The Paraguayan War known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870, between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay. It was the bloodiest inter-state war in Latin America's history, it devastated Paraguay, which suffered catastrophic losses in population: 70% of its adult male population died, according to some counts, it was forced to cede territory to Argentina and Brazil. According to some estimates, Paraguay's pre-war population of 525,000 was reduced to 221,000, of which only 28,000 were men; the war began in late 1864, as a result of a conflict between Paraguay and Brazil caused by the Uruguayan War. Argentina and Uruguay entered the war against Paraguay in 1865, it became known as the "War of the Triple Alliance"; the war ended with the total defeat of Paraguay. After it lost in conventional warfare, Paraguay conducted a drawn-out guerrilla resistance, a disastrous strategy that resulted in the further destruction of the Paraguayan military and much of the civilian population through battle casualties and diseases.
The guerrilla war lasted 14 months until President Francisco Solano López was killed in action by Brazilian forces in the Battle of Cerro Corá on 1 March 1870. Argentine and Brazilian troops occupied Paraguay until 1876. Estimates of total Paraguayan losses range from 21,000 to 200,000 people, it took decades for Paraguay to recover from demographic losses. Since their independence from Portugal and Spain in the early 19th century, the Empire of Brazil and the Spanish-American countries of South America were troubled by territorial disputes. All nations in the region had lingering boundary conflicts with multiple neighbors. Most had overlapping claims to the same territories; these issues were questions inherited from their former metropoles, despite several attempts, were never able to resolve them satisfactorily. Signed by Portugal and Spain in 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas proved ineffective in the following centuries as both colonial powers expanded their frontiers in South America and elsewhere.
The outdated boundary lines did not represent actual occupation of lands by the Portuguese and Spanish. By the early 1700s, the Treaty of Tordesillas was deemed all but useless and it was clear to both parties that a newer one had to be drawn based on realistic and feasible boundaries. In 1750, the Treaty of Madrid separated the Portuguese and Spanish areas of South America in lines that corresponded to present-day boundaries. Neither Portugal nor Spain were satisfied with the results, new treaties were signed in the following decades that either established new territorial lines or repealed them; the final accord signed by both powers, the Treaty of Badajoz, reaffirmed the validity of the previous Treaty of San Ildefonso, which had derived from the older Treaty of Madrid. The territorial disputes became worse when the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata collapsed in the early 1810s, leading to the rise of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Historian Pelham Horton Box writes: "Imperial Spain bequeathed to the emancipated Spanish-American nations not only her own frontier disputes with Portuguese Brazil, but problems which had not disturbed her, relating to the exact boundaries of her own viceroyalties, captaincies general and provinces."
Once separated, Argentina and Bolivia quarreled over lands that were uncharted and unknown. They were either scarcely settled by indigenous tribes that answered to no parties. In the case of Paraguay with her neighbor Brazil, the problem was to define whether the Apa or Branco rivers should represent their actual boundary, a persistent issue that had vexed and confused Spain and Portugal in the late 18th century; the region between both rivers was populated only by some indigenous tribes that roamed the area attacking nearer Brazilian and Paraguayan settlements. There are several theories regarding the origins of the war; the traditional view emphasizes the policies of Paraguayan president Francisco Solano López, who used the Uruguayan War as a pretext to gain control of the Platine basin. This caused a response from the regional hegemons Brazil and Argentina, who exercised influence over the much smaller republics of Uruguay and Paraguay; the war has been attributed to the after-effects of colonialism in South America, with border conflicts between the new states, the struggle for power among neighboring nations over the strategic Río de la Plata region and Argentine meddling in internal Uruguayan politics, Solano López's efforts to help his allies in Uruguay, as well as his presumed expansionist ambitions.
