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Gondal State

Gondal State was one of the eight first class princely states of Kathiawar Agency, Bombay Presidency in British India. The capital of the state was Gondal town. Gondal State was established in 1634 AD by Thakore Shri Kumbhoji I Meramanji, who received Ardoi and other villages from his father Meramanji. With his fourth descendant Kumbhoji IV, the State raised itself, by acquiring the parganas of Dhoraji, Upleta and Patanvav,among others; the last ruler of Gondal State, Maharaja Bhojrajji Bhagwatsimhji, signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 15 February 1948. The rulers of Gondal were Thakurs of the Jadeja dynasty, they bore the title'Thakur Sahib' from 1866 onwards. 16 Sep 1878 – 24 Aug 1884 Regency W. Scott Jayashankar Lalshankar Bhagvat Sinhji Hancock Nutt Political integration of India Baroda, Western India and Gujarat States Agency Media related to Gondal State at Wikimedia Commons Gondal genealogy and History Queensland University Princes and merchants by Bhalodia-Dhanani, Aarti - University of Texas – Austin: education and reform in colonial India --Depiction of Gondal as one of the illustrative kingdom

Dhool Ka Phool

Dhool Ka Phool is a 1959 Indian Bollywood film. Produced by B. R. Chopra, it was directed by B. R.'s brother Yash Chopra, this being Yash's first movie as a director, having been an assistant director in B. R.'s earlier film Naya Daur. The film stars Mala Sinha, Rajendra Kumar, Leela Chitnis, Manmohan Krishna, Ashok Kumar; the story revolves around a Muslim bringing up an "illegitimate" Hindu child and featured the classic song Too Hindu Banega Na Musalman Banega, Insaan Ki Aulaad Hai, Insaan Banega on Manmohan Krishna, who won the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Abdul Rasheed. Besides that, Mala Sinha received a nomination for Mukhram Sharma for Best Story; the movie was remade in Telugu as Jeevana Teeralu. In the next film, about Hindu fundamentalism, Chopra reversed the theme, as therein a Hindu family brings up an illegitimate Muslim child. Mala Sinha as Meena Khosla Rajendra Kumar as Mahesh Kapoor Nanda as Malti Rai / Malti Kapoor Manmohan Krishna as Abdul Rasheed Leela Chitnis as Gangu Dai Mohan Choti as Jaggu Jagdish Raj as Prosecuting Attorney Ashok Kumar as Defence Lawyer Amir Banu Master Kelly Sushil Kumar as Roshan Daisy Irani as Rames Narbada Shankar R.

P. Kapoor Ravikant Uma Datt Meena and Mahesh are madly in love with each other. One day, both of them get carried away and Meena becomes pregnant. On the other hand, Mahesh gets married to Malti Rai. Meena takes the baby to his father, Mahesh Kapoor. Mahesh disowns both of them. Meena leaves the 5 month old baby boy in a dark forest. On the way back from the city, Abdul Rasheed protects him. Abdul gets disowned by society because the baby is illegitimate and nobody knows about the parents and religion. In spite of all the odds, Abdul raises the child wholeheartedly, he names him Roshan. On the other hand, Meena starts working as assistant to Ashok Kumar. Ashok Kumar starts developing a soft spot for her, they both get married without Meena revealing her past. Mahesh is blessed with a baby boy. One fine day, both Meena's son Roshan and Mahesh's son meet each other in school with their respective parents. In the presence of Mahesh, Abdul tells the principal of the school that he found Roshan in a forest 8 years ago.

In school and judge's son become close to each other. They become the best of friends; when other kids make fun of Roshan, the judge's son supports him. One day, he takes Roshan to his home, where his mother Malti welcomes him with love and affection, but Mahesh throws the boy out of his house, saying that he is not worth our respect and love, as he is illegitimate. After all this, Roshan falls into bad company. Mahesh's son dies in a car accident; this leaves Roshan under more depression. He gets involved in a theft; the case comes into the court of Mahesh Kapoor. Abdul goes to Ashok Kumar to fight this case, he tells Ashok, in front of his wife Meena, as to, the mother of Roshan, that when and under what circumstances he found Roshan. She recognizes Roshan as her son, she testifies in the court. Mahesh, recognizing the son, admits his fault. Next day, Malti tells Mahesh to bring Roshan, since he is his son. On the other hand, Meena is ready to leave the house sneakingly, but Ashok stops her, saying that he respects her more now.

