Koji Kondo is a Japanese music composer and sound director who works for the video game company Nintendo. He is best known for his involvement in numerous contributions in the Mario and The Legend of Zelda series of video games, among others produced by the company. Kondo was hired by Nintendo in 1984, becoming the first person hired by them to specialize in musical composition for games. Shortly after, Kondo was assigned as the sound designer on the 1985 game Super Mario Bros, his sound design for the game, more the musical theme for the overworld, has been cited as among the most memorable in video games. Kondo was born in Nagoya, Japan, on August 13, 1961, he began taking lessons in the electronic organ from the age of five. He improved his skills in the instrument in a cover band that played rock music. Kondo studied at the Art Planning Department of Osaka University of Arts, but was never classically trained or dedicated to music. However, he gained some experience in composing and arranging pieces, using both the piano and a computer to assist him.
During his senior year, Nintendo sent a recruitment message to his university stating that they were interested in hiring people dedicated to composition and sound programming. An LCD and arcade gamer, Kondo applied for the job in 1984 without requiring any demo tapes. Kondo was the third person hired by Nintendo to create music and sound effects for their games, joining Hirokazu Tanaka and Yukio Kaneoka. However, he was the first at Nintendo to specialize in musical composition; the first game he worked on was the arcade game Punch-Out!!, although it was before he had joined Nintendo. Despite creating jingles and sound effects, he was able to overcome the challenges of early arcade sound hardware; as the Famicom had become popular in Japan, Kondo was assigned to compose music for the console's subsequent games at Nintendo's new development team, Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development. Kondo wrote an instruction manual on how to program Japanese popular music into the Famicom using the peripheral Family BASIC.
To conclude his first year at Nintendo, he created the music to Devil World alongside Akito Nakatsuka. In 1985, Nintendo started marketing the Famicom abroad under the name the Nintendo Entertainment System to capitalize on the 1983 video game crash that devastated Atari, Inc, he composed the music for the hit releases Super Mario Bros. and The Legend of Zelda, which helped the system to sell 60 million copies in total and established some of the most well-known melodies in the video game industry. Super Mario Bros. for many years the best-selling video game of all time for a single platform, was Kondo's first major score. The game's melodies were created with the intention that short segments of music could be endlessly repeated during the same gameplay without causing boredom. Kondo's soundtrack to Super Mario Bros. gained worldwide recognition, is to this day the most well-known video game score. The main theme is iconic in popular culture and has been featured in over 50 concerts, been a best-selling ringtone, been remixed or sampled by various musicians.
Kondo's work on The Legend of Zelda scores has become recognized. He produced four main pieces of background music for the first installment of the series. After the success of The Legend of Zelda, he provided the score for two Japanese-exclusive titles, The Mysterious Murasame Castle and Shin Onigashima, he created the soundtrack to Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic, rebranded outside Japan as Super Mario Bros. 2 in 1988. Kondo returned to the Super Mario series to produce the scores to Super Mario Bros. 3 and the SNES launch title Super Mario World. Koichi Sugiyama directed a jazz arrangement album of Super Mario World's music and oversaw its performance at the first Orchestral Game Music Concert in 1991. After finishing the soundtrack to Super Mario World, Kondo was in charge of the sound programming for Pilotwings, while composing the "Helicopter Theme" for it, created the sound effects for Star Fox. In 1995, he composed for the sequel to Yoshi's Island; until the early 2000s, Kondo would write all compositions by himself on a project, with The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time's being the last one Kondo worked on alone.
Since he has been collaborating with other staff members at Nintendo and supervising music created by others, as well as providing additional compositions for games, including Super Mario Galaxy, The Legend of Zelda: Spirit Tracks, The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword and Super Mario 3D World. In 2015, he served as the sound lead composer of Super Mario Maker. Kondo attended the world premiere of Play! A Video Game Symphony at the Rosemont Theater in Rosemont, Illinois in May 2006, where his music from the Super Mario Bros. and The Legend of Zelda series was performed by a full symphony orchestra. He attended and performed in a series of three concerts celebrating the 25th anniversary of The Legend of Zelda series in late 2011, he performed piano with the American rock band Imagine Dragons live at The Game Awards 2014 ceremony in December 2014. Kondo's music for Super Mario Bros. was designed around the feeling of feeling of motion that mirrors the player's physical experience. This followed the philosophy of series creator and designer, Shigeru Miyamoto, who demanded that audio for the game be made "with substance" and are synchronized with elements of the game.
