DeWitt County, Texas
DeWitt County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 20,097; the county seat is Cuero. The county is named for Green DeWitt, who founded an early colony in Texas. Archeological digs indicate early habitation from the Paleo-Indians Hunter-gatherers period. Tonkawa, Tamiques, Karankawa. Tawakoni, Lipan Apache and Comanche hunted in the county; the first European visitors to the county are thought to have been Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, his slave Estevanico of the ill-fated 1528 Narváez expedition. French explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle is believed to have crossed the county on his way westward from Victoria County. In 1825, empresario Green DeWitt received a grant from the Coahuila y Tejas legislature to settle 400 families. Between 1826 and 1831 settlers arrived from Tennessee, Kentucky and other Southern states. A temporary county government was set up in 1846, with the county seat being Daniel Boone Friar's store at the junction of the La Bahía Road and the Gonzales-Victoria road.
On November 28, 1850, Clinton became the county seat until Cuero became county seat in 1876. Dewitt County voted in favor of secession from the Union, sent several military units to serve. During Reconstruction, the county was occupied by the Fourth Corps, based at Victoria. From April 1866 until December 1868 a subassistant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau served at Clinton; the community of Hopkinsville was established in 1872 by Henry Hopkins, freedman former slave of Judge Henry Clay Pleasants, the judge credited for ending the Sutton-Taylor Feud. Residents began a school, active until 1956, established the Antioch Baptist Church; the notorious Sutton–Taylor feud began as a Reconstruction era county law enforcement issue between the Taylor family and lawman William E. Sutton, it involved both the Taylor and Sutton families, the Texas State Police, the Texas Rangers and John Wesley Hardin. The feud, which lasted a decade and cost 35 lives, has been called the longest and bloodiest in Texas history.
April 1, 1866 marked the first cattle drive on the Chisholm Trail, which originated at Cardwell's Flat, near the present Cuero. The coming of the railroads eliminated the need for the Chisholm Trail. Dewitt's first rail line, the Gulf, Western Texas and Pacific, extended to San Antonio; the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway, was the second line in the county. In 1907 the Galveston and San Antonio Railway came through Dewitt. In 1925, the three lines came under the control of the Southern Pacific lines and operated as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad. Passenger service continued until November 1950; the United States Army Air Corps opened Cuero Field, serving 290 cadets, at Cuero Municipal Airport as a pilot flight school in 1941. The school was deactivated in 1944. Cuero and its large turkey growing industry bills itself as the "Turkey Capital of the World"; the turkey industry in Cuero began large scale operations in 1908. Much like ranchers had cattle drives, Cuero poultry growers drove their turkeys down Main Street to the local packing plant.
Each year the crowds grew to watch the sight and sound of upwards of 20,000 turkeys going through town. The first annual Cuero Turkey Trot celebration began in 1912, complete with the "Turkey Trot" dance music of the era. By the 1970s, the event had become a 3-day typical Texas celebration with parades, live entertainment, food booths and street dances. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 910 square miles, of which 909 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 87 U. S. Highway 77 Alternate/U. S. Highway 183 State Highway 72 State Highway 119 Lavaca County Victoria County Goliad County Karnes County Gonzales County As of the census of 2000, there were 20,013 people, 7,207 households, 5,131 families residing in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 8,756 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.4% White, 11.0% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 10.0% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
27.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.0% were of German and 6.1% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 77.2% spoke English, 20.5% Spanish and 1.6% German as their first language. There were 7,207 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,714, the median income for a family was $33,513.
Males had a median income of $27,134 versus $18,370 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,780. About 15.3% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.5% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those a
Battle of Coleto
The Battle of Coleto known as the Battle of Coleto Creek, the Battle of the Prairie, the Batalla del encinal del Perdido, was fought on March 19–20, 1836, during the Goliad campaign of the Texas Revolution. In February, General José de Urrea led a branch of the Mexican army up the Gulf Coast of Mexican Texas toward Goliad, where a large contingent of soldiers from the Texian Army were garrisoned under Colonel James W. Fannin. Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led a larger force into the Texian interior, where on March 6 his troops won the Battle of the Alamo. After learning of the Alamo's defeat, Texian general Sam Houston ordered Fannin to retreat from Goliad and join the rest of the army in Victoria. On March 19, Fannin led his men on a leisurely retreat from Goliad. Mexican troops surrounded the Texians in the day, before Fannin could reach the shelter of a grove of timber at Coleto Creek, some 400 yards away. Texians attempted to defend their position. Although Mexican troops launched three separate attacks against the square, they could not penetrate the Texian position.
As night fell, Mexican sharpshooters were able to kill more Texians. With little water to give to the wounded or to cool their artillery, the Texians felt they were unable to withstand further fighting. On the morning of March 20, the Texians surrendered. Urrea attempted to secure honorable terms for his Texian prisoners. However, Santa Anna had received authorization from the Mexican Congress to treat all captured Texian troops as pirates rather than prisoners-of-war. Against Urrea's pleadings, all of the Texians were sentenced to death. A few Texians escaped the Goliad Massacre on March 27. Colonel James Fannin was the commander of the Texian troops at Fort Defiance in late 1835 and early 1836. During the siege of the Alamo in February 1836 he attempted a march of 100 miles to relieve the Texian forces at the Alamo but due to poor preparation for the journey and word that general Urrea's Mexican forces were approaching Goliad, he turned back. After the Alamo fell to Santa Anna's forces the Texians received orders from General Sam Houston to fall back to Victoria.
Fannin therefore abandoned the fort but proceeded without adequate supplies and without haste on his retreat. By 09:00 on March 19 they began their retreat during a period of heavy fog; the Texian force included the San Antonio Greys, the Red Rovers, the Mustangs commanded by Burr H. Duval, a militia from Refugio commanded by Hugh McDonald Frazer, Texian regular soldiers commanded by Ira Westover, the Mobile Greys. Nine heavy artillery pieces with different calibers were ordered by Fannin to be taken by the Texians, along with 1000 muskets, but he neglected to ensure that a good amount of food and water was transported. Carts loaded with heavy equipment were being pulled by tired oxen. Urrea did not realize the Texians had left until 11:00; the two-hour lead was removed, when a Texian cart crossing the San Antonio River broke, a cannon had to be brought out of the river, Fannin ordered that the oxen be allowed to graze for a period of time after the Texians had proceeded about a mile past Manahuilla Creek, resulting in the retreat being stopped.
John Shackelford, Burr H. Duval, Ira Westover opposed Fannin's decision to allow the oxen to graze, arguing that they should continue their retreat until they reached the protection of the Coleto Creek timber. Shackelford would state that Fannin argued that the Mexican army against them was poor, that Urrea would not follow them. In an effort to catch Fannin's troops Urrea left his artillery, some of his men, in Goliad, he began his pursuit according to Mexican sources, 80 cavalrymen and 360 infantrymen. Mexican mounted scouts determined the location of the Texians, reported the size of the force, which Urrea concluded was smaller than he thought; as a result, he ordered 100 of his soldiers to go back to Goliad to help secure Presidio La Bahía. He ordered the artillery he left in Goliad to be brought to him, that the artillery would be escorted by some of the soldiers he was sending back. Meanwhile, Albert C. Horton's 30 cavalrymen were serving as advance guards, were positioned to cover all sides of the Texian force.
The rear guard was not alert, did not detect the Mexican cavalry, approaching the Texians. Shortly after they resumed their march another Texian cart broke down, its cargo had to be transferred to another one, delaying the retreat again. Shortly after, Fannin had sent Horton to scout the Coleto Creek timber, in sight the Mexican cavalry overtook Fannin's Texians; as the Texians tried to get to high ground 400 to 500 yards away from the position they were in when the cavalry overtook them, the ammunition cart broke. The Texian soldiers formed a square against the Mexicans; the high grass of the prairie meant. The Texians had little water; each Texian soldier received three to four muskets. The square was three ranks deep; the front line contained the San Antonio Greys and Red Rovers, whilst Duval's Mustangs and Frazer's Refugio militia formed part of the rear line. The left flank was covered by Westover's regulars, whilst the right was protected by the Mobile Greys. In the corners of the square, the artillery had been positioned.
Fannin stood in the rear of the right flank. In addition, a number of sharpshooters were deployed around Abel Morgan's hospital wagon, which could no longer be moved after the ox, moving it was killed by Mexican fire; the Mexican soldiers attacked the square. The left of the Texian square was confronted by the rifle companies under Morales, and
The Mexican Army is the combined land and air branch and is the largest of the Mexican Armed Forces. It was the first army to use a self-loading rifle, the Mondragón rifle; the Mexican Army has an active duty force of 183,562 with 76,000 men and women of military service age. Mexico has no major foreign nation-state adversaries, it repudiates the use of force to settle disputes and rejects interference by one nation in the affairs of another. Although it has not suffered a major international terrorist incident in recent decades, the Mexican government considers the country a potential target for international terrorism. In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico; the most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan, which comprised populations of the same ethnic origin and were politically linked by an alliance known as the Triple Alliance. They had a center for higher education called the Calmecac in Nahuatl, this was where the children of the Aztec priesthood and nobility receive rigorous religious and military training and conveyed the highest knowledge such as: doctrines, divine songs, the science of interpreting codices, calendar skills, memorization of texts, etc.
In Aztec society, it was compulsory for all young males, nobles as well as commoners, to join part of the armed forces at the age of 15. Recruited by regional and clan groups the conscripts were organized in units of about 8,000 men; these were broken down into 400 strong sub-units. Aztec nobility led their own serfs on campaign. Itzcoatl "Obsidian Serpent", fourth king of Tenochtitlán, organized the army that defeated the Tepanec of Atzcapotzalco, freeing his people from their dominion, his reign began with the rise of. Moctezuma Ilhuicamina "The arrow to the sky" came to extend the domain and the influence of the monarchy of Tenochtitlán, he began to organize trade to the outside regions of the Valley of Mexico. This was the Mexica ruler who organized the alliance with the lordships of Texcoco and Tlacopan to form the Triple Alliance; the Aztec established the Flower Wars as a form of worship. Combat orders were given by kings using drums or blowing into a sea snail shell that gave off a sound like a horn.
Giving out signals using coats of arms was common. For combat outside of cities, they would organize several groups, only one of which would be involved in action, while the others remained on the alert; when attacking enemy cities, they divided their forces into three equal-sized wings, which assaulted different parts of the defences – this enabled the leaders to determine which division of warriors had distinguished themselves the most in combat. During the 18th century the Spanish colonial forces in the greater Mexico region consisted of regular "Peninsular" regiments sent from Spain itself, augmented by locally recruited provincial and urban militia units of infantry and artillery. A few regular infantry and dragoon regiments were recruited within Mexico and permanently stationed there. Mounted units of soldados de cuera patrolled frontier and desert regions. In the early morning of 16 September 1810, the Army of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the independence movement. Hidalgo was followed by his loyal companions, among them Mariano Abasolo, a small army equipped with swords, spears and sticks.
Captain General Ignacio Allende was the military brains of the insurgent army in the first phase of the War of Independence and secured several victories over the Spanish Royal Army. Their troops were about 5,000 strong and were joined by squadrons of the Queen's Regiment where its members in turn contributed infantry battalions and cavalry squadrons to the insurrection cause; the Spaniards saw that it was important to defend the Alhóndiga de Granaditas public granary in Guanajuato, which maintained the flow of water, weapons and ammunition to the Spanish Royal Army. The insurgents proceeded to lay siege to the Alhóndiga; the insurgents suffered heavy casualties until Juan Jose de los Reyes, the Pípila, fitted a slab of rock on his back to protect himself from enemy fire and crawled to the large wooden door of the Alhóndiga with a torch in hand to set it on fire. With this stunt, the insurgents managed to bring down the door and enter the building and overrun it. Hidalgo headed to Valladolid, captured with little opposition.
While the Insurgent Army was, by over 60,000 strong, it was formed of poorly armed men with arrows and tillage tools – it had a few guns, taken from Spanish stocks. In Aculco, the Royal Spanish forces under the command of Felix Maria Calleja, Count of Calderón, Don Manuel de Flon defeated the insurgents, who lost many men as well as the artillery they had obtained at Battle of Monte de las Cruces. On 29 November 1810, Hidalgo entered Guadalajara, the capital of Nueva Galicia, where he organized his government and the Insurgent Army. At Calderon Bridge near the city of Guadalajara Jalisco, insurgents held a hard-fought battle with the roya
Convention of 1836
The Convention of 1836 was the meeting of elected delegates in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas in March 1836. The Texas Revolution had begun five months and the interim government, known as the Consultation, had wavered over whether to declare independence from Mexico or pledge to uphold the repudiated Mexican Constitution of 1824. Unlike those of previous Texas councils, delegates to the Convention of 1836 were younger, more recent arrivals to Texas, more adamant on the question of independence; as delegates prepared to convene, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led a large army into Texas to quell the revolt. The Convention was called to order on March 1, the following day adopted the Texas Declaration of Independence, written by George Childress. Delegates elected an interim government, led by President David G. Burnet and developed a Texas Constitution, which they based on the Constitution of the United States. On March 6 they received a missive from the Texan soldiers besieged at the Alamo, delegate and commander-in-chief Sam Houston narrowly persuaded the men to continue their work on the constitution rather than rush to aid the soldiers.
After the Alamo fell, Santa Anna's army marched towards Washington-on-the-Brazos, prompting the new government to flee. The Texas Revolution began October 1835 with the Battle of Gonzales; the following month elected delegates convened in a body known as the Consultation. These delegates served as a temporary governing body for Texas, as they struggled with the question of whether Texans were fighting for independence from Mexico or the reimplementation of the Mexican Constitution of 1824, which offered greater freedoms than the current dictatorship. Many Consultation members wished to defer independence until the United States was persuaded to support their struggle; the Consultation degenerated into near anarchy, with the interim legislature indicting the interim Governor, who promptly disbanded the legislature. On December 10, the Council passed a resolution calling for a new convention of delegates, to convene on March 1, 1836. There was no consensus among Council members as to; some wanted the convention to form a new government for Texas, others insisted on the preservation of the Mexican Constitution of 1824.
One of the Consultation delegates wrote to Sam Houston that "I sincerely hope the Convention will remedy the existing evils and calm the Public since if not Texas must be lost."Over the next few months, the provisional government of Texas collapsed. By February, most Consultation members had returned home or to the army. By the end of 1835, no Mexican troops remained in Texas; as early as October, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had been making plans to quell the unrest in Texas. He stepped down from his duties as president to lead what he dubbed the Army of Operations in Texas, which would put an end to the Texas revolt. Leading his forces, Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande on February 12. Santa Anna and his advance force arrived in San Antonio de Bexar on February 23 and initiated a siege of the Texas forces garrisoned at the Alamo. Elections were scheduled for February 1, 1836. There was much disagreement throughout Texas as to whether voting rights should extend to Tejanos or recent arrivals from the United States who had joined the Army of the People.
The Consultation had specified that voting rights would be extended to all Tejanos "opposed to a Central Government" and indicated that army volunteers could only vote by proxy in their home districts. This bill was vetoed by provisional governor Smith, who believed that no Tejanos should be allowed to vote. In an editorial, the Telegraph and Texas Register echoed the concerns of many that the newly arrived recruits "cannot be acquainted either with the state of the country or the character and pretensions of the candidates" and advocated a residency requirement; because the army was concentrated in only two areas, their numbers overwhelmed those of the local residents. The Consultation reorganized the voting districts. With little actual guidance from the Consultation, voting in each municipality was subject to local traditions. In some areas, such as the Jackson district, citizens held a meeting in January to determine if they were for independence or federalism. Once consensus was reached that they wanted independence, only candidates who agreed with that platform were considered.
Other areas offered no actual choice. Robertson, his nephew, George C. Childress. For most of the region, candidates engaged in lively debate about either the issues or the personalities of their opponents; the soldiers who had flocked to the army were determined to vote, regardless of how long they had been in Texas or whether they intended to stay. In at least one instance, in Matagorda, soldiers, discharged from service voted in the election while they were en route to the United States. There was no consistency in. In Goliad, soldiers held their own election for two delegates. In nearby San Patricio, locals refused to allow the soldiers to vote. Soldiers turned away in Refugio held their own election. In the Nacogdoches district, soldiers under Sidney Sherman threatened violence after they were turned away from the polling place. Sherman vowed that he "had come to T
Battle of Goliad
The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. In the early-morning hours of October 9, 1835, Texas settlers attacked the Mexican Army soldiers garrisoned at Presidio La Bahía, a fort near the Mexican Texas settlement of Goliad. La Bahía lay halfway between the only other large garrison of Mexican soldiers and the then-important Texas port of Copano. In September, Texians began plotting to kidnap Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos, en route to Goliad to attempt to quell the unrest in Texas; the plan was dismissed by the central committee coordinating the rebellion. However, within days of the Texian victory at the Battle of Gonzales, Captain George Collinsworth and members of the Texian militia in Matagorda began marching towards Goliad; the Texians soon learned that Cos and his men had departed for San Antonio de Béxar but continued their march. The garrison at La Bahía was understaffed and could not mount an effective defense of the fort's perimeter. Using axes borrowed from townspeople, Texians were able to chop through a door and enter the complex before the bulk of the soldiers were aware of their presence.
After a 30-minute battle, the Mexican garrison, under Colonel Juan López Sandoval, surrendered. One Mexican soldier had been killed and three others wounded, while only one Texian had been injured; the majority of the Mexican soldiers were instructed to leave Texas, the Texians confiscated $10,000 worth of provisions and several cannons, which they soon transported to the Texian Army for use in the Siege of Béxar. The victory isolated Cos's men in Béxar from the coast, forcing them to rely on a long overland march to request or receive reinforcements or supplies. In 1835, Mexico operated two major garrisons within its Texas territory, the Alamo at San Antonio de Béxar and Presidio La Bahía near Goliad. Béxar was the political center of Texas, Goliad laid halfway between it and the major Texas port of Copano. Military and civilian supplies and military personnel were sent by sea from the Mexican interior to Copano Bay and could be transported overland to the Texas settlements. In early 1835, as the Mexican government transitioned from a federalist model to centralism, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence and Safety.
A central committee in San Felipe de Austin coordinated their activities. The Texians staged a minor revolt against customs duties in June. In July, Colonel Nicolas Condelle, led 200 men to reinforce Presidio La Bahía; the following month, a contingent of soldiers arrived in Béxar with Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea. Fearing that stronger measures were needed to quell the unrest, Santa Anna ordered his brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos to "repress with strong arm all those who, forgetting their duties to the nation which has adopted them as her children, are pushing forward with a desire to live at their own option without subjection to the laws". Cos landed at Copano Bay on September 20 with 500 soldiers. Cos toured the port at Copano Bay and the small garrison at nearby Refugio and left small groups of soldiers to reinforce each of these locations; the main body of soldiers arrived in Goliad on October 2. Unbeknownst to Cos, as early as September 18, several Texians, including James Fannin, Philip Dimmitt, John Lin, had independently begun advocating a plan to seize Cos at either Copano or Goliad.
As soon as Cos's warships were spotted approaching Copano Bay, Refugio colonists sent messengers to San Felipe de Austin and Matagorda to inform the other settlements of Cos's imminent arrival. Concerned that a lack of artillery would make the presidio at Goliad impossible to capture, the central committee chose not to order an assault. Although Fannin and Linn continued to push for an attack on Goliad, Texian attention soon shifted towards Gonzales, where a small group of Texians were refusing to obey orders from Ugartechea. Colonists eagerly rushed to assist, on October 2 the Battle of Gonzales opened the Texas Revolution. After learning of the Texian victory, Cos made haste for Béxar, he left with the bulk of his soldiers on October 5, but because he was unable to find adequate transportation most of his supplies remained at La Bahía. On October 6, members of the Texian militia in Matagorda convened at the home of Sylvanus Hatch; as their first order of business they elected George Collinsworth as their captain.
C. Collinsworth became the unit's second lieutenant. After appointing their leaders, the men decided to march on La Bahía, they intended to kidnap Cos and, if possible, steal the estimated $50,000, rumored to accompany him. The Texians sent messengers to alert nearby settlements of their quest. By afternoon, 50 Texians were ready to march from Matagorda. During the march, for unknown reasons the men fired Carleton and appointed James W. Moore as the new first lieutenant; the following day the expedition stopped at Victoria, where they were soon joined by English-speaking settlers from other settlements and 30 Tejanos led by Plácido Benavides. Although no accurate muster rolls were kept, historian Stephen Hardin estimated that the Texian ranks swelled to 125 men. Forty-nine of them signed a "Compact of Volunteers under Collinsworth" on October 9; these men pledged that they were loyal to the Mexican federal government and would harm no one who remained loyal to the federalist cause. One of the new arrivals, merchant Philip Dimmitt, received a missive from the Goliad customs agent with news that Cos and his war chest had departed La Bahía to travel to San Antonio de Béxar.
Karnes County, Texas
Karnes County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,824, its county seat is Karnes City. The county is named for a soldier in the Texas Revolution; the former San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway passed through Karnes County in its connection linking San Antonio with Corpus Christi. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 754 square miles, of which 748 square miles is land and 6.0 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 181 State Highway 72 State Highway 80 State Highway 123 State Highway 239 Gonzales County DeWitt County Goliad County Bee County Live Oak County Atascosa County Wilson County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,446 people, 4,454 households, 3,246 families residing in the county; the population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 5,479 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.55% White, 10.79% Black or African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.43% Asian American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 17.23% of other races, 2.26% of two or more races.
47.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino American of any race. There were 4,454 households out of which 34.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.60% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 11.50% from 18 to 24, 34.20% from 25 to 44, 18.20% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 146.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 162.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,526, the median income for a family was $30,565. Males had a median income of $27,260 versus $19,367 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,603.
About 18.50% of families and 21.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.10% of those under age 18 and 20.50% of those age 65 or over. Around 2008 ConocoPhillips struck oil, causing an economic boom. Falls City Karnes City Kenedy Runge Helena Wintergreen National Register of Historic Places listings in Karnes County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Karnes County The Karnes Countywide newspaper Henry Karnes' entry in Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas hosted by the Portal to Texas History]. Karnes County from the Handbook of Texas Online Genealogy in Karnes County, Texas
U.S. Route 59 in Texas
U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway; the stretch of the Southwest Freeway just west of The Loop was one of the busiest freeways in North America, with a peak AADT of 371,000 in 1998. US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90 percent of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75-mile-per-hour speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. The total length of the southernmost segment of US 59 that passes through Texas and terminates at the Mexico–US border is 615 miles.
The US 96 designation was applied in 1926 from Rosenberg, near Houston, to Pharr in the Rio Grande valley. This diagonal route, south of U. S. 90, did not violate the convention of numbers for east–west routes. The highway's east–west nature was boosted in 1934 when US 96 was rerouted from Alice to Laredo. US 59 begins at the Mexico–US border with Loop 20 on the World Trade International Bridge over the Rio Grande in Laredo; the portion of US 59, co-signed with Loop 20 is named the Bob Bullock Loop. At under 2 miles, the two highways run together concurrent with I-69W from the Mexico–US border until I-35 in Laredo, where I-69W temporarily ends. US 59 and Loop 20 continue to run together until just south of Lake Casa Blanca, where Loop 20 heads south to Mangana-Hein Road and US 59 heads towards Freer. In Duval County, the speed limit on US 59 is 75 miles per hour, the highest speed limit on the highway. US 59 shares a short congruency with SH 44 around Freer. From Freer, US 59 passes through the southeastern part of McMullen County, but does not intersect any highways.
The highway continues northeast, intersecting US 281 in George West, before intersecting I-37 about 55 miles north of Corpus Christi. Between Laredo and Interstate 37, US 59 passes through ranching sites. From I-37, US 59 heads northeast passing through Beeville. US 59 bypasses Victoria to the south, becomes a divided highway, has a series of interchanges, until it becomes a freeway south of Houston in Rosenberg and resumes the designation of I-69. Between Houston and Victoria, US 59 passes through Edna, Ganado, El Campo, Wharton. US 59 intersects many major Texas highways in Houston, including I-10 and I-45. Leaving Houston, US 59 intersects Beltway 8 again on the northside of town, passing by Bush Intercontinental Airport and heads into Humble. Between Houston and Livingston, most of US 59 is a limited-access freeway but the I-69 designation temporarily ends at the Montgomery-Liberty county line. US 59 bypasses the towns of Cleveland and Livingston. 46 miles north of Livingston, US 59 bypasses Lufkin, where it overlaps US 69.
10 miles north of Lufkin, US 59 bypasses Nacogdoches and heads in an entirely east-west direction. Drivers wishing to stay on US 59 must turn left in Tenaha, where the highway intersects US 96 and ends its overlap with US 84. US 59 passes through Carthage before intersecting I-20 south of Marshall. US 59 intersects US 80 in Marshall. US 59 passes through Jefferson, 15 miles west of Caddo Lake. US 59 passes through the towns of Atlanta before arriving in Bowie County. US 59 intersects SH 93 south of the old highway through the city. Shortly after, I-369 designation with US 59 when the freeway intersects Spur 151, where US 59 becomes a freeway on the westside of the city. Before US 59 intersects I-30, overlaps I-30 until exit 223B, at the state line, I-369 designation ends. After leaving I-30, US 59 joins US 71, where both highways run on the state line between Texas and Arkansas, where both highways continue north towards DeQueen, Arkansas. US 59 is in the process of being upgraded between Laredo & Victoria, to become I-69W.
Segments of I-69 are designated. I-69W runs between Mexico and I-35. I-69 runs through the Houston Metro, a segment of I-369 exists on the west side of Texarkana; the entire I-69 project in Texas does not have a completion date