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A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes and sex hormones of an organism. In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm; the male gonad, the testicle, produces sperm in the form of spermatozoa. The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. Both of these gametes are haploid cells; the gonads are controlled by luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and secreted by gonadotropes or gonadotrophins in the anterior pituitary gland. This secretion is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone produced in the hypothalamus. Gonads start developing as a common primordium, in the form of gonadal ridges, only are differentiated to male or female sex organs; the presence of the SRY gene, located on the Y chromosome and encoding the testis determining factor, determines male sexual differentiation. In the absence of the SRY gene from the Y chromosome, the female sex will develop.

The development of the gonads is a part of the development of reproductive organs. Gonadosomatic Index Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis

Stack effect

Stack effect or chimney effect is the movement of air into and out of buildings, flue-gas stacks, or other containers, resulting from air buoyancy. Buoyancy occurs due to a difference in indoor-to-outdoor air density resulting from temperature and moisture differences; the result is either a negative buoyancy force. The greater the thermal difference and the height of the structure, the greater the buoyancy force, thus the stack effect; the stack effect helps drive natural ventilation, air infiltration, fires. Since buildings are not sealed, the stack effect will cause air infiltration. During the heating season, the warmer indoor air rises up through the building and escapes at the top either through open windows, ventilation openings, or unintentional holes in ceilings, like ceiling fans and recessed lights; the rising warm air reduces the pressure in the base of the building, drawing cold air in through either open doors, windows, or other openings and leakage. During the cooling season, the stack effect is reversed, but is weaker due to lower temperature differences.

In a modern high-rise building with a well-sealed envelope, the stack effect can create significant pressure differences that must be given design consideration and may need to be addressed with mechanical ventilation. Stairwells, shafts and the like, tend to contribute to the stack effect, while interior partitions and fire separations can mitigate it. In case of fire, the stack effect needs to be controlled to prevent the spread of smoke and fire, to maintain tenable conditions for occupants and firefighters. While natural ventilation methods may be effective, such as air outlets being installed closer to the ground, mechanical ventilation is preferred for taller structures or in buildings with limited space. Smoke extraction must be evaluated in design stages; the Grenfell Tower fire, as a result of which 71 people died, was in part exacerbated by the stack effect. A cavity between the outer aluminium cladding and the inner insulation formed a chimney and drew the fire upwards; the stack effect in industrial flue gas stacks is similar to that in buildings, except that it involves hot flue gases having large temperature differences with the ambient outside air.

Furthermore, an industrial flue gas stack provides little obstruction for the flue gas along its length and is, in fact optimized to enhance the stack effect to reduce fan energy requirements. Large temperature differences between the outside air and the flue gases can create a strong stack effect in chimneys for buildings using a fireplace for heating. Before the development of large volume fans, mines were ventilated using the stack effect. A downcast shaft allowed air into the mine. At the foot of the upcast shaft a furnace was kept continuously burning; the shaft behaved like a chimney and air rose through it drawing fresh air down the downcast stack and around the mine. There is a pressure difference between the outside air and the air inside the building caused by the difference in temperature between the outside air and the inside air; that pressure difference is the driving force for the stack effect and it can be calculated with the equations presented below. The equations apply only to buildings.

For buildings with one or two floors, h is the height of the building. For multi-floor, high-rise buildings, h is the distance from the openings at the neutral pressure level of the building to either the topmost openings or the lowest openings. Reference explains. For flue gas stacks and chimneys, where air is on the outside and combustion flue gases are on the inside, the equations will only provide an approximation and h is the height of the flue gas stack or chimney. Δ P = C a h SI units:U. S. customary units: The draft flow rate induced by the stack effect can be calculated with the equation presented below. The equation applies only to buildings. For buildings with one or two floors, h is the height of the building and A is the flow area of the openings. For multi-floor, high-rise buildings, A is the flow area of the openings and h is the distance from the openings at the neutral pressure level of the building to either the topmost openings or the lowest openings. Reference explains. For flue gas stacks or chimneys, where air is on the outside and combustion flue gases are on the inside, the equation will only provide an approximation.