As a result, Kondo based a number of the score around genres that a
The PC-8800 series shortened to PC-88, are a brand of Zilog Z80-based 8-bit home computers released by Nippon Electric Company in 1981 and sold in Japan The PC-8800 series sold well and became one of the three major Japanese home computers of the 1980s, along with the Fujitsu FM-7 and Sharp X1. It was eclipsed by NEC's 16-bit PC-9800 series, although it still maintained strong sales up until the early 90s. NEC's American subsidiary, NEC Home Electronics, marketed variations of the PC-8800 in the United States. Nippon Electric's Electronic Device Sales division launched the PC-8001 in September 1979, it dominated 40% of the Japanese personal computer market in 1981. At that time, Japanese personal computers were used for hobbies; the division introduced the PC-8801 in November 1981, tried to expand the personal computer market for business. The PC-8801 had an ability to display Kanji characters with an optional Kanji ROM board; some companies released Japanese word processor softwares for it, such as My Letter, Yūkara.
They were ported to the PC-9801 later. NEC released Nihongo Word Processor, a rebranded version of Yukara, but it didn't success. On the other side and Koei's computer games won popularity, established the PC-8801 as a PC game platform superseded the PC-8001. 170,000 units of PC-8801s were shipped as at November 1983. Its successor, the PC-8801mkII, came with JIS level 1 kanji font ROM, a smaller case and keyboard, one or two internal 5¼-inch 2D floppy disk drives, it sold more than the PC-9800 series at that time. As of December 1983, NEC had multiple personal computer lines come out from different divisions. Nippon Electric's Information Processing group had the PC-9800 series, NEC Home Electronics had the PC-6000 series. To avoid confliction, they decided to consolidate personal computer business into two divisions; the Electronic Device Sales division span off personal computer business into NEC Home Electronics. In March 1985, NEC Home Electronics introduced the PC-8801mkIISR which improved graphics and sound capabilities.
Game developers competed in quality of skills in music. A cost reduced the PC-8801mkIIFR, shipped 60,000 units for a half of year. Although the PC-9801VM shipments were surpassed it, the PC-8800 series was still popular as a Japanese PC game platform toward the early 1990s. Throughout the lifetime of the PC-8800, there were four different graphics modes, they are as follows: N mode: PC-8000 series compatible graphic mode V1 mode: 640 × 200 8 colors, 640 × 400 2 colors V2 mode: 640 × 200 8 out of 512 colors, 640 × 400 2 out of 512 colors V3 mode: 640 × 200: 65536 colors, 640 × 400: 256 out of 65536 colors, 320 × 200: 65536 colors, 320 × 400: 64 out of 65536 colorsIt's important to note that no entry in the PC-8800 series was capable of displaying all four modes. Early entries in the PC-8800 series used a simple internal speaker a-la the IBM PC only capable of generating simple beeps and clicks. Models added FM-synthesis chips, allowing for much more robust audio. Companies that produced exclusive software for the NEC PC-8801 included Enix, Sega, Nihon Falcom, Bandai, HAL Laboratory, ASCII, Pony Canyon and Entertainment Software, Wolf Team, Champion Soft, Micro Cabin, PSK, Bothtec.