Before the war Paraguay had experienced rapid economic and military growth as a result of its protectionist policies that had boosted the local industry. A strong military was developed because Paraguay's larger neighbors Argentina and Brazil had territorial claims against it and wanted to dominate it politically much like they did in Uruguay. Paraguay had recurring boundary disputes and tariff issues with Argentina and Brazil for many years during the rule of Carlos Antonio López. In the time since Brazil and Argentina had become independent, their struggle for hegemony in the Río de la Plata region had profoundly marked the diplomatic and political relations among the countries of the region. Brazil was the first country to recognize the independence of Paraguay, in 1844. At this time Argentina still considered it a breakaway province. While Argentina was ruled by Juan Manuel Rosas, a common enemy of both Brazil and
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil; the new country was sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. Unlike most of the neighboring Hispanic American republics, Brazil had political stability, vibrant economic growth, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech, respect for civil rights of its subjects, albeit with legal restrictions on women and slaves, the latter regarded as property and not citizens.
The empire's bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to a long ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government, he faced other obstacles. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal. Two years she was usurped by Pedro I's younger brother Miguel. Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831 and departed for Europe to restore his daughter to the Portuguese throne. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II; as the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions.
Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro II's rule, the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained Catholic. Slavery, widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during this time of progress. Although influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, each concept was adapted to create a culture, uniquely Brazilian. Though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution.
The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic; the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, for the next 300 years the Portuguese expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza, a branch of the thousand-year-old Capetian dynasty—into exile, they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire.
In 1815, the Portuguese crown prince Dom João, acting as regent, created the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which raised the status of Brazil from colony to kingdom. He ascended the Portuguese throne the following year, after the death of his mother, Maria I of Portugal, he returned to Portugal in April 1821, leaving behind his son and heir, Prince Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil as his regent. The Portuguese government moved to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had been granted since 1808; the threat of losing their limited control over local affairs ignited widespread opposition among Brazilians. José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy; the declaration of independence was opposed throughout Brazil by armed military units loyal to Portugal. The ensuing war of independence was fought across the country, with battles in the northern and southern regions.
The last Portu
Instituto Militar de Engenharia
The Instituto Militar de Engenharia is an engineering institute maintained by the Brazilian Army with Federal support. IME is the oldest and one of the best ranked engineering schools in Brazil, according to the Ministry of Education of that country, having systematically achieved first place in several of its engineering degrees, its current campus is located in Urca, Rio de Janeiro, right across the entrance to the famous Sugar Loaf cable car. Founded by the Portuguese colonial administration in 1792, as the Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho, on the model of the Fortification and Drawing Academy of Lisbon, it is known as one of the oldest engineering schools in the world. IME is the oldest in Americas; the school is known for having produced some of Brazil's most notable researchers and public figures. The school's undergraduate admission exam is famous for being considered one of the most difficult ones in the country, due to the high level of the questions presented on the tests.
Applying students are evaluated through a set of examinations on the following subjects: Math, Chemistry and English. The questions presented on the exams are nationally known featuring exercises from previous Mathematics and Chemistry Olympiads, as well as unprecedented ones; the Brazilian Ministry of Education develops a periodical evaluation, IME is ranked among the top three schools of the country in each of its Engineering specialties. Civil Engineering Department Civil Engineering B. Sc. Transportation Engineering M. Sc. Electrical Engineering Department Electrical Engineering B. Sc. Electronics Engineering B. Sc. Electrical Engineering M. Sc. Telecommunications Engineering B. Sc. Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical and Automotive Engineering B. Sc. Armament Mechanics Engineering B. Sc. Materials Engineering B. Sc. Materials Science M. Sc. Materials Science D. Sc. Chemical Engineering Department Chemical Engineering B. Sc. Chemistry M. Sc. Chemistry D. Sc. Cartography Engineering Department Cartography Engineering B.