She can bring the child home. Both Meena and Mahesh go to Abdul's house to ask for Roshan, he first says no. All lyrics are written by Sahir Ludhianvi; the film was declared as a "Hit" by the box office. Dhool Ka Phool on IMDbTemplate:Yash Chopra

Rick Astley discography

The discography of English recording artist Rick Astley consists of eight studio albums, five compilation albums, two remix albums, twenty-four singles. His debut studio album, Whenever You Need Somebody, was released in November 1987, it peaked at number 1 on the UK Albums Chart and number 10 on the US Billboard 200. Astley became a global pop sensation in 1987 with his debut single "Never Gonna Give You Up" written by the trio Stock Aitken Waterman; the song was at number one on the UK Singles Chart for five weeks, becoming the year's highest-selling single. The song was a worldwide number one hit, topping the charts in 24 other countries, including the US, Germany. "Whenever You Need Somebody" was released as the second single from the album in October 1987. The single was a recycled Stock, Waterman song recorded by O'Chi Brown in 1985, it became a successful European hit, reaching number 1 in seven countries, including Germany and Sweden, following up the success of his debut single. It reached Number 3 in the UK.

In December 1987, Astley released a cover version of the Nat King Cole classic "When I Fall in Love". This single is remembered for a fought contest for UK Christmas Number 1. Astley's fourth single release would be "Together Forever" in 1988, reaching Number 2 in the UK, it was denied the top spot by Kylie Minogue's debut "I Should Be So Lucky". The song was more successful in the US, reaching number 1, his fifth and final release from his debut album was "It Would Take a Strong Strong Man". It was a more soulful song when compared to his other releases and was intended for the North American market, it was another hit for Astley reaching Number 1 in Canada. His second studio album, Hold Me in Your Arms, was released in November 1988, it peaked at number 8 on the UK Albums Chart and number 19 on the US Billboard 200. The lead single, "She Wants to Dance With Me" was Astley's first single which he wrote himself and became a worldwide top 10 hit. In Europe, "Take Me to Your Heart" and "Hold Me in Your Arms" were released as the next singles.

"Giving Up on Love" was released as the second single off the album in the USA and Canada and was released in some countries of continental Europe as the fourth and last single off the album and a cover of The Temptations' "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" was released as the third and last single in the USA and Japan. His third studio album, was released in March 1991, it peaked at number 9 on the UK Albums Chart and number 31 on the US Billboard 200. It was his first album not to be produced by the noted production team of Stock Aitken Waterman, it gave Astley another hit single in the ballad "Cry for Help" which became a Top 10 in both the UK and US. Further singles "Move Right Out" and "Never Knew Love" were less successful, his fourth studio album, Body & Soul, was released in September 1993. It peaked at number 185 on the US Billboard 200. Two singles were released from the album "The Ones You Love" and "Hopelessly". After this album, Astley left the music business behind for several years and released no new material until 2001.

It is estimated that by retirement at the end of 1993 Rick Astley had sold 40 million records. His fifth studio album, Keep It Turned On, was released in December 2001; the album peaked to number 56 on the German Albums Chart. Two singles were released from the album "Sleeping" and "Keep It Turned On". "Sleeping" peaked to No. 60 in Germany and No. 69 in Switzerland. His sixth studio album, was released in October 2005; the album peaked to number 26 on the UK Albums Chart. His first album to chart in the UK since Free in 1991. My Red Book, was planned to be released in January 2013; this unreleased album contains tracks such as "Lights Out", "Superman" and "Goodbye But Not the End". "Let It Rain" and "I Like the Sun" appear on his album 50. "Lights Out" was released in 2010, his first single released in the UK for 17 years. His seventh studio album, 50, was released in June 2016; the album peaked to number 1 on the UK Albums Chart, becoming Astley's first number-one album since his 1987 debut album, Whenever You Need Somebody.

"Keep Singing" was released as the lead single from the album on 6 April 2016, peaking to number 127 on the UK Singles Chart. "Angels on My Side" was released as the second single from the album on 13 May 2016. His eighth studio album, Beautiful Life, was released in July 2018; the album peaked to number 6 on the UK Albums Chart, becoming Astley's fifth top ten album in the United Kingdom. The album includes the singles "Beautiful Life" and "Empty Heart". A ^ Not released in North America. B ^ Not released in most of Europe. C ^ Released in Germany and Switzerland only. D ^ Promoted in United Kingdom only

Ben Murphy

Benjamin Edward Murphy is an American actor. He is best known for his role as Kid Curry in the ABC television series Alias Jones. Murphy was born in Arkansas to Nadine and Benjamin E. Castleberry; when his mother remarried in 1956, Ben was adopted by Patrick Henry Murphy. Murphy grew up in Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. An alumnus of Benet Academy in Lisle, Illinois, he attended eight colleges before deciding to pursue an acting career. Murphy appeared in a supporting role in The Name of the Game, a series featuring a rotating leading cast including Tony Franciosa, Gene Barry, Robert Stack. Murphy played a semi regular role as'Joseph Sample' assistant to Robert Stack's leading character'Dan Farrell' in Stack's segments of the show. From 1971 -- 73, he starred in Alias Jones with Pete Duel and Roger Davis. After Alias Smith and Jones, Murphy joined Lorne Greene in the 1973 ABC crime drama Griff, he played detective S. Michael "Mike" Murdock, assistant to Greene's character, Wade "Griff" Griffin, a Los Angeles retired police officer turned private eye.

The series folded after thirteen weeks. In the 1983–84 season, Murphy co-starred with Marshall Colt in the ABC drama series Lottery!. Murphy played Patrick Sean Flaherty, the man who informed lottery winners of their stroke of fortune, Colt with James Arness on NBC's short-lived crime drama, McClain's Law, portrayed the Internal Revenue Service agent, Eric Rush, who made sure the winners pay the U. S. government up front. In 1985, Murphy co-starred as department store heir, Paul Berrenger, on the short-lived drama, Berrenger's, his character was at odds with his former wife and his own father, Simon due to his romance with executive, Shane Bradley. Murphy starred in his own series Gemini Man, in which he played a secret agent who could become invisible for 15 minutes a day through the use of a special wristwatch; the show did not run beyond a single season. Murphy has since appeared including a murder suspect in CBS's Cold Case. Ben Murphy on IMDb

Revolution of 1951

The revolution of 1951 in Nepal referred to as Sat Salko Kranti, was a political movement against the direct rule by the Rana dynasty of Nepal. It marks the beginning of the political awakening and democratic movements in Nepal, resulted in immediate abolition of the institutionalized hereditary Prime Minister system in Nepal; the rise of the Ranas was heightened by plotting the Kot Massacre by Jang Bahadur Rana and his brothers gained power, thus reduced the power of monarch to a figurehead, the position of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Rana regime pursued a policy of isolating Nepal from external influences; the Ranas further established their power by turning pro-British, assisted the British during the Sepoy Rebellion in 1857. Popular dissatisfaction against of the Ranas started emerging from among educated people and from within the Ranas, many of whom were marginalised within the Rana hierarchy. Many of these Nepalese were in exile and had taken part in the Indian Independence struggle and wanted to liberate Nepal as well.

The political parties like the Prajaparishad and the Nepali Rastriya Congress were formed in exile by people who wanted to stage both military and popular political revolutions in Nepal. The founding of the Nepal Praja Parishad was proposed by Dashrath Chand and Tanka Prasad Acharya in a hotel in Bhimphedi, Makwanpur District of Nepal, it was, however founded in 1939 when they received the support of additional people including Dharma Bhakta Mathema among others. The organization's head office was kept in Dharma Bhakta Mathema's house in OmBahal. Nepal Praja Parishad distributed hand-written pamphlets among the people and wrote articles against the Rana Dynasty in Nepal in an Indian socialist paper Janata and another paper published in Calcutta named Advance. Tanka Prasad Acharya brought a duplicating machine from India, the organization started to distribute pamphlets against the Rana dynasty to enlighten the people against the Rana Dynasty in Nepal. On January 19, 1941, the court of the Ranas declared death penalty against Shukraraj Shastri, Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Ganga Lal Shrestha, Dashrath Chand, who are now recognized as the martyrs of Nepal.