Certain games produced for the PC-8801 had a shared release with the MSX, such as those produced by Game Arts, ELF Corporation, Konami. Many popular series first appeared on the NEC PC-8801, including Snatcher, Dragon Slayer, RPG Maker, Ys. Nintendo licensed Hudson Soft to port some of Nintendo's Family Computer games for the platform, including Excitebike, Balloon Fight, Tennis and Ice Climber, as well as new editions of Mario Bros. called Mario Bros. Special and Punch Ball Mario Bros. A semi-sequel to Donkey Kong 3 titled Donkey Kong 3: Dai Gyakushū, a reworked port of the original Super Mario Bros. titled Super Mario Bros. Special; the computer had its own BASIC dialect, N88-BASIC. NEC µPD72070 - Floppy Disk Controller Specification Version 2.0. 2.0 preliminary. NEC Corporation. October 1991. Archived from the original on 2017-03-20. Retrieved 2017-03-20. System Information emulation site for retro Japanese computers OLD-COMPUTERS. COM: The Museum: NEC PC-8801 NEC PC-8801 info page popular games and developers at uvlist.net NEC PC-8801 MK II commercial on YouTube NEC PC-8801MA FA commercial on YouTube A list of downloadable PC88 emulators
Donkey Kong (video game)
Donkey Kong is an arcade game released by Nintendo in 1981. An early example of the platform game genre, the gameplay focuses on maneuvering the main character across a series of platforms while dodging and jumping over obstacles. In the game, Mario must rescue a damsel in distress named Pauline, from a giant ape named Donkey Kong; the hero and ape became two of Nintendo's most popular and recognizable characters. Donkey Kong is one of the most important games from the golden age of arcade video games as well as one of the most popular arcade games of all time; the game was the latest in a series of efforts by Nintendo to break into the North American market. Hiroshi Yamauchi, Nintendo's president at the time, assigned the project to a first-time video game designer named Shigeru Miyamoto. Drawing from a wide range of inspirations, including Popeye and the Beast, King Kong, Miyamoto developed the scenario and designed the game alongside Nintendo's chief engineer, Gunpei Yokoi; the two men broke new ground by using graphics as a means of characterization, including cutscenes to advance the game's plot, integrating multiple stages into the gameplay.
Although Nintendo's American staff was apprehensive, Donkey Kong succeeded commercially and critically in North America and Japan. Nintendo licensed the game to Coleco. Other companies avoided royalties altogether. Miyamoto's characters appeared on cereal boxes, television cartoons, dozens of other places. A lawsuit brought on by Universal City Studios, alleging Donkey Kong violated their trademark of King Kong failed; the success of Donkey Kong and Nintendo's victory in the courtroom helped to position the company for video game market dominance from its release in 1981 until the late 1990s. Following 1980's Space Panic, Donkey Kong is one of the earliest examples of the platform game genre prior to the term being coined; as the first platform game to feature jumping, Donkey Kong requires the player to jump between gaps and over obstacles or approaching enemies, setting the template for the future of the platform genre. With its four unique stages, Donkey Kong was the most complex arcade game at the time of its release, one of the first arcade games to feature multiple stages, following 1980's Phoenix and 1981's Gorf and ScrambleCompetitive video gamers and referees stress the game's high level of difficulty compared to other classic arcade games.
Winning the game requires patience and the ability to time Mario's ascent. In addition to presenting the goal of saving Pauline, the game gives the player a score. Points are awarded for the following: leaping over obstacles; the player receives three lives with a bonus awarded for 7,000 points, although this can be modified via the game's built in DIP switches. One life is lost whenever Mario touches Donkey Kong or any enemy object, falls too far through a gap or off the end of a platform, or lets the bonus counter reach zero; the game is divided into four different single-screen stages. Each represents 25 meters of the structure Donkey Kong has climbed, one stage being 25 meters higher than the previous; the final stage occurs at 100 meters. Stage one involves Mario scaling a construction site made of crooked girders and ladders while jumping over or hammering barrels and oil drums tossed by Donkey Kong. Stage two involves climbing a five-story structure of conveyor belts, each of which transport cement pans.
The third stage involves the player riding elevators while avoiding bouncing springs. The fourth and final stage requires Mario to remove eight rivets from the platforms supporting Donkey Kong; these four stages combine to form a level. Upon completion of the fourth stage, the level increments, the game repeats the stages with progressive difficulty. For example, Donkey Kong begins to hurl barrels faster and sometimes diagonally, fireballs speed up; the victory music alternates between levels 1 and 2. The fourth level, consists of 5 stages with the final stage at 125 meters; the 22nd level is colloquially known as the kill screen, due to an error in the game's programming that kills Mario after a few seconds ending the game. Donkey Kong is considered to be the earliest video game with a storyline that visually unfolds on screen; the eponymous Donkey Kong character is the game's de facto villain. The hero is a carpenter unnamed in the Japanese arcade release named Jumpman and Mario. Donkey Kong kidnaps Mario's girlfriend known as Lady, but renamed Pauline.