Sc. Cartography Engineering M. Sc. Computer Engineering Department Computer Engineering B. Sc. Computing and Systems M. Sc. Defense Engineering Graduate Program Defense Engineering M. Sc. Defense Engineering D. Sc. Euclides da Cunha and sociologist Casimiro Montenegro Filho, Founder of the Technological Institute of Aeronautics Francisca Fernández-Hall Zúñiga, first female graduate—class of 1950 IME official website Brazil University Rankings Universities and Higher Education in Brazil Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército
Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line. Its area is 199,307.9 km2 smaller than Romania, a country with similar shape. It is subdivided into 399 municipalities, its capital is the city of Curitiba. Other major cities are Londrina, Maringá, Ponta Grossa, Cascavel, São José dos Pinhais and Foz do Iguaçu. Crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn, Paraná has what is left of the araucaria forest, one of the most important subtropical forests in the world. At the border with Argentina is the National Park of Iguaçu, considered by UNESCO as a World Heritage site. At only 40 km from there, at the border with Paraguay, the largest dam in the world was built, the Hidroelétrica de Itaipu; the crime rate is considered low by Brazilian standards and the state is one of the most developed ones in the nation, ranking 4th in gross domestic product, only behind the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais.
Before the discovery of the region by European explorers, indigenous populations inhabited the region for thousands of years. This included the Carijó in the lands closer to the sea, from the Tupi group, the Caingangues in the interior, who belonged to the Jê group. Colonisation of the state by settlers started in the 16th century, but was confined to the coasts. Being a region abandoned by the Portuguese, the region was explored by other European countries, who searched for Pau brasil; the most noteworthy presence was that of the Spanish. Soon, Jesuit reductions were opened in the western and south-western parts of the state, whose territory belonged to the Spanish crown. In 1554, Domingo Martínez de Irala founded the town of Ontiveros, one league away from the Guaíra Falls. In the 1940s, the northern part of the state was settled as a result of the expansion of the São Paulo coffee industry; the south-eastern part of the state was settled. Paraná is bounded on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
The state can be separated into five main topographic areas, from east to west: a coastal zone, the mountains of Serra do Mar, three plateaus, each lower than the other, until the Paraná River is reached. More than 52% of Paraná's territory is located at an altitude above 600 m and 89% higher than 300 m; the planed areas that are arranged to the altitudes of higher elevation, which compose plateaus of cliffs forming the mountains of the Sea and the General mountain range, dominate the relief of the state. The lowest plots are situated in the coastal lowland, which covers alluvial plains and crystalline hills. Crossing the Tropic of Capricorn the state's climate is warm temperate or subtropical in cities north of the imaginary line, although with considerable differences on the border of Mato Grosso do Sul to the Campos de Palmas by altimetric variation than latitude. In most applications of the Köppen climate classification, humid subtropical climates of the Cfa:in the northern central areas with trim to the west and Cfb: in the center of the state, going further south and east, according to the elevation of plateau types appear.
Other official maps present in a higher resolution other subtypes of climates. The coastal approximate with a rainforest tropical climate. Although studies state the Cfa climate on the state coast. To the northwest the trend is approaching the A highland subtropical climate as the west of São Paulo: reduction of rains and the number of frosts falls on the transitory character of the 3rd plateau to a climate with winter warmer and less rainy; the area is more to stay longer on the domain of tropical air masses than other regions. Species such as Barirí palm begin to appear; the use of the ECMWF model allows the greatest number of climatic types because virtual stations are included and fringes of climates with dry seasons so appear in the north. Other models appear only Cf. Palmas is considered the coldest city of Paraná by the meteorological organ SIMEPAR, with more frequent snow; the temperature variation NW-SE is a common characteristic, changing towards the south when it reaches the center of Paraná.