A is the cross-sectional flow area and h is the height of the flue gas stack or chimney. Q = C A 2 g h T i − T o T i SI units:U. S. customary units:This equation assumes that the resistance to the draft flow is similar to the resistance of flow through an orifice characterized by a discharge coefficient C. HVAC Solar chimney Solar updr


A philippic is a fiery, damning speech, or tirade, delivered to condemn a particular political actor. The term is most famously associated with two noted orators of the ancient world, the Roman Cicero and, most Demosthenes of Athens in his movement against the imperialist ambitions of Philip of Macedon. Demosthenes' speeches, in 351 BC, denouncing the leader became known as "The Philippics"; the original "philippics" were delivered by Demosthenes, Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens who delivered several attacks on Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC. A First and Third Philippic have been ascribed to Demosthenes. A Fourth Philippic is extant, but is of disputed authorship. Cicero consciously modeled his own condemnations of Mark Antony on Demosthenes's speeches, if the correspondence between Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger and Cicero is genuine, at least the fifth and seventh speeches were referred to as the Philippics in Cicero's time, they were called the Antonian Orations by Latin author and grammarian Aulus Gellius.

After the death of Caesar, Cicero expressed his regret that the murderers of Caesar had not included Antony in their plot, he bent his efforts to the discrediting of Antony. Cicero promoted illegal action, such as legitimatizing the private army of Gaius Octavius, or Octavian. In all, Cicero delivered fourteen Philippics in less than two years. Cicero's focus on Antony, contributed to his downfall as he failed to recognize the threat of Octavian to his republican ideal. Cicero's attacks on Antony were neither forgiven nor forgotten, with the result that Cicero was proscribed and killed in 43 BC, his head and hands were publicly displayed in the Roman Forum to discourage any who would oppose the new Triumvirate of Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus. According to Roman historian Tacitus, this work, together with the Pro Milone, In Catilinam, In Verrem, made Cicero famous, much of his political career sprang from the effect of these works. Others would have it that the Pro Ligario, in which Cicero defends Ligarius before Caesar, was the vehicle of his renown.

Demosthenes' First, Second and Fourth Philippic Jeremiad Mary Renault Philippicae Polemic

Barış Manço

Mehmet Barış Manço, known by his stage name Barış Manço, was a Turkish rock musician, songwriter, actor, television producer and show host. Beginning his musical career while attending Galatasaray High School, he was a pioneer of rock music in Turkey and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre. Manço composed around 200 songs and is among the best-selling and most awarded Turkish artists to date. Many of his songs were translated into a variety of languages including English, Japanese, Italian, Romanian, Hebrew, Urdu and German, among others. Through his TV program, 7'den 77'ye, Manço traveled the world and visited most countries on the globe, he remains one of the most popular public figures of Turkey. Barış Manço was born in Üsküdar, Turkey on 2 January 1943, his mother, Rikkat Uyanık, was a famous singer in the early 1940s. His older brother, born during World War II, was named Savaş while he was named Barış by his parents to celebrate the end of the war. At birth, he was additionally named Tosun Yusuf after his deceased uncle Yusuf called Tosun.

However, this name was erased. In primary school his head was shaven to prevent head lice, a serious threat back which he cited among reasons for his signature long hair. During his highschool days in Galatasaray High School he formed his first band, Kafadarlar upon seeing Erkin Koray's band performing, all students of Deutsche Schule Istanbul, a nearby highschool. Prof. Dr. Asaf Savaş Akat, a famous economist in Turkey, played saxophone, guitarist Ender Enön made his own guitar because it was difficult to find a real one on the market in those years. In 1962 and 1963, with his next band, Harmoniler, he recorded cover versions of some of popular American twist songs and rearrangements of Turkish folk songs in rock and roll form, marking the beginning of the Anatolian rock movement, a synthesis of Turkish folk music and rock. In this period, his key visual and musical influence was Elvis Presley. After graduating from high school in 1963, he moved to Europe, travelling around Paris and Liège, where he formed bands with local musicians and recorded some singles in English and in French but in Turkish.

In 1964, Barış Manço continued his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Liège, Belgium. He toured with his band Les Mistigris in Germany, Belgium and Turkey until 1967. In 1967, he suffered a serious car accident, after which he started to grow his signature mustache to disguise his scar. Frustrated by the difficulties of working with musicians from different nationalities, he formed Kaygısızlar, featuring Mazhar Alanson and Fuat Güner, future members of the band MFÖ, he recorded several singles and toured with the band, both domestically and internationally, until the band members revealed that they did not want to live abroad. In 1970, he formed Barış Manço Ve... again with foreign musicians, to record his first hit single, both in Turkey and in Belgium, Dağlar Dağlar, selling over 700,000 copies. Today, the song remains one of his most popular works. After the success of "Dağlar Dağlar", Manço recorded a couple of singles with Moğollar, another influential Turkish Anatolian rock band.