The player must rescue her. This is the first occurrence of the damsel in distress scenario that would provide the template for countless video games to come; the game uses graphics and animation as vehicles of characterization. Donkey Kong smirks upon Mario's demise. Pauline has a pink dress and long hair, a speech balloon crying "HELP!" Appears beside her. Mario, depicted in red overalls and a red cap, is a type common in Japan. Graphical limitations and the low pixel resolution of the small sprites prompted his design: drawing a mouth with such few pixels is infeasible, so the character was given a mustache.
Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s becoming one of the most influential in the industry and one of Japan's most-valuable companies with a market value of over $37 billion in 2018. Nintendo was founded as a playing card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on 23 September 1889. Based in Kyoto, the business marketed Hanafuda cards; the handmade cards soon became popular, Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.
In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co. Ltd. doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup"; the word Nintendo can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda". In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi, grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U. S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point, he acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales. In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co. Ltd; the company began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo set up a taxi company called Daiya; this business was successful.
However, Nintendo was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company and several other ventures. All of these ventures failed, after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥60. In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy. In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, set up in abandoned bowling alleys.
Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market. Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game. A student product developer named, he worked for Yokoi, one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry. In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda, several more games followed.
Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game introduced an early iteration of Mario known in Japan as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game, while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to Game & Watch. In 1980, Nintendo launched Watch -- a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi; these systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game, was distributed worldwide; the modern "cross" D-pad design was developed by Yokoi for a Donkey Kong version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo, it earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award.
In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade games. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known
Family Computer Disk System
The Family Computer Disk System is a peripheral for Nintendo's Family Computer home video game console, released only in Japan on February 21, 1986. It uses proprietary floppy disks called "Disk Cards" for data storage. Through its entire production span, 1986 –2003, 4.44 million units were sold. Its name is sometimes shortened as Famicom Disk System or Disk System, abbreviated as FCDS, FDS or FCD; the device is connected to the Famicom deck by plugging a special cartridge known as the RAM Adapter into the system's cartridge port, attaching that cartridge's cable to the disk drive. The RAM adapter contains 32 kilobytes of RAM for temporary program storage, 8 KB of RAM for tile and sprite data storage, an ASIC known as the 2C33; the ASIC acts as a disk controller for the floppy drive, includes additional sound hardware featuring a single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesizer. Embedded in the 2C33 is an 8KB BIOS ROM; the Disk Cards used are double-sided, with a total capacity of 112 KB per disk. Many games span both sides of a disk, requiring the user to switch sides at some point during gameplay.
A few games use two full disks, totaling four sides. The Disk System is capable of running on six C-cell batteries or the supplied AC adapter. Batteries last five months with daily game play; the inclusion of a battery option is due to the likelihood of a standard set of AC plugs being occupied by a Famicom and a television. In 1983, the disks' 112 KB of storage space was quite appealing due to the high cost of cartridge-based solid state storage chips; the rewritable aspect of the disks opened up new possibilities. Many of these titles were subsequently ported to cartridge format and released for the NES a year or two with saving implemented either via password resume or battery-backed memory. Sharp released the Twin Famicom, a Famicom model that features a built-in Disk System. Widespread copyright violation in Japan's predominantly personal-computer-based game rental market inspired corporations to petition the government to ban the rental of all video games in 1984. With games being available only via full purchase, demand rose for a new and less expensive way to access more games.
In 1986, as video gaming had expanded from computers into the video game console market, Nintendo installed Famicom Disk Writer Kiosks in game stores across Japan. For a rental fee of 500 yen as opposed to the 2,600 yen cost of new games, these stations allowed users to copy new games to their disks for an unlimited time; some game releases were exclusive to these kiosks. Calling the Disk Writer "one of the coolest things Nintendo created", Kotaku says the system's premise still offers modern retail and online stores a potential innovation in game rentals; the service was popular and remained available until 2003. Disk Writer kiosks in select locations were provisioned as Disk Fax systems. Players could take advantage of the dynamic rewritability of blue floppy disk versions of Disk System games in order to achieve and save their high scores at their leisure at home; the player could bring the disk to a retailer's Disk Fax kiosk, which collated and transmitted the player's scores via facsimile to Nintendo.
Players participated in a nationwide leaderboard, with prizes. The Disk System's Disk Cards are somewhat proprietary 71 mm × 76 mm 56K-per-side double-sided floppy; these "Disk Cards," as they are called, were a slight modification of Mitsumi's "Quick Disk" 89 mm 2.8 in square disk format, used in a handful of Japanese computers and various synthesizer keyboards, along with a few word processors. Some of the QuickDisk drives made it into devices in Europe and North America, though they are somewhat rare. Mitsumi had close relations with Nintendo, as it manufactured the Famicom and NES consoles, other Nintendo hardware. Nintendo's flagship mascot brothers Mario and Luigi make an appearance in the FDS's boot firmware. After turning on the system, a "battle" between the two characters begins over the color scheme of the Nintendo sign and screen border, until a disk is inserted into the FDS. While the Disk System was years ahead of its time in terms of a disk-format game console, the drive and disks both have reliability issues.
The drive belt in the drive is a proprietary size, since standard floppy drive belts are too large. Until 2004, Japanese residents were able to send their systems to Nintendo directly for repairs and belt replacements, but Nintendo of America and the PAL regions do not service them as the system was not released in those regions. Due to a flaw in manufacturing, the old belts have a tendency to break, decompose, or melt. In an effort to save money on production, Nintendo opted to not use disk shutters to keep dirt out, instead opting to include wax paper sleeves as with the older 133 mm disks; the only exception to this were certain games that were specially released on blue disks, which do have shutters. Error messages produced during disk read operations are unusually simple, to the point where it is difficult to know what the exact problem is. Most in-game error messages during loading are displayed as "Err. ##", with ## being the designated number for the type of error message.
Satoru Iwata was a Japanese video game programmer and businessman, the fourth president and chief executive officer of Nintendo. He is regarded as instrumental in broadening the appeal of video games to a wider audience by focusing on novel and entertaining games rather than top-of-the-line hardware. Born in Sapporo, Iwata expressed interest in video games from an early age and created his first simple game while in high school, he majored in computer science at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. In 1980, he joined the game developer HAL Laboratory while attending the university. During his early years at HAL Laboratory he worked as a programmer and collaborated with Nintendo, producing his first commercial game in 1983. Notable titles to which he contributed at HAL include the Kirby series. Following a downturn and near-bankruptcy, Iwata became the president of HAL Laboratory in 1993 at the insistence of Nintendo President Hiroshi Yamauchi and brought financial stability to the company. In the following years, he assisted in the development of the Super Smash Bros. series.
Iwata joined Nintendo as the head of its corporate-planning division in 2000. Nintendo soon saw notable growth with Iwata's assistance and, when Yamauchi retired, he became the company's president in May 2002. Under Iwata's direction, Nintendo developed the Nintendo DS and Wii video game consoles, helping the company achieve financial success; as a self-declared gamer, he focused on expanding the appeal of video games across all demographics through a "blue ocean" business strategy. The company attained record profits by 2009, Barron's placed Iwata among the top 30 CEOs worldwide. Iwata subsequently expanded his blue ocean strategy by defining a quality of life product line for the Wii that evolved into a ten-year business strategy to create stand-alone products. Hardware such as the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U proved far less profitable than the Wii, Nintendo's net sales fell by two thirds from 2009 to 2012. Iwata voluntarily halved his salary in 2011 and 2014. In 2015, after several years of refusal, Iwata put a portion of Nintendo's focus into the growing mobile game market.
Throughout his career, Iwata built a strong relationship with Nintendo fans through social media and his regular appearances in Iwata Asks and Nintendo Direct, becoming the public face of the company. In June 2014, a tumor in Iwata's bile duct was discovered during a routine physical exam, it was removed, Iwata returned to work in October of that year. The problem resurfaced in 2015, Iwata died at the age of 55 from its complications on July 11. Members of the gaming industry and fans alike offered tributes through public announcements and social media, fans worldwide established temporary memorials. Iwata was posthumously awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2015 Golden Joystick Awards and the 2016 DICE Awards. Satoru Iwata was born on December 6, 1959, raised in Sapporo, where his father served as a prefectural official. Throughout middle and high school, Iwata displayed leadership skills through service as class president, student council president, club president at various times.