The temperature varies from 22.9 °C in the northwest of the state to below 16.5 °C in the southern end. Precipitation is less than 1200 mm in most of the fringe of the extreme north and northeast going above 1800 mm in the southwest of the state, therefore an NE-SE variation, although it extends more to the west in the north the lower precipitation. Foz do Iguaçu has one of the largest thermal amplitudes of the cities of Paraná by its position more interior than several other municipalities. Average temperatures can vary by 11 °C between winter and summer the city can pass from 40 °C hot summers in relation to the cities of the
The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side at World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military rule in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s. Domestically, besides having faced several rebellions throughout these two centuries, with support of local political and economic elites, it ended the monarchy and imposed on the rest of society its political views and economic development projects during the periods that it ruled the country: 1889–94, 1930–50, 1964–85. Main Articles: 1st French-Portuguese colonial war, 2nd French-Portuguese colonial war, Sugar War, French raids, Napoleonic Wars in South America and Possession Conflicts for Banda OrientalAlthough the Brazilian Army was created during the process of the independence of Brazil from Portugal, in 1822, with the units of the Portuguese Army in Brazil that have remained loyal to Prince Dom Pedro, its origins can date back to Land Forces used by Portuguese in the colonial wars against French and Dutch, fought in 16th and 17th centuries.
In the colonial period, King D. Manuel I ordered to organize military expeditions with the purpose of protecting the Portuguese dominions in America newly discovered; as colonization advanced in Pernambuco and São Vicente, the native military authorities and bases of the colony's defensive organization began to be built to meet the ambitions of the French and Dutch. First major interventions were the expulsion of the French from Rio de Janeiro in the 16th century and the Maranhao in 1615; as internalization progressed through the broad territorial expansion movement in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and Flags forced the organization of the defense of the newly conquered territory. The war against the Dutch, in the 17th century, for the first time mobilized large numbers in the country, began to have a sense of national defense, regardless of the influence of the crown; the first Battle of Guararapes marks the beginning of the organization of the army as a genuinely Brazilian force formed by local whites, led by André Vidal de Negreiros, led by Felipe Camarão, blacks / mulattos, led by Henrique Dias.
This date is celebrated as the anniversary of the Brazilian Army. At this time, following the model of organization of the Portuguese Army implemented following the Restoration of the Independence of Portugal in 1640, the ground forces in Brazil adopt the organization in three lines that will be maintained until the 19th century, which includes: 1st line - Paid troops. At that time, there were frequent clashes between Luso-Brazilians and Hispano-Platinos, in addition, the land force faced the threat of rebellions of Indians and blacks. Main Articles: Imperial Brazilian Army, Brazilian Independence War, Confederation of the Equator, Cisplatine War, Ragamuffin War, Cabanagem Rebellion, Balaiada Revolt, Platine War, Uruguayan War, Paraguayan War, Naval Revolts, Federalist Rebellion and War of Canudos During the Independence process, the Army was composed of Brazilians and foreign mercenaries. Trained in Guerrilla Warfare From To current Day. Most of its commanders were Portuguese officers loyal to Dom Pedro.
Along 1822 and 1823, the Brazilian Army was able to defeat the Portuguese resistance in the North of country and in Cisplatina, having avoid a fragmentation of the new Brazilian Empire after its independence war. After won the Independence War, the Army supported by the National Guard, destroyed any separatist tendencies of the early years, enforcing central authority of the empire, during the Regency period in the country, repressing across Brazil a host of popular movements for political autonomy or against slavery and the colonels' power; the National Guard was a military force organized in Brazil in August 1831, during the regency period, demobilized in September 1922. Its creation occurred by means of law of 18 of August 1831 that "Creates the National Guards and extinguishes the bodies of militias, city guards and ordinances. " According to the aforementioned law, in its article 1, "The National Guards are created to defend the Constitution, Liberty and Integrity of the Empire, to maintain obedience and public tranquility, to assist the Line Army in defense of borders and coasts ", based on art.
145 of the Constitution of 1824: "All Brazilians are obliged to take up arms to support the independence and integrity of the Empire, defend it from its external or internal enemies." In September 1850, through Law No. 602, the National Guard was reorganized and retained its powers subordinated to the Minister of Justice and the provincial presidents. During the 1850s and early 1860s, the Army along with Navy, entered in action against Argentinian and Uruguayan forces, which opposed to Brazilian empire's interests; the Brazilian success with such "Gun Diplomacy" lead to a shock of interests with another country with similar aspirations, the Paraguay in December, 1864. On May 1, 1865, Brazil and Argentina signed the Triple Alliance to defend themselves a
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog