools operates several additional primary and secondary schools in and around Lebanon, including Wilson Central High School and the newly reconstructed Lebanon High School. Lebanon has two private schools, Friendship Christian School and McClain Christian Academy. Lebanon is home to Cumberland University, founded in 1842; the university has a rich heritage and has produced over eighty Congressmen and Senators such as Albert Gore, Sr. and Thomas Gore. The institution has produced a Nobel Peace Prize recipient, Cordell Hull, who served as Secretary of State from March 1933 to November 1944.
Haystak, rapper George Huddleston, U. S. Representative from Alabama, 1915–1937 Coco Jones, Actress. Thomas
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Cumberland School of Law
Cumberland Law School is unrelated to the University of the Cumberlands in Williamsburg, is no longer a part of Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee. Cumberland School of Law is an ABA accredited law school at Samford University in Birmingham, United States. Founded in 1847 at Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee, it is the 11th oldest law school in the United States and has more than 11,000 graduates, its alumni include two United States Supreme Court Justices. S. representatives. The school offers two degree programs: the 90-hour Juris Doctor, the Master of Comparative Law, designed to educate foreign lawyers in the basic legal principles of the United States; the school offers eight dual-degree programs and a Master of Laws program with concentrations in financial service regulatory compliance, health law and policy, higher education law and compliance, legal project management. This summary is based on From Maverick to Mainstream, a review of Cumberland's history and the development of the American legal education system.
Langum and Walthall summarize the history of Cumberland Law School as: From its local, Tennessee origins in 1847, Cumberland...emerged as a premier law school with a national status. It excelled in faculty, teaching methodology, numbers of students. Following the American Civil War, Cumberland rebuilt itself and succeeded on a grand scale with its single-year curriculum. Cumberland School of Law was founded on July 29, 1847 in Lebanon, Tennessee at Cumberland University. At the end of 1847, there were 15 law schools in the United States. Prior to the law school's official founding, Cumberland University facilitated the study of law and admitted a diverse student body, evidenced by graduates such as George W. Harkins, a Choctaw chief, who received a law degree from Cumberland and became a judge in 1834. Prior to the founding of the United States' first law schools, the primary means for a legal education was apprenticeship. Establishing law schools was difficult in the early 19th century. Harvard was only able to reestablish its law school in 1829 and Yale in 1826.
By 1859 Cumberland and the University of Virginia School of Law were the three largest law schools in the United States. A year 1860, only 21 university law schools existed in the country, and, in no school did the curriculum extend beyond two years. During the Antebellum years, Cumberland enjoyed success. Nathan Green, Jr. son of professor Nathan Green, Sr. stated that Cumberland enjoyed "the highest degree of prosperity", with a beautiful 20-acre campus, picturesque trees and fences, fine architecture. Cumberland's first graduate Paine Page Prim became chief justice of the Oregon Supreme Court. Students were taught through reading treatises two hours worth of recitations each morning, a mandatory moot court program. Caruthers considered the Socratic Method a necessity; the cost was $50 a session and a $5 "contingent fee". After the Civil War, this treatise method, the legal formalism of the school's approach, Nathan Green Jr.'s unwillingness to make changes, were all considered reasons for Cumberland's drift out of the mainstream.
At the start of the American Civil War, the campus split within a week. Nathan Green Jr.'s father, a law professor, went home, but in fear of arrest, Abraham Caruthers fled to Marietta, where he died a year later. During the war, professors John Carter and Nathan Green, Jr. fought as Confederate officers. Carter was killed; the campus did not. The trees were cut down and fences destroyed and burned; the Confederate Army burned the University buildings because a Confederate major was offended that Black Union soldiers had used them as barracks. The law school began the slow process of rebuilding. In July 1866, Cumberland adopted the image of the phoenix, the mythological Egyptian bird, reborn from its own ashes; the new motto was E Cineribus Resurgo or "I rise from the ashes."In September 1865 classes resumed with 11 students, which soon grew to 20. The 1865 class included enemies only a few months earlier. Nathan Green, Jr. kept the school together until Henry Cooper, a circuit judge, Andrew B. Martin, Robert L. Caruthers, brother of deceased founder Abraham Caruthers, joined the faculty.
Robert Caruthers had served as the state attorney general and had been elected Governor of Tennessee during the war in 1863, but was never inaugurated. In 1873 Robert Caruthers purchased Corona Hall from the Corona Institute for Women for $10,000, which he donated to the University for use by the law school; the destruction of the campus and the devastation of war had impoverished the school, it was 15 years before it saw students enter from outside the South, when a student from Illinois and a member of the Choctaw Nation enrolled at Cumberland. But there were few students from outside of the defeated Southern states, which Langum and Walthall claim underscored "how the Civil War blighted Cumberland."Robert Caruthers persisted, despite the setbacks, in 1878 Caruthers Hall was dedicated in his honor. This new school replaced Corona Hall; the new hall had "excellent acoustics and hard seats" and is described as a: splendid structure, built after the latest architectural style, is nearly one hundred feet from base to spire, contains two recitation rooms for the Law Department, two Society Halls, a Library, a chapel whose sea
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
44th United States Congress
The Forty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1875, to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. For the first time since the American Civil War, the House had a Democratic majority; the Senate maintained a Republican majority. November 22, 1875: Vice President Henry Wilson died from a stroke June 25, 1876: Custer's Last Stand at the Battle of Little Bighorn July 4, 1876: United States Centennial November 7, 1876: United States general elections, 1876, including the disputed Presidential election of 1876 settled with the Compromise of 1877 which ended Reconstruction. January 29, 1877: Electoral Commission Act, ch. 37, 19 Stat. 227 March 3, 1877: Desert Land Act, ch.
107, 19 Stat. 377 August 1, 1876: Colorado admitted as the 38th state The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. During this Congress, two Senate seats and one House seat were added for Colorado. President: Henry Wilson, until November 22, 1875. President pro tempore: Thomas W. Ferry, from March 9, 1875 Republican Conference Chairman: Henry B. Anthony Democratic Caucus Chairman: John W. Stevenson Speaker: Michael C. Kerr, until August 19, 1876 Samuel J. Randall, elected December 4, 1876 Democratic Caucus Chairman: Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II Republican Conference Chair: George W. McCrary This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress.
Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1880; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 4 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss deaths: 3 resignations: 1 vacancy: 1 interim appointments: 3 seats of newly admitted states: 2 Total seats with changes: 7 replacements: 14 Democratic: no net change Republican: no net change deaths: 9 resignations: 6 contested election: 5 seats of newly admitted states: 1 Total seats with changes: 21 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Agriculture Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Commerce Counting the Electoral Vote Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education and Labor Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service Finance Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Military Affairs Mines and Mining Mississippi River Levee System Mississippi Election Frauds, 1876 Naval Affairs Ordnance and War Ships Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Privileges and Elections Public Lands Railroads Revision of the Laws Revolutionary Claims Rules Tariff Regulation Territories Transportation Routes to the Seaboard Whole Accounts Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency Claims Coinage and Measures Commerce District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections Enrolled Bills Expenditures in the Interior Department Expenditures in the Justice Department Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Mines and Mining Mississippi Levees Naval Affairs Pacific Railroads Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Railways and Canals Revision of Laws Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories War Claims Ways and Means Whole Conditions of Indian Tribes Enrolled Bills Frame a Form of Government for the District of Columbia Investigate Chinese Immigration Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol: Edward Clark Librarian of Congress: Ainsworth Rand Spofford Public Printer of the United States: Almon M. Clapp Chaplain: Byron Sunderland Secretary: George C.
Gorham Sergeant at Arms