Many others were sentenced to jail and many were exiled. Thus Nepal Praja Parishad was dissolved in January 1941. On January 26, 1947, the Nepali National Congress was formed in India under the leadership of Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala. Since establishment Congress organized underground activities but on March 4, 1947 Workers of Biratnagar Jute mill demonstrated and started striking against the management. Under the leadership of Girija Prasad Koirala and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala. Nepali national congress participated in this Biratnagar jute mill strike supporting the labor and demanded a Political labour union. To suppress the strike Rana regime sent the state troopes over long and difficult mountain trail to Biratnagar; the strike continued until the troops arrested the leaders. National congress held deliegates' conference at Jogbani and resolved to initiate a nationwide'satyagraha' and thus countrywide anti-Rana demonstration Started. In June 1947, students enrolled in the Tin Dhara school launched the Jayatu Sanskritam movement, demanding democracy and inclusion of modern subjects in the curriculum.

It was the first student uprising in Nepal's history, was led by Parashuram Pokhrel, Purna Prasad Brahman, Sribhadra Sharma Khanal, Ram Prasad Neupane, Kamal Raj Regmi, Rajeshwar Devkota and Gokarna Shastri. Forty-two of the participants were exiled by the Rana rulers, others were imprisoned. Exiles in India joined the agitation launched for the establishment of democracy under by B. P. Koirala and other leaders. King Tribhuvan's anti Rana attitude had been an open secret for long in Nepal. King Tribhuvan himself gave explicit support to Nepal Praja Parishad. In each instance, the Ranas responded harshly, banning the liberal movements and executing their leadership. King Tribhuvan worked with Praja Parishad in trying to abolish the Rana regime. In November, 1950, King Tribhuvan took refuge at the Indian Embassy against the Ranas, he was accompanied among others. Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana became furious and responded to Tribhuvan's move by calling an emergency meeting of the cabinet on 7 November 1950 at Singha Durbar.

In that meeting he announced Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah, the three-year-old grandson of King Tribhuvan as the new King of Nepal. In the afternoon, on the same day, Prince Gyandendra Bir Bikram Shah was brought to Hanuman Dhoka Palace and crowned as the king of Nepal. On 10 November, two Indian planes landed at Gauchar Airport and flew back to New Delhi with the Royal family excluding the infant King, Gyanendra. King Tribhuvan was formally welcomed by the Indian prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru and other high officials. Appointment of the new king led to huge demonstrations throughout the country. On November 22, 1950, Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India announced that India was not going to recognize Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah as the legitimate King of Nepal. After King Tribhuvan fled to the Indian embassy Nepali Congress Party Launched a military wing in called Congress Mukti Sena known as Nepali Congress's Liberation Army and started an armed uprising against the Rana rule; the seen controlled significant places in planes of Terai.

But still far from a politically important place, Kathmandu. After a mutual agreement between Ranas,Nepali congress party and King Tribhuban a tripa


AutoLatina was a joint venture between Volkswagen Group subsidiary Volkswagen do Brasil and Ford Motor Company subsidiary Ford Brasil in South America. The main reason for the joint venture was the bad economic situation at the time, which made joint survival more attractive than an individual fight for a share in a dwindling market. Four divisions - Ford of Argentina, Ford Brasil, Volkswagen Argentina, Volkswagen do Brasil - formed AutoLatina in July 1987. Volkswagen managed the car division, Ford the truck division; this resulted in the two companies sharing badge engineered models. These included: Ford Verona / Volkswagen Apollo Ford Escort Mk V / Volkswagen Pointer Ford Orion / Volkswagen Logus Volkswagen Santana / Ford Galaxy/Versailles Volkswagen Quantum / Ford RoyaleThe AutoLatina venture was dissolved in December 1995; the market shares of both companies had eroded since the merger. Market liberalization made it unnecessary to have separate development lines for Latin America, both manufacturers wanted to incorporate theirs into the global brand lineups.

The companies thus resumed their separate activities, regaining whatever physical assets they had before the merger. Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles and Ford Trucks were built alongside each other in the Ipiranga complex, both shared parts and platforms. Ford kept manufacturing trucks for Volkswagen for a while after the break-up, although they proceeded to develop their own truck manufacturing capacity; the Truck Division exported trucks to the Paccar Group in the United States, where they were sold with Kenworth and Peterbilt badging. Autolatina on Lexicar Brasil