His first experience with computers was in middle school with a demo computer that used telephone lines. Iwata would frequent the Sapporo subway and play a simple numeric game, called Game 31, until he mastered it. With money saved up from a dish-washing job and some additional allowance from his father, Iwata purchased an HP-65, the first programmable calculator, in 1974. After entering Hokkaido Sapporo South High School in April 1975, he began developing his own games during his junior year; the several simple number games Iwata produced, such as Volleyball and Missile Attack, made use of an electronic calculator he shared with his schoolmates. Iwata obtained his first computer, a Commodore PET, in 1978, he studied the machine out of his desire to understand it. The computer coincidentally had a central processing unit similar to the one used by Nintendo for the Nintendo Entertainment System, a gaming console for which he would develop games. Following high school, Iwata was admitted to the Tokyo Institute of Technology in April 1978, where he majored in computer science.
Tomohiko Uematsu, an engineering professor, noted Iwata's proficiency with software programming and remarked that Iwata could write programs faster and more than any of his other students. While attending the school, he was one of several unpaid interns at Commodore Japan, assisting the subsidiary's head engineer—Yash Terakura—with technical and software-development tasks. One of his main reasons for taking the job was to spend more time around computers and learn of details not available to the public. Terakura would serve as a mentor to Iwata, teaching him about hardware engineering to supplement Iwata's extensive software knowledge. Iwata and several of his friends rented an apartment in Akihabara and soon formed a club where they would create and code games. Classmates living in nearby apartments referred to Iwata's room as "Game Center Iwata", he would show off his games to the Seibu department store's computer department, by 1980 a group of employees there invited him to join their company, HAL Laboratory, Inc.
While attending university, Iwata worked for HAL Laboratory as a part-time programmer in 1980. Among their first creations was a peripheral device that enabled older computers to display graphics for video games. With this device and members of HAL create
Captain Rainbow is a video game developed by Skip Ltd. and published by Nintendo for the Wii. The game was released in Japan on August 28, 2008, it was never released outside Japan. The game puts players in the role of Nick, an ordinary guy whose alter ego "Captain Rainbow", was once a popular movie superhero. In order to regain his popularity, Nick travels to Mimin Island, a place where dreams are said to come true. Captain Rainbow is an action-adventure game that involves making friends with the other island residents, collecting "Kirarin" crystals, granting their wishes; the game's storyline follows Nick, able to transform into "Captain Rainbow", a yo-yo-wielding, tokusatsu-styled superhero that stars in his own TV show. His TV show is no longer popular. To restore his popularity, Nick ventures to Mimin Island, an island where wishes are said to come true. Nick meets a vast array of past, minor Nintendo characters with their own dreams and wishes on his journey. Captain Rainbow is an action-adventure game with gameplay divided into two parts.
The adventure part of the game is set on enjoying the life on the island together with its other residents. Nick can go fishing, bug catching, help the other islanders with their requests. Most of the requests can lead to various minigames, such as boxing, volleyball and golf. Helping islanders will grant the player special, star-shaped crystals known as "Kirarin"; the action part of Captain Rainbow is based around those crystals. Each time 20 Kirarin are collected, a star will fall from the sky; the star can be carried to an altar at the top of the island. While carrying the star to the altar Nick is challenged by a mysterious Shadow who for unknown reasons wants the star for himself. If Nick succeeds in bringing the star to the altar there will be two choices left for him, he can either grant his own wish to become a popular hero again or grant the wish of one of the islanders and go back to finding other Kirarin. The four reviewers of Weekly Famitsu magazine scored Captain Rainbow a total of 31 out of 40.
The panel was overall impressed by the game's writing and characters due to the day and night cycles. They enjoyed the gameplay and tempo, but found the humor to be vulgar. Captain Rainbow was a financial disappointment. According to Media Create, the game only sold a scant 6,361 copies during its first week of release. A total of 22,682 copies were sold in Japan in 2008. Official website Captain Rainbow Walkthrough at NTSC-uk