He decided to return to Turkey where he recorded with the reformed Kaygısızlar for a short period. In 1971, his early works were compiled under his first full-length album Dünden Bugüne, today referred as Dağlar Dağlar. In 1972, he formed Kurtalan Ekspres, a legend by itself, the band that would accompany him until his death. In 1975 until when he continued to release singles, he released his first non-compilation LP 2023, a concept album that includes many instrumental songs; as a last attempt to reach international success, he released the LP titled Baris Mancho, a strange transcription of his name with George Hayes Orchestra under CBS Records label, in Europe and South Africa. Although the album did not bring the fame he was expecting, it did reach the top of the charts in Romania and Morocco; the following year, the album was released in Turkey under the title Nick the Chopper. In 1975 he starred in the movie Baba Bizi Eversene, the only movie he starred during his career; the music of the movie consists of a compilation of tracks composed by Barış Manço and Kurtalan Ekspres.

From 1977 to 1980, he released three more albums in Turkey consisting of compilations of older singles, namely Sakla Samanı Gelir Zamanı, Yeni Bir Gün and 20. Sanat Yılı Disko Manço, all following a similar sound with 2023. All these albums are now rarity items, but most of the material from the era are available in compilations Ben Bilirim and Sarı Çizmeli Mehmet Ağa. In 1981, Manço released Sözüm Meclisten Dışarı with Kurtalan Ekspres, containing many hit songs including "Alla Beni Pulla Beni", "Arkadaşım Eşek", "Gülpembe", "Halhal" and "Dönence" among others; the album remains as one of their most popular works and launched a boost of popularity for Barış Manço during the 1980s. "Arkadaşım Eşek" grew popular among children. Throughout his career, he went on to write many other songs for children to achieve an iconic acceptance among Turkish children of the 1980s and 1990s. On the other hand, "Gülpembe", composed


SSM may refer to: Sakıp Sabancı Museum, an art museum in Istanbul, Turkey SSM, a band from Detroit, Michigan, US The Spectacular Spider-Man, any of several comic books Companies Commission of Malaysia Federation of Trade Unions of Macedonia Georgian Public Broadcasting Sarawak Sovereignty Movement, Sarawak, Malaysia Socialist Union of Youth, an organization in the former Czechoslovakia SSM Health, St. Louis, Missouri, US Society for Social Medicine, UK Society of the Sacred Mission, an Anglican religious order Society of Saint Margaret, an Anglican religious order SSM chip, a chip used in synthesizers Scanning SQUID microscope, a magnetic current imaging system Semi-solid metal casting, in the production of aluminium or magnesium parts Standard solar model, in cosmology Startup and malfunctions, in polluting industrial plants Silicon Secured Memory, SPARC encryption technology. Source-specific multicast, in computer networking Standard Shadow Map, in computer graphics System Safety Monitor, intrusion-prevention computer software Sleep state misperception, a term used to classify sleep disorders Slipped strand mispairing, a mutation process during DNA replication Special study module, now student selected component, an option in medical schools in the UK Superficial spreading melanoma, a type of cancer System status management, of emergency medical services.

Helga Nadire İnan Ertürk

Helga Nadire İnan Ertürk, aka Nadija Inan or Nadja Inan, is a Turkish-German women's football midfielder playing in the Turkish Women's Second Football League for Sakarya Yenikent Güneşspor in Turkey. She was a member of the Turkey women's national football team between 2008 and 2010. Inan entered in her hometown club FSC Mönchengladbach in July 2003, played until the end of that year, she played in other German clubs FCR 2001 Duisburg and SG Wattenscheid 09 Women. Inan transferred to FFC Zuchwil 05, competing at the Nationalliga A Women in Switzerland between 2009 and 2011. In January 2012, she moved to Turkey to play for Sakarya Yenikent Güneşspor with the initiative of her uncle, the father of women's national player Burcu Düner, she scored her first goal for Turkey at the UEFA Support Tournament against Estonia women's national football team in 2008. In the UEFA Support Tournament next year, she netted a goal against Macedonian women. Turkish women in sports