Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff games; the Hous
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
The erke is a large labrophone instrument native to the Gran Chaco of Bolivia, northern Chile, Argentine Northwest. The erke is composed of two or more lengths of cane joined at the ends to form a single tube; the internal nodes of the canes are removed and the exterior is wrapped with gut or wool. The end has an amplifier made of cow horn or brass; the instrument is blown through at the other end, may be three to seven metres in length. Although in the latter half of the 20th century Andean folkloric musical groups have used the erke for secular music, among the indigenous and criollo peoples of the Andes the erke is used for ritual purposes. Traditionally but not only adult men play the erke, it is considered profane to play the erke outside of a ritual context; the erke is played during winter, as it is believed that playing it in spring or summer can bring snow. Among the Mapuche people, there exists a similar instrument called the trutruca
Salim Moin is a former Singapore national footballer and formerly the head coach of S. League club Hougang United in the S. League, he was an ex-Singaporean international football player who played for the Lions in the Malaysia Cup during the 1980s alongside stars such as David Lee, Terry Pathmanathan, S. Anthonysamy, Malek Awab and Borhan Abu Samah. During his playing career, Salim served a six-year ban from 1984 for assaulting referee M. Kunalan in a President's Cup match between Jubilee and Farrer Park United in September 1983. After retiring, Salim started his coaching career with NFL side Tampines SC at the end of the 1996. Salim spent two seasons with Gombak United as their Prime League and senior team coach before he joined National Football Academy for another two years. Upon expiry of his NFA contract, he joined Balestier Khalsa Football Club, first as an assistant coach to Nasaruddin Jalil for the 2010 season, as head coach for their 2011 season. In 2012, he replaced R. Balasubramaniam as the head coach of Woodlands Wellington FC, who were seeking to rejuvenate their squad after two disappointing seasons as back to back wooden spoonists.
Several players from Balestier followed Salim after his switch to Woodlands, including young midfielders Armanizam Dolah, Shamsurin Abdul Rahman and K. Sathiaraj, as well as custodian Ahmadulhaq Che Omar, back with a second stint at the northern club. Although the Rams finished last with their third successive wooden spoon in as many seasons during their first season under Salim, he was working with players who were chosen under former Woodlands coach, R. Balasubramaniam. After a major clearout of the team following the end of the 2012 season, he was given a chance to transfer in some of his preferred players for the 2013 season, he has targeted a top six finish for the club during a pre-season interview in December 2012, a higher target than the top eight finish set by the club a month earlier. Appointed as Tampines Rovers head coach at the start of the 2014 season, Salim only lasts until 27 April 2014, when he resigned as Tampines coach following the club's exit from the 2014 AFC Cup. Salim made his return to Woodlands Wellington as head coach in June 2014, replacing sacked Darren Stewart.
After the merger of Woodlands Wellington with Hougang United in 2015, Salim was announced as the new head coach of Hougang United. Towards the end of that season, Salim was replaced by K. Balagumaran, as Hougang would finished last in the table. Key: P–games played, W–games won, D–games drawn. Only data for matches played in the S. League are tabulated. 2012 Singapore Cup – First Round 2012 Singapore League Cup – Plate Competition Semi-Finalists Singapore FA Malaysia Cup: 1980 Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Cup: 1989
Bukit Gombak Stadium
The Bukit Gombak Stadium is located in Bukit Batok and has a capacity of 3,000 people. The stadium was home to Gombak United FC in the S-league before they left the S-league in the year 2002. Thereafter, the stadium was converted to a Centre of Excellence for the Singapore Athletic Association, it is adjacent to the Bukit Gombak MRT Station
Jurong West is a planning area and residential town located in the West Region of Singapore. Jurong West shares boundaries with Tengah in the north, Jurong East in the east, Boon Lay and Pioneer in the south, Western Water Catchment in the west. A forested area, Jurong West is undergoing rapid development under the ambition of the Housing and Development Board to transform it into a mature housing estate. Jurong West originated from the area once called Peng Kang, named after the gambier plantations along Sungei Jurong. By the mid-20th century, the area was home to several brickworks, palm oil plantations and nurseries. At that time, the only public housing estates in Jurong West were Taman Jurong. Jurong West was left alone until 1984, when the HDB began conceptualisation for a new town in Jurong West. Jurong West was carved into nine subzones that would house a total of 94,000 public and private housing units in the long term; the town's first apartment blocks were completed at Taman Jurong in 1963.
By November 2004, about 71,522 dwelling units were completed. As of 31 March 2018, there are 74,301 HDB dwelling units in Jurong West. Jurong West is a residential town situated west of Tengah New Town in the western part of Singapore, under the West Region as defined by the Urban Redevelopment Authority; the town is bordered to the north by the Pan Island Expressway, to the east by Sungei Jurong and Jurong Lake, to the south by the Ayer Rajah Expressway, to the west by Benoi Road and Upper Jurong Road. Jurong West Town Centre is located in Jurong West Central. An industrial area, part of the Jurong Industrial Estate, is located south of Boon Lay Way and Upper Jurong Road. Another industrial area is under development in Wenya as part of the Jurong Innovation District. Jurong West New Town is divided into the following nine subzones. Boon Lay Chin Bee Hong Kah Jurong West Central Kian Teck Safti Taman Jurong Wenya Yunnan As of 2018, Jurong West has a population of 266,720, most of whom are part of the working population.
The most populous subzone is Yunnan with 68,840 residents followed by Jurong West Central with 65,720 residents. Chin Bee, has just ten residents, while Safti is unpopulated. Packed into an area of 9.87 km2, of which just 4.8 km2 are designated as residential areas, Jurong West has a population density of 27,000 people per km2. Jurong West's two main rivers, Sungei Jurong and Sungei Lanchar, run through the town with a network of green connectors along their banks, they link housing precincts to neighborhood parks such as Jurong Central Park, as well as the Jurong West Sports Centre, Jurong West Stadium and Frontier Community Centre. These park connectors are linked to the Chinese Garden in Jurong East New Town and the Bukit Batok Town Park in the north, to better serve the recreational needs of the residents of Jurong West. Jurong Central Park, located in Kian Teck, is a rectangular green space created behind Boon Lay MRT Station. Jurong West's major public transport amenities were built in tandem with the main public housing development.
The elevated track infrastructure of the East West Line was developed as the existing public housing blocks were being built in the 1980s. The amenities were built in a contiguous building complex, which gives commuters direct access between Boon Lay MRT Station, Boon Lay Bus Interchange, Centris condominium and Jurong Point shopping centre. City planners plan for public transport to become the preferred mode of transport; the government of Singapore uses public transport to reduce pollution caused by heavy road traffic. Jurong West is part of the Urban Redevelopment Authority's focus for realising this urban planning model; as Jurong West is distant from the city centre at the Central Area, an efficient, high-volume and high-speed public transport system is preferred to using road networks, as the government is aiming to reduce the number of cars on the road. Jurong West Town is linked to the rest of Singapore through the East West Line at Boon Lay MRT Station, located at the Town Centre; the EWL is a heavy rail mass rapid transit system, connects to other systems in the MRT network.
It is operated by SMRT. There are three Mass Rapid Transit stations that serve Jurong West Planning Area, which are Lakeside, Boon Lay and Pioneer; the Boon Lay MRT Station is located next to Boon Lay Bus Interchange for commuters' ease of switching across different modes of public transport. The MRT station began operations on 6 July 1990, as the western terminus of the East West Line, before additional stations were added further west of the line at Pioneer and Joo Koon on 28 February 2009. Lakeside, another station along the EWL in Jurong West Town, serves the housing developments in Taman Jurong, Hong Kah and Boon Lay; the station began operations on 5 November 1988. Pioneer is the newest EWL station to open in Jurong West, on 28 February 2009; the station improves accessibility to residential areas of Nanyang and Pioneer, as well as the industrial areas located south of the station. The inter-town Jurong Region Line system is a 24 km mass rapid transit line that will connect residents to the town centre, as well as other areas such as Tengah, Choa Chu Kang and Jurong East.
The MRT line will have 24 stations and all will be elevated. The line will open in 2026; the Boon Lay Bus Interchange was opened in July 1990 along with Boon Lay MRT station. At that time, developments around the area in Jurong West New Town were still in progress, it was rebuilt and reopened in December 2009 at the ground level of Jurong Point Shopping Centre, next
Jurong West Sports and Recreation Centre
Jurong West Sports and Recreation Centre is a centre catering to Singaporeans who do sports and recreational activities. Jurong West Stadium is the main venue, it was opened to the public on 10 November 2006. This sports complex is notable, it is located next to north-west from the station. Jurong West Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium used for football matches and which used to be the temporary home stadium of S. League outfit, Tampines Rovers FC; the stadium has a seating capacity of 4,200 with Tampines Rovers FC as its tenant. The stadium is second-in-line to host international football matches, behind Jalan Besar Stadium and ahead of the Marina Bay Floating Platform. Jurong West Swimming Complex is the first swimming complex in Singapore to feature a sheltered olympic-sized swimming pool, amongst others such as a teaching pool, kiddy pool, lazy river and a water playground, it has a seating capacity of 465. The sports hall in the centre caters to table tennis and badminton sports. Additionally, the sports hall contains a gymnasium run by the Singapore Sports Council